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"It will flourish, if naturalist*, chemists, antiquaries, philologers, and men of science, in different 
parts of Asia will commit their observations to writing, and send them to the Asiatic Society in 
Calcutta ; it will languish, if such communications shall be long intermitted ; and will die away, if 
they shall entirely cease." — Sir Wm. Jonj. 


H&&8* 1 * 


Bt0t)0P'0 college Pt^00 



No. 85.-JANUARY. 

Prefatory Notice, i 

I. — A Grammar of the Pashtoo or Afghanee Language. By Lieut. Leach, .... 1 
II.— Sisupala Badha, or death of Sisupala by Magha. Translated, with Anno- 
tations, by J. C. C. Sutherland, Esq 16 

III.— On the Distribution of European Birds. By W. Jameson, Esq., Bengal 

Medical Service, 21 

IV.— On a new Genus of the Fissirostral Tribe. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq., Cata- 

mandu {with plate), 35 

V. — Two new species of Meruline Birds. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq., Catamandu 

(withplate), 37 

VI. — On the Egyptian system of Artificial Hatching. By Don Sinbaldo Demas 

(withplate), 38 """ 

VII. — Dr. Burke's Report on the Value of Life among the Officers and Men in 

H. Majesty's troops in India, 48 

VIII.— Observations on the Burmese and Munipoor Varnish Tree. By N. 

Wallich, Esq. M.D. (withplate), 70 

IX.— Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, 72 

X. — Meteorological Register, 76 

No. 86.— FEBRUARY. 

I. — Report on the Settlement of the ceded District of Azimgurh, commonly 

called Chuklah Azimgurh. By J. Thomason, Esq 77 

II.— Mr. Hodgson on Cuculus 136" 

III.— Report on the Coal and Iron Mines of Talcheer and Ungool, &c. &c. By 

Mr.M. Kittoe, 137 

IV- — Objects of Research in Affghanistan. By Professor Lassen, 145 

V.— On the detection of Arsenical Poisons, &c. &c. By W. B. O'Shaughnessy, 

Esq. M.D. •<•• 147 

IV.— Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 150 

VII.— Meteorological Register, 158 

No. 87.— MARCH. 

I,— Notice of an Inscription on a Slab discovered in February, 1838, by Capt. 
T. S. Burt, Bengal Engineers, in Bundelkhund, near Chhatarpur, .... 

!!• — Account of a Journey to Beylah, and Memoir on the Province of Lus. By 

Lieut. Carloss, Indian Navy, 184 

HI-— -On three new species of Musk (Moschus) inhabiting the Himalayan dis- 
tricts. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq 202 — 

*V. — On Isinglass in Polynemus sele, Buch., a species which is very common 
in the Estuaries of the Ganges. By J. M'Clelland, Assistant Surgeon, (with 
plate,) 203 l 



iv Contents. 

V. — Journal of the Mission which visited Bootan, in 1837-38, under Captain R. 
Boileau Pemberton. By W. Griffith, Esq., Madras Medical Establishment, 

(with map,) 208 

VI.— Report on the Museum of the Asiatic Society. By Dr. Wm. Jameson, .. 241 

V II. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, 245 

VIII. — Meteorological Register, 250 

No. 88.— APRIL. 

I. — Journal of the Mission which visited Bootan, in 1837-38, under Captain 
R. Boileau Pemberton. By W. Griffith, Esq. Madras Medical Establish- 
ment, (concluded) 251 

II. — Account of Tamba Patra Plates dug up at Baroda, in Goojrat; with 

Facsimile and Translation 292 

HI, — Collection of Facts which may be useful for the comprehension of Alex- 
ander the Great's exploits on the Western Banks of the Indus (with map.) 304 

IV. — Remarks upon the Rain and Drought of the last Eight Seasons in India. 

By the Rev. R. Everest, Landour .... 313 

V. — Statistical Record of the duration of diseases in 13,019 fatal cases in Hin- 
doos. — Extraordinary mortality among Lying-in Women — Compiled by Dr. 
Duncan Stewart, Superintendent General of Vaccination 316 

VI.— Summary description of four new species of Otter. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Resident at Catamandu, Nepal. . . . . . . 319 

VII. — On the Geographic Distribution of the Vulturidse, Falconidae, and Stri- 
gidae ; being the first of a series of memoirs intended to illustrate the Geogra- 
phic Distribution of the Ornithological Kingdom. By Wm. Jameson, Esq., 
Assistant Surgeon Bengal Medical Service, &c. . . . . .... 321 

VIII. — On the use of Wells, &c. in Foundations ; as practised by the natives 
of the Northern Doab. By Capt. Cautley, Superintendent of the Doab 
Canal ' 327 

IX. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. . . . . . . .... 341 

X.— Meteorological Register, . . . . . . . . 346 

No. 89.— MAY. 

I. — Notice of Inscriptions in Behar, communicated by Mr. Ravenshaw 347 

IL— The " Mahimnastava," or a Hymn to Shiva ; with an English transla- 
tion. By the Rev. Krishna Mohana Banerj i 355 

III. — Account of a Journey from Calcutta via Cuttack and Pooree to Sum- 
bulpur, and from thence to Mednipur through the Forests of Orissa. By 
Lieut. M. Kittoe. (continued) .... .... .... .... . • • • 367 

IV.— Proposed publication of Plates of Hindu Architectural Remains 384 

V. — Papers relative to the New Coal Field of Tenasserim 385 

VI. — Memoir on the Regeneration and actual state of Medicine in Egypt — 
Translated from the Italian of J. E. Mino, Doctor in Philosophy, Medi- 
cine, and Surgery. Leghorn, 1838 393 

VII.— Note on the dissection of the Arctonix Collaris, or Sand Hog. By 

George Evans, Esq. late Curator to the Asiatic Society 408 

VIII.— On the Cultivation of Roses and the Manufacture of Rose-Water and 

Uttur at Ghazeepore 411 

IX.— Memoranda on the Museum of the Asiatic Society. By Dr. M'Clelland. 415 
X. — Observations on the " Report on the Museum of the Asiatic Society, by Dr. 
Wm. Jameson," published in the Journal for March, 1839. By J. T. Pearson, 
Asistant Surgeon, formerly Curator of the Museum of the Asiatic Society. 419 


XI. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society for May, .. 
XII.— Proceedings of the Asiatic Society for June, 
XIII. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society for July, 

XIV. — Meteorological Register for May, 

XV.— Ditto ditto for June, 

XVI.— Ditto ditto for July, 


. 429 

. 432 

. 433 

. 442 

. 644 

. 444 

No. 90.-JUNE. 

I. — Extracts from the Narrative of an expedition into the Naga territory of As- 
sam. By E. R. Grange, Esq. Sub-Assistant to the Commissioner, Assam, . . 445 

II.— Report by Lieut. John Glasfurd, Executive Engineer, Kumaon division, 
on the progress made up to the 1st May, 1839, in opening the experimental 
Copper Mine in Kumaon, 471 

III.— Account of a Journey from Calcutta via Cuttack and Pooree to Sumbul- 
ptir, and from thence to Mednipur through the Forests of Orissa. By 
Lieut. M. Kittoe. (continued) 474 

IV. — Notice of a Grant engraved on Copper, found at Kumbhi, in the Saugor 

Territory, 481 

V.— Mr. Middleton on the Meteors of August 10th, 1839 495 

VI.— Note to the Editors on the Native mode of preparing the perfumed Oils of 

Jasmine and Bela. By Dr. Jackson, Ghazeepore 496 

VII. — Report on the Manufacture of Tea, and on the extent and produce of the 
Tea Plantations in Assam. By C. A. Bruce, Esq., Superintendent of Tea 
Culture 497 

VIII.— Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, 526 

No. 91.— JULY. 

I.— Specimen of the Burmese Drama, translated by J. Smith, Esq., communi- 
cated by C. A. Blundell, Esq., Commissioner, &c, Moulmein 535 

II. — On the Bora Chung, or the Ground Fish of Bootan. By J. T. Pearson, 

Esq. 551 

III. — Extracts from official records, with descriptive details regarding the New 
Nizamut Palace of Moorshedabad — erected by Colonel D. M'Leod, Chief 
Engineer of Bengal. 552 

IV. — Researches on the Gale and Hurricane in the Bay of Bengal on the 3rd, 
4th, and 5th of June, 1839; being a First Memoir with reference to the 
Theory of the Law of Storms in India. By Henry Piddington, Esq 559 

V.— Note on the "Trochilus and Crocodile" of Herodotus. By W. C. Hurry, 

Esq 590 

VI. — Documents relative to the application of Camel Draught to Carriages; 
communicated by C. B. Greenlaw, Esq., Secretary to the Bengal Steam 
Committee. 591 

VII. — Account of a Journey from Calcutta via. Cuttack and Pooree to Sumbul- 
ptir, and from thence to Mednipur through the Forests of Orissa. By 
Lieut. M. Kittoe. (continued) 606 

VIII.— Meteorological Register, 621 

No. 92.— AUGUST. 

I. — Note on the Mechis, together with a small Vocabulary of the Language. 
By A. Campbell, Esq. Assistant to the Resident at Nipal, in charge of 
Darjeeling .. .. .. .. .. .... 623 

vi Contents. 

II. — Researches on the Gale and Hurricane in the Bay of Bengal on the 3rd, 

4th, and 5th of June, 1839; with reference to the Theory of the Law of 

Storms in India. By Henry Piddington, Esq. . . . . .... 631 

III. — Extracts from Mr. M'Clelland's paper on Indian Cyprinidae. As. Res. 

Vol. XIX. Part II. 650 

IV. — Account of a Journey from Calcutta via Cuttack and Pooree to Sumbul- 

pur, and from thence to Mednipur through the Forests of Orissa. By 

Lieut. M. Kittoe. (continued) 671 

V. — Note on a pillar found in the Ganges near Pubna, and of another at Kurra* 

near Allahabad. By Lieut. M. Kittoe. .. .. .. .... 681 

VI.— Note by Messrs. Jessop & Co. of Calcutta, on the smelting of the Iron Ore 

of the district of Burdwan . . . . . . .... 683 

VII — Note on the habits of the Coel, and on the discovery of Isinglass. By 

Major Davidson .. .. .. .. .... 684 

VIII.— Note on the Scapes of Xanthorhaea and Fossil Stems of Lapidodendra. 

By Lieut. N. Vicary. . . . . . . . . . . .... 685 

IX. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. . . . . . . .... 687 

X. — Meteorological Register, . . . . . . . . . . • • • • 692 

No. 93.— SEPTEMBER. 

I. — Sanscrit Inscription on the Slab removed from above the Kothoutiya gate of 

the Fort Rohtas. By the Editors 693 

II.— On Camel Litters for the Wounded. By H. Piddington, Esq 702 

III.— Note by Dr. Kean of Moorshedabad, on Dr. Stewart's Table of Mortality 

among Hindu Females 704 

IV. — On fifteen varieties of Fossil Shells found in the Saugor and Nerbudda 

territories. By George G. Spilsbury, Esq. Surgeon, &c 708 

V. — Note on the River Goomtee, with a section of its bed. By V. Tregear, Esq. 

Jounpore 712 

VI. — Memoranda relative to experiments on the communication of Telegraph 
Signals by induced Electricity. By W. B. O'Shaughnessy, Esq. M.D. As- 
sistant Surgeon ; Professor of Chemistry, Medical College, Calcutta ; and 
Officiating Joint-Secretary to the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 714 

VII. — Extract from a Memoir on the Preparations of the Indian Hemp, or Gun- 
jah, (Cannabis Indica) their effects on the Animal system in Health, and 
their utility in the Treatment of Tetanus and other Convulsive Diseases. By 
W. B. O'Shaughnessy, Esq. M.D. Professor in the Medical College of Cal- 
cutta, &c. &c 732 

VIII.— Memoir on the Climate, Soil, Produce, and Husbandry of Afghanistan 

and the Neighbouring Countries. By Lieut. Irwin 745 

IX. — Meteorological Register, .. .... 777 

No. 94.— OCTOBER. 

I. — Memoir on the Climate, Soil, Produce, and Husbandry of Afghanistan and 

the Neighbouring Countries. By Lieut. Irwin, (continued) 779 

II.— March between Mhow and Saugor, 1839 805 

III. — On an Aerolite presented to the Society. .... .... .... 822 

IV. — Extracts from the Mohit (the Ocean,) a Turkish work on Navigation in the 
Indian Seas. Translated and communicated by Joseph Von Hammer, 
Baron Purgestall, Aulic Counsellor, and Professor of Oriental Languages at 
Vienna, &c. &c 823 

Contents. vii 


V.— Description of an Astronomical Instrument presented by Rajah Ram Sing, 
of Khota, to the Government of India. By J. J. Middleton, Esq. of the 
Hindoo College, Calcutta. .... .... .... ..-• .... 831 

VI.— Extract from a Memoir on the preparations of the Indian Hemp, or Gun- 
jah, (Cannabis Indica) their effects on the Animal system in Health, and 
their utility in the Treatment of Tetanus and other Convulsive Diseases. 
By W. B. O'Shaughnessy, Esq. M.D. Professor in the Medical College 
of Calcutta, &c. &c. (concluded) 838 

VII. — Memorandum on the Explosion of Gunpowder under Water by the 
Galvanic Battery; with a notice of the successful destruction of the "Equi- 
table" at Fultah Reach. By W. B. O'Shaughnessy, Esq. M.D. Assistant 
Surgeon, &c. &c. 851 

VIII. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, 863 

Notices, 866 

IX.— Meteorological Register, 867 

No. 95.— NOVEMBER. 

I. — Memoir on the Climate, Soil, Produce, and Husbandry of Afghanistan and 

the Neighbouring Countries. By Lieut. Irwin, (continued) 869 

II. — Journal of a trip through Kunawur, Hungrung, and Spiti, undertaken in 
the year 1838, under the patronage of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, for the 
purpose of determining the geological formation of those districts. — By 
Lieut. Thomas Hutton, 37th Regt. N. I., Assistant Surveyor to the Agra 
Division , 901 

III.— Notes on various Fossil Sites on theNurbudda; illustrated by specimens 

and drawings. • 950 

I V.— Proceedings of the Asiatic Society 953 

V.— Meteorological Register, 971 

No. 96.— DECEMBER. 

I. — Third Report on Tenasserim — the surrounding Nations, — Inhabitants, Na- 
tives and Foreigners — Character, Morals and Religion. — By John William 
Heifer, M.D 973 

II. — Memoir on the Climate, Soil, Produce, and Husbandry of Afghanistan and 

the Neighbouring Countries. By Lieut. Irwin, (continued) 1005 

III. — Journal of a Mission from the Supreme Government of India to the Court 

of Siam, 1016 

IV.— Remarks on the Geology, &c. of the country extending between Bhar and 

Simla. 1037 

V. — Note on the process of washing for the gold dust and diamonds at Heera 

Khoond. By J. R. Ouseley, Esq 1057 

VI. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, 1059 

VII.— Meteorological Register, 1069 


The acting Secretaries have this day the honour to 
submit to the Asiatic Society, and to the Subscribers 
to the Journal so long connected with that Institution, 
the first number of a new series. 

On the sudden departure of the late inestimable 
Secretary, Mr. James Prinsep, much difficulty arose 
as to the continuation of the Journal, he so long and 
so admirably managed. While no member of our 
Society could lay claim to Mr. Prinsep's universality of 
attainments, or presume to enter, without self-distrust, 
on even a portion of his pursuits, almost all were 
already over-bur thened by official or professional du- 
ties. Some were deterred, moreover, by the consi- 
derable pecuniary risk which the management of the 
Journal involved. Under such circumstances it was 
arranged that the Rev. Professor Malan, of Bishop's 
College, in association with Dr. O'Shaughnessy, 
should continue the Journal at the risk of the latter. 
But this plan was defeated in limine by the illness of 
Mr. Malan, and the necessity of his proceeding to the 

Mr. J. C. C. Sutherland having been appointed to 
act as Joint-Secretary with Dr. O'Shaughnessy, during 
Mr. Malan's absence, has consented, however, to under- 


take the management of the part of the Journal de- 
voted to Oriental literature and antiquities. On his col- 
league will devolve the supervision and arrangement 
of matters relative to Natural History and General 
Science. The Editors propose no alteration in the 
plan of the work. It will be their constant aim to 
imitate Mr. Prinsep in the discharge of their editorial 
duties. It will be their indescribable pride, should 
they succeed in sustaining the high rank to which he 
elevated his Journal among the most distinguished 
periodicals of the day. 

But the Editors have no desire to conceal their 
apprehensions of the possible failure of this attempt. 
Both may without affectation describe themselves as 
men having a full share of responsible occupation. 
The hours of a scanty leisure are all they can assign 
to this new care, nor have they in themselves the in- 
exhaustible resources which enabled Mr. Prinsep to 
fill up so perfectly, whatever deficiency any depart- 
ment of the Journal might experience. Thus circum- 
stanced, they would fain call on the Members of the 
Asiatic Society, for the good name of that respected 
body, as well as for the public utility, to exert them- 
selves to support, nay to preserve, this Journal. Such 
exertion will be the best token of respect and gratitude 
to Mr. Prinsep — a feeling in itself enough to induce all 
to contribute their contingents, however trifling, in 
furtherance of the pursuits, which under the constant 
patronage of the Asiatic Society, he cultivated with 
such extraordinary success. 

The Editors have pleasure in stating, that in the 
important departments of Oriental Geography, Modern 


Dialects, Statistics, and Natural History, they are 
already amply supplied with most valuable materials. 
To Colonel Stacy and his gallant companions with the 
Army of the Indus, they look with confidence for 
numerous contributions in the History and Numis- 
matology of the interesting countries on the route of 
the Candahar expedition. In fine, the Editors enter- 
tain sanguine hopes of still preserving the " Journal" 
for the Society, and the Public, provided the old con- 
tributors participate in some degree in their anxiety to 
accomplish this object. As a claim on the co-operation 
of those who have hitherto been so instrumental in 
maintaining the character of this Periodical, the res- 
ponsible Editor assures the Subscribers that any pecu- 
niary returns which may exceed the expenses, will be 
devoted to increasing its bulk, improving its quality, 
and adding to the number of its illustrations. The 
Work is thus the property and benefit of a " Joint Stock 
Company," of which the Editors are but the honorary, 
though anxious servants. 

%* Contributors are deemed entitled to 50 copies of their papers, 
which will be forwarded, bearing postage, by letter or banghy dak 
wherever they direct. Copies of the Journal are dispatched by each 
Overland Mail to the leading Periodicals in Europe and America. 




No. 85.— JANUARY, 1839. 

Art. I.— A Grammar of the Pashtoo, or Afghdnee Language. By 
Lieut. R. Leach, Bombay Engineers, Assistant on a Mission. 

To the Secretary to the Asiatic Society. 

Political Dept. 

Sir,— I am directed by the Honorable the President in Council to 
forward to you the accompanying Grammar of the Pashtoo or Afghan 
Language, compiled by Lieutenant Leach, for such notice as the So- 
ciety may deem it to merit. 

2. I am further directed to request that the Grammar in question 
may be returned when no longer required. 

I have the honor to be, 
Sir, . 
Your most obedient humble servant, 

Secy, to the Govt, of India. 
Fort William, 20th Feb. 1839. 

This language is called Afgh&nee or Av^Mnee by Persians and 
other foreigners, and Pashtoo, PuMtoo, and Pastoo, severally, by the 
Afghans of Candhar, Peshawar, Teerai, and by the Afreedees, Khy- 
beerees, &c. &c. 

The language is decidedly of Sanscrit complexion, from the fre- 
quent occurrence of the ^ jh and W kgh ; indeed these two letters 
with the Devnagary ^ compose the peculiarity of the language. 

2 Grammar of the Pashtoo or Afghdnee Language. [\Jan. 

The difference between the Peshawar and Candhar dialect is, that 
in the former the Persian £ is used, when in the latter the Sanscrit 
"5T occurs. 

The Candharee is reckoned the purest dialect ; and when correctly 
spoken, resembles in the plaintiveness of its tones the peculiar dialect 
of Ireland. 

The Alphabet is as follows. 

Afghdnee. Devna- English, 





























as the second a in parable, 

as the English, 

Ditto, ditto, 

as the Continental t } 

as th in things, 

as the English t, 

as the English/, 

as the English, 

as the aspirated h, 

as ch in the Scotch loch, 

the Afghan z used for coupling, 

the Continental d, 

as th in those 

the harsh English d, 

the English r, 

the peculiar Maratha d, 

the English z, 

the French j in jour, 

the English s } 

the English sh, 

unknown in English, 

the Arabic dwad, 

the Arabic dzwad, 

the Arabic t } 

1839.] Grammar of the Pashtoo or Afghdnee Language. 
The Alphabet {Continued.) 

Afghdnee. Devna 

- English. 







... the Arabic z, 




?7* . 

.. the Arabic mark for guttural vowels 



... the Persian guttural, 


... ^ 


f . 

. . the English f, 


k . 

. . the harsh English k, 


... ^ 

* . . 

k . 

. . the English k, 


... *T 



. . . the English g, 


... *r 



.. the English I, 


... iT 



.. the English m, 


... 3T 



.. the English n, 


... W 

w . 

. . the English w, or v, 


... ^ 


h . 

.. the English h, 


... V 


y • 

. . the English y 9 


... w 


kgh .. 

:. the Sanscrit. 

The same story is told of the Afghau language, that the Mah- 
rattas tell of the Canarese, viz., That a certain king sent his vizier 
to collect all the vocabularies and dialects of the earth; on the 
vizier's return he proceeded to quote specimens before his royal 
Master : when he came to speak of the AfgMnee dialect, he stopped, 
and producing a tin pot containing a stone, began to -rattle it. 
The king in surprise asked the meaning of this proceeding. The 
vizier said that he had failed to get a knowledge of the Afgh&nee 
language, and could only describe it by rattling a stone in a tin pot. 

It is also said, that Mahammad, the Arabian prophet, gave it as his 
opinion that the AfyMnee was to be the language of the infernal 
regions, as Arabic was to be that of heaven. 

In the comparison of languages, in which Arabic is called science, 
(Urn) ; Turkish accomplishment, (hunar); Persian sugar; Hindus- 
tanee salt ; the Afghan is complimented with the appellation of the 
''braying of an ass." 

4 Grammar of the Pashtoo or Afghdnee Language. [Jan. 

An Afgh&n is immediately discovered by another by the correct- 
ness with which he distinguishes between a masculine and feminine 

Declension of a Noun Masculine. 
Nominative as, a horse 
Genitive da as, of a horse 

Accusative &1 , A , 
Dative .... | as ta, ahorse 

Ablative la as, from a horse 

asan, horses 
da asano, of horses 

asanoo ta, horses 

la asanoo, from horses 

Declension of a Noun Feminine, ending in a Vowel 

Singular. Plural 

Nominative aspa, a mare aspe, mares 

Genitive da aspa, of a mare da aspo, of mares 

Accusative & 1 
Dative . . f as P eta ' a mare aspota, mares 

Ablative la aspe, from a mare la aspo, from mares 

Examples of forming the Feminine from the Masculine Noun.. 

Masculine, Feminine. 

spe, dog spai, a bitch 

Mar, a donkey Mara, a she-ass 

buz, a he-goat buza, a she-goat 

gid, a fat-tailed ram gida, a female sheep 

orard, nephew orera, niece 

tara, uncle tarala, aunt 

Declension of a Compound Noun. 

Nominative gha, sadai, a good man 
Genitive da, gha, sade, of a good man 
Ace. & Dat. gha. sade ta, a good man 
Ablative la^Aasade, from a good man 

gha. sadee, good men 
da^a sadee, of good men 
gha, sadota, good men 
\agha. sadee, from good men 

Declension of the 1st Personal Pronoun. 

Nom, za, I muj, we 

Gen. zma, mine. zmuj, ours 

Ace. & Dat. mala, me. mujla, us 

Abl. la ma, from me. la muj', from us 

1839.] Grammar of the Pashtoo or Afghdnee Language* h 

Declension of the 2nd Personal Pronoun. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nora. ta, thou taso, ye 

Gen. sta, thy istaso, yours 

Ace. & Dat. tala, thee tasola, you 

Abl. la ta, from thee la taso, from you 

Declension of the 3d Personal Pronoun— proximate. 

Nom. da^M, this dagho, these 

Gen. da de, these da deev, of these 

Ace. & Dat. dela, this deevla, these 

Abl. la de, from this la deev, from these 

Declension of the 3rd Personal Pronoun— remote. 

Nom. ha^a, that hagho, those 

Gen. dahaghsL, of that daha^Ao, of those 

Ace. & Dat. hagha, ta, that ha^o ta, thos.e 

Abl. la ha^a, from that la hagho, from those 

Declension of the Reflective Pronoun. 

Nom. PaMpul, I myself 

Gen. AMpul, my own 

Ace. & Dat. ... ... wanting 

Abl ditto 

Declension of the Interrogative Pronoun — animate. 


Nom. sok, who 

Gen. da cha, whose 

Ace. & Dat. cha ta, who 

Abl. la cha, from whom 

Declension of the Interrogative Pronoun — inanimate. 

Nom. sa, what 

Gen. a sa, of what 

Ace. & Dat. sa la, why 

Abl. la sa, from what 

Grammar of the Pashtoo or A/ghdnee Language, [Jan, 






















you visht 


do visht 


dre visht 






shpaj visht 










you salweght 


doo salweght 


dre salweght 


salor salweght 


pinz salweght 


shpaj salweght 


o,o salweght 


ath salweght 


nah salweght 




you shpeta 


doo shpeta 


dre shpeta 


salor shpeta 


pinz shpeta 


shpaj shpeta 


o,o shpeta 


ath shpeta 


nah shpeta 



Cardinal Numbers. 

11 you las 

12 dwa las 

13 dyar las 

14 swar las 

15 pinz las 

16 shpadas 

17 olas 
J8 athlas 

19 nolas 

20 shil 





you dergh 
do dergh 
dre dergh 
salor dergh 
pinz dergh 
shpaj dergh 
o,o dergh 
ath dergh 
nah dergh 

you pinzost 
doo pinzost 
dre pinzost 
salor pinzost 
pinz pinzost 
shpaj pinzost 
o,o pinzost 
ath pinzost 
nah pinzost 

you avya 
doo avya 
dre avya 
salor avya 
pinz avya 
shpaj avya 
o,o avya 
ath avya 
nah avya 

1839.] Grammar of the Pashtoo or A/ghdnee Language. 

81 you atya 


you nawee 

82 doo atya 


doo nawee 

83 dre atya 


dre nawee 

84 salor atya 


salor nawee 

85 pinz atya 


pinz nawee 

86 shpaj atya 


shpaj nawee 

87 oowa atya 


oova nawee 

88 ath atya 


ath nawee 

89 nah atya 


nah nawee 

90 nawee 

100 sil 


1,00,000 lakh 

kror 1,00,00,000 

Ordinal Numbers. 

1st yawam 


shpaj am 

2nd doowam 



3rd dreyam 



4th salaram 



5th pinzam 

10th lasam., &c. 

Conjugation of the Auxiliary Verb (masculine.) 
Indicative Mood. 
Present Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1st Person, zaiyam, I am muj yoo, we are 

2nd taiye, thou art taseyast, you are 

3rd h&gha, dai, he is ha^Aadee, they are 

Perfect Past Tense. 
Singula?-. Plural. 

1st Person, zawum, I was muj woo, we were 

2nd do ta we, thou wast tasi wast, you were 

3rd do haghi woo, he was ha^a woo, they were 

Imperfect Past Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1st Person, za kedam, I was being muj kedoo, 
2nd do ta kede tasi kedast, 

3rd do ha^a keda ha^a keda, 

Pluperfect Past Tense — Had been. 
1st Person za sawai warn muj si wee woo 

2nd do ta suwai wee tasi siwee wast 

3rd do ha^Aa sawai woo ha^a siwee woo 

8 Grammar of the Pashtoo, or A/ghdnee Language, [\Jan. 

Future Tense — Shall be. 

1st Person, zakeajam muj keajam 

2nd do ta keaja tasi keajai 

3rd do h&gM keajee h&gho keajee 

Imperative Mood. 
ta sa, be thou tasi sai, be you. 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Present Tense. — May be. 

1st Person, zawam muj woo 

2nd do ta we tasi wast 

3rd do haghd see ha^o soo 

The Relative Conjugation If is expressed by Ka. 
Perfect Past Tense. 

1st Person, za wai muj wai 

2nd ta wai tasi wai 

3rd ha^a wai ha^o wai 

Infinitive Mood Keda, " being," or " to be." 

Past Participle, Sawai woo, " been." 
Conjugation of the Verb Waiyil, " to speak." 
Present Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1st Person, za waiyam muj waiyoo 

2nd do ta wai tasi waiya'st 

3rd do ha^Aa wai ha^o wai 

The feminine gender only changes the 1st Person Singular, as a 
woman says, za waiyama. 

Perfect Past Tense. 

1st Person, ma' waiyil muj waiyil 

2nd do ta' waiyil ta'si waiyil 

3rd do hagha! waiyil ha^Ao waiyal 

Imperfect Past Tense. 
1st Person, ma' waiyil muj waiyil 

2nd do ta' waiyil ta'si waiyil 

3rd do hagh&' waiyil ha^o waiyil 

1839.] Grammar of the Pashtoo or Afghdnee Language, 

Pluperfect Past Tense. 
1st Person, ma waiyalaiwo muj waiyaleewoo 

2nd do. ta wo waiyil tasi waiyaleewoo 

3rd do. h&ghi waiyalaiwo ha^o waiyalai woo 

Future Tense. 
1st Person, za bawowaiyam 
2nd ditto ta bawowaiye 
3rd ditto h&ghk bawowai 

muj bawowayoo 
tasi bawowaiyast 
ha^o bawowai 

Imperative Mood. 
ta wawava tasi wowayast 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present Tense. 

1st za wowayam 
2nd ta wowaye 
3rd ha^a wowayee 

miri wowayoo 
tasi wowayast 
h&gho wowayee 

Perfect Past Tense. 
1st ma waiyalaiwoo muj waiyaleewoo 

2nd ta waiyalaiwoo tasi waiyaleewoo 

3rd ha^a waiyalaiwoo hogho waiyaleewoo 

Adverbs, Post- and Pre. 
porta, above 
k^ata, below 
danana, in 
dabandee, out 
dilta, here 
halta, there 
de khawa, on this side 
hagha, Mawa, on that side 
doudande, before 
douroosta, behind 
jirr, quickly 
ro ro, slowly 
man rwaz, to-day 
paroon, yesterday 
sabha rwaz, to-morrow 
ba, till 

', Conjunctions, fyc. §c. 
saranga, how 
bul jala, again 
os, now 

biya, afterwards 
m&kh a muM, in front 
bas, enough 
ham, also 
ho, yes 
nah, no 
makava, don't 
ka, if 

para, sake of 
wodya, gratis 
az, than 
o, holla 
sarra, with 


10 Grammar of the Pashtoo, or Afghdnee Language. [Jan. 

mudam, always 
kala, when 
cherta, where 

wo, and 
ya, or 

bela, without 
wale, but 

rwaz, day, 
shpa, night, 
halak, boy, 
zoe, son, 
jilai, girl, 
loor, daughter, 
pe^/tla, maid, 
plar, father, 
mor, mother, 
uror, brother, 
khor, sister, 
oba, water, 
or, fire, 
dode, bread, 
^Aahar, city, 
kalai, hamlet, 

kijde, tent woollen 
kor, house 
Moon a, room 
gho\e, a yard 
wanai, tree 
bootai, bush 
tirkh, brushwood 
mar, snake 
ta ooz, peacock 
zirka, Greek partridge 
Imja, leak 
gazir, carrot 
malMaze, thyme 
amir, pomegranate 
hindwana, water melon 
in an a, apple 
meda, man 
^Aaza, woman 
man din a, female 
nareena, male 

Vocabulary of Nouns. 

as, horse, 
aspa, mare, 
osai, deer, 
Mar, ass, 
^Aatar, mule, 
behan, colt, 
yaboo, poney, 
chirg, fowl, 
chirga, hen, 
kaftara, pigeon, 
gidada, fox, 
eha^Ml, jackal, 
koj, hyena, 
spai, dog, 
pishee, cat, 
muj'ak, mouse, 

yaj, bear 
bizo, monkey 
sarkaza, hog 
bza, she-goat 
waz gadai, he-goat 
mur^umai, kid 
mej ewe 
maj, ram 

warg maj, fighting ram 
dusherla, middling ram 
psherlai, ram 
wuchkulai, ram 
urai, lamb 
^Awa, cow 
^Awayai, bull 
suMwanda calf 

chu^rAuka, sparrow 
009^, camel 
^Aanum, wheat 
wurijjee, rice 
urbushee, barley 
naMud, pulse 
phascolus, maxim us 
pyaz, onion 
tanzire, partridge 
kurak, quail 
thai la, sole of foot 
war^awe, palm of hand 
punda, heel 
padkai, ancle 
pandai calf 
zangoon, knee 
Mwale, perspiration 
\)gha, leg 
waroon, thigh 
nas, belly 

1839.] Grammar of the Pashtoo, or Afghdnee Language. 


malga, salt 
tel, oil 
ghodee, ghee 
shakar, sugar 
marach, pepper 
largai, wood 
kuchee, butter 
hagge, an egg 
shide, milk 
maste, curds 
shalumbe, butter-milk 
lastai, pestle 
kh&t, bedstead 
tiltak, coverlid 
balight, pillow 
nihale, bed 
ospana, iron 
surp, lead 
mio, copper 
kal, year 
zyad, brass 
myasht, month 
sirazar, gold 
speen zar, silver 
tirMa, bitter 
garm, hot 
sod, cold 
klak, hard 
narm, soft 

boad, | 8 
garan, dear 
arzan, cheap 
spuk, light 
duroond, heavy 
wach, dry 
noombd, wet 
zulf, lock of hair 
tsoonee, woman's hair 
bret, mustacheos 
jeera, beard 
arkh, armpit 

kunatai, bullock 

tatar, beast 

las, hand 

oja, shoulder 

sha, back 

ghkda, neck 

shund, lip 

gh&gh, tooth 

zinne, chin 

barkhoo, cheek 

paza, nose 

saj'me, nostril 

stir^a, eye 

banoo, eye- lash 

waridza, eye-brow 

tandai, forehead 

ghwa'j, ear 

partooM, trousers 

partooga^/a, breeches string 

ozgar, idle 

pagde, turban 

k/isij, sweet 

turwa, sour 

muM, nail 

spajme, moon 

store, star 

wah, woo, wind 

garz, dust 

zona, light 

tyara, darkness 

angoor, grapes 

oma, raw 

paMa, cooked 

shkar, horn 

swa, hoof 

changul, divided hoof 

wadai, wool 

pumba, cotton 

jibba, language 

^wajai, hunger 

tajai, thirst 

kough, shoes 

12 Grammar of the Pashtoo, or Afghdnee Language. QJan. 

tirkhe, armpit 

kund, widow 

o^Ake, a tear 

meda, husband 

(jha,z&, wife 

daroo, gunpowder 

purod, grass 

ghaWsi, grain 

speen, white 

soor, red 

tor, black 

abee, blue 

zyad, yellow 

sheen, green 

mahee, fish 

$rAwashe, meat 

linar, sun 

rikeboona, stirrups 

muloona^ bridle 

c/hmY, hill 

seen, river 

Alight, brick 

nikka, grandfather 

wurr nikka, greatgrandfather 

masai, grandson 

chaplai, slippers 

doond, blind 

gung, dumb 

koon, deaf 

god, lame with both legs 

rast, straight 

koj, crooked 

tsappa, upset 

lewanai, mad 

Mapa, angry 

ranzoor, ill 

starai, tired 

dard, pain 

lar, road 

safar, journey 

noom, name 

zeen, saddle 

kad wasai, great grandson 

kosai, great great grandson 

zoom, son-in-law 

warindara, sister-in-law 

orara, nephew 

orera, niece 

tra and aka, uncle 

troree, aunt 

ratalal, to come 
tlal, to go 
ravdal, to bring 
odal, to carry away 
patakedal, to place 
odaradil, to rise 
porta kawil, to raise 
k^Aenastan, to sit 
aMistan, to take 
wenissa, to seize 
AAudal, to eat 
ch^Ail, to drink 
zbe^Ail, to suck 
chichil, to bite 
ghwkhAn. to chew the 

Vocabulary of Verbs. 

talal, to weigh 
ve pemawal, to measure 
paMawal, to cook 
Mlas wal, \ 
waz wal, > to open 
paranatal, J 
tadal, to blind 
parkawal, to cut 
seere kawal, to tear 
matawal, to break 
z^Aastal, to run 
Iwastan, to read 
girzedal, to stroll 
skawul, to pull 

cud pakawal, to wipe 

1839.] Grammar of the Vashtoo, or Afghdnee Language, 


jo o wal, to chew 
Mandil, to laugh 
jadil, to weep 
wahal, to beat 

f g Mtocall 
kawal ) 

skandal, to pinch 

gandal, to sew 

beredal, to fear 

tuMedal, to cough 

telawul, to push 

gha&M wal, to press 

lad e^Awurzawul, to spit 

gfwul kawal, to ease one 5 

leedal and katal, to see 

tishawul, to employ 

bazee kawal, to play 

waiyil, to speak 

wuruk kawal, to lose 

mudal, to die 


purewatal, to fall 
zejal, to bring forth 
purawal, to borrow 
por warkawal, to lend 
put wal, to conceal 
ghaMauwal, to bury 
zij dedal, to tremble 
Mais wal, to loosen 
garawul, to scratch 
togawul, to pour 
pookawul, to blow 

, > to make water 
kawal, ) 

dakawul, to fill [ment 

jaghawul, to play on an instru- 

lirekawal, putting away 

mzakakandan, to dig 

pa^Aal, to sow 

waswa, to burn 

Sentences and Dialogues. 

The Afghan Salutation—" Rogh bod." 

Jod e gh& taze gh& Mushal e gh& j Are you well ? quite fresh ? quite 
ra^Xale ? \ happy ? welcome ? 

. T , 7 , . ( May you be well. May all be 

Answer. Jha wose pa Mair wose 1 ^ wUh „ * ne _ 

maMwar reje. ^ ver be badly off. 

Sta noom sa de ? 

Ta soke ? 

Kum yanye ? 

Tasi chare zai 

Tasi la kum zae raghaliyast 

Dwa myasht me sooeedee chi la 

Candhara rafale yam 
Da lar da Shikarpoor de? 
Za Mabar neyam paMpula rau- 

sapar yam 
Lar wa^aiya 

Tsa Mabra la Badshah avaradi- 
leeyast ? 

What is your name ? 

Who are you ? 

Who is there ? * 

Where are you going ? 

Whence come you ? 

It is two months since I came 

from Candahar. 
Is this the road to Shikarpoor ? 
1 I don't know, I am myself a tra- 
I veller. 
Shew the road. 

Have you heard any news of the 
king ? 

14 Grammar of the Pushtoo, or Afghdnee Language. [Jan, 

Wai ee chi Shikarpoor ta wara 1 They say he has arrived at Shi- 
seda. ) karpoor. 

Da Hindu wano pa kagh&z kghe ) Txr , , 

daHaratda blbata tsa kle- I What „ wa ? . th A e "7 s fr< > m Helat 
j awoo? " f m the Hindoos letter ? 

K9hilawoodakajartagodaKam-(\ was w ( ritt " n * at . t ' le £ ersians 
ran cliapaw pa Farrah bande) , had ret, y ed ' and that ^amran 
oda Mahammad Siddeek KMni had '" ade a descent on Farrah 
bandee wodal. / and **??, ™W Mahannned 

V Sideek Khan prisoner. 

So rwaze dee chi Kasid la \ How many days is it since a Cos- 

Loodiane rafale de ? J sid arrived from Loodiana ? 

Ka za durwacr/i zam na gham pinz } r * T , . ,; .. . « j 

„ „™ • a^ > If I remember right it is five days, 

rwaze soo 1 dee J & J 

Wale jar ra na^ale ? Why have you not come quickly ? 

Ma psheen spareshan •{ * wU1 8° out ridin S b y a ft«™oon 

r r ^ prayers. 

Za be Martsa yum muwajam me) I have no money, will you give 

raka ? J me my pay ? 

Madar woka chi da hinde mudda \ Wait till the bill of exchange be 

poora see J due. 

Dode zma da para paMaka chi | Get ready dinner for me, as I am 

wujee yum chi wa^Auram J hungry and have an appetite. 

Tsa bara sta zoe zma deedan lara I What's the reason your son does 
rana^Aai ? J not come to see me ? 

Sa lara da kar na kave ? Why don't you do that ? 

Tasta sawe ? What is become of you ? 

Ka za spansee darkam da shpaj 1 If I give you ready money, what 
kameesa pa tso mazdooree ba > will you take for making six 
jod ke ? j shirts? 

Da^Aar moom laree ka na laree Has this mountain a name or not ? 

Sardaran da Candahar chi dee pa J The Sardars of Candahar when 
wakht da mukadame chi da / they want to get money from 
cha tsaMa tsa^Awadee aMpul > any one in time of need, are in 
da ourate psol wa ha^/fa sadee i the habit of pawning their wives 
ta giroje kghee dee J jewels 

AMpul maindina biya wo poo- 1 They instruct their wives to get 
hawee chi bya pa fand tara da- t the jewels out of pawn by a 
Mpul psol bidtazeenee ravda ) contrivance of their own. 

Pa Candahar ki jha as tsa keenruet ) What is the price of a good horse 

laree ? f in Candahar ? 

G/m as pa salor souwa pa las razee A good horse can be got for 400 Rs. 
Derawat tso zara rupo, ee malya) What is the revenue of Derawat 

laree J in thousands ? 

Dergh zara rupo,ee malya laree It is a revenue of 30,000 Rs. 

1839.] Grammar of the Pushtoo, or Afghdnee Language. 15 

Shah Shuja chi ra^Aalai woo Sar-^l When Shah Shuja appeared, all 
daran tola raza woo chi ghar | the Sardars were content to give 
warkee ba^air la you Sardar )■ up the city except Kohn Dil 
Kohn Dil Khanchi waigil chi | Khan, who said, my head with 
zma sar dai o da Kala KungreJ these parapets. 

Tasi arvedalai dai chi da Maham- \ Have you heard the uncle of 
mad Shah aka Shikarpoor lare > Mahammad Shah has arrived 
ray/jalai dai ? J in Shikarpoor ? 

— _0 — _ 

Specimen of Afghan verse from Abdul Rahman. 

Har matloob chi^waje ta, uka ) When the musician turns the 

da rabab S screw of the Rebeck 

Pad a tauk jhee zma zada kandeelBy each turn that is made my 

kabab J heart is burnt. 

Chi saiye pana^/mia pa taranash- ) When I pay attention to the tune 

um S ana the tone 

Dewana sham grewantsiree most \ I get mad, and tear my clothes 

okhrab f frantic and lost. 

Hame tar hame guftar hose as ar- ) The strings and burthen of the 

ka J song so distress me 

Chi hetsok na takat laree na tab That none could bear it or endure it. 

Youve saz, bulawaze da belto $ ^ there f h ? music first > then the 

I theme of absence, 

Dream shaar para^m ka intiMah ^^^ a P oet recitehis g° od 

Tsalaram you sakeeye tar sangk- } ^ Al _ , . , , 

ohenee \ Fourth, let a cupbearer be near 

Che maM na mahtab li dilaivee Who has never been looked on by 

na aftab sun or moon- 

Da talor wada fitne dee pa tslor 7 These four are four traitors in 

kunja j four corners — 

O pinzame suraeedai da mai nab } And the fifth be a bottle of the 
spajame wakt da noubahar o da V best wine, and the sixth the time 
zawanee ) of the new spring and youth, 

Ou owam shu^al da bayazoda } And the seventh reading of al. 
kitab J bums and books. 

Chida hoomree afatoona sara tol \ If all these wonders be collected 
shee ( together 

Turo tsok saranga zeenee kandelWho can deliver himself from 
ijtanab f them ; 

Chida hasee dilbaran par as ar-\ He who is not affected by any of 

na ka J these rarities 

Yaba devee ya deewaz dai yadawl Must be either more than human, 

aD I a wa ^ or a beast. 

16 Grammar of the Pashtoo, or Afghdnee Language. [Jan. 

Da tsargand bashee parhez da par- 1 Here the abstinence of abstainers 
hez ga f will be discovered 

„ , , , , , , u 'u\ When they be surrounded by love 

Kakadar shee pa spahade pa shrab > , w ^ e 

Za Rahman lareeya zohda pana\May God defend Rahman from 

^wadam f hypocrisy ; 

Dareeya zohad azab de hamitab Hypocrisy is trouble and reproach. 

(True Copy) 

H. Torrens, (Signed) R. Leach. 

Depy. Secy, to the Govt, of India. 
With the Gavr. Genl. 

Art. II. — Sisupa'la Bad'ha, or death of Sisupa'la by Ma'gha. 
Translated, with Annotations, by J. C- C. Sutherland, Esq. 

Book I.— The conference between Krishna and Na'rada. 
Salutation to the fortunate Ganesa ! 

1. Hari, husband of Sri, dwelling in the fortunate abode of 
Vasudeva, to reform the world, though himself the abode of worlds, 
saw descending from the sky, the sage, who sprang from a portion of 
the being, that was conceived in the golden mundane egg, 

2. Is this the Sun itself parted into two orbs ? Is it fire shining 
with light divested of smoke? The motion of the luminary whose 
charioteer has no legs is curvilinear. The ascent of flame is a well 
known property of fire. What is this, which descends diffusing light 
around ? Thus was the sage contemplated by wonder by the people. 

1839.] Conference between Krishna and Ndrada. 17 

3. The sagacious hero gradually recognized him. First, he remarked 
a mass of light; then, perceived an organic shape ; next, discerned the 
human form ; and, lastly, knew him to be Na'rada. 

4. Who, gray like a heap of levigated camphor, clearly resem- 
bled for a moment (whilst close under vast fresh clouds,) Sambhu 
whitened with ashes, and clad in the skin of a mighty elephant 
thrown over Qiis shoulder]. 

5. Who, shining like the Moon in the sultry season, and wearing 
braided locks, yellow as cream, and splendid like the filaments of the 
lotus, resembled the king of mountains covered with multitudes of 
twining plants that thrive in the region of snow. 

6. Who, brilliantly white, girt with a yellow cord made of hya- 
cinthoid alectris, and clad in the skin of a black antelope, shining like 
antimony, mocked the person of the hero, conspicuous by his black 
apparel, fastened to a golden cord, 

^^TfWf^^T^^iT 5 ^^!^^!^^^^^ I l<5>l I 

7- Who, white as snow, and wearing for a scarf a string made of 
the fibres of climbing plants, gathered from the golden soil, and long 
like the down on the body of the king of birds, resembled a cloud 
streaked with flashes of lightning, in the season in which clouds be- 
come unfrequent. 

18 Conference between Krishna and Narada. [ Jan 

fa <i A fa ^l^M ^ <£xW *\ x^rniW^wS^^ffJ^f^l I 

^^TO^^^^^^^n^^iTFr^f ^ *g <* i ^ W 11*11 

8. Who, seemed the king of elephants that bears Indra, ornament- 
ed with trappings made of the beautiful skin of a spotted deer, covered 
with hair, delicate, glossy, and naturally variegated, decorating a body 
white like the slips of the stalk of a lotus. 

9. Who held a rosary of clear crystal beads, but seemingly half 
filled with coral beads, in front being divided by the rays, emitted 
from the nail of his thumb, reddened by the strings of his lute con- 
tinually struck by him. 

10. Who looked again and again at his lute surnamed " the large/' 
wherein the rising and descending melodies of various octaves be- 
came distinct, by musical notes, which consist of different sets of 
measured sonorous lengths, and which were separately sounded by 
the impulse of the breeze. 

11. That Treasure of Knowledge, which is possessed by such as 
have subdued their passions, dismissing the inhabitants of the sky, 
who followed him with humble salutations, alighted at the house of 
him who is armed with a discus, and has stript demons of their 
conquests, an abode elegant like the palace of Indra. 

12. The devout saint, an image of the descending Sun, was not yet 
standing before the immortal hero, when he hastily rose from his 
lofty throne, like a thunder-cloud from a mountain. 

1839.] Conference between Krishna and Ndrada. 19 

13. The son of Dhatri alighted before the son of Devaki, and 
as the feet of the saint touched the surface of the earth,, it was hardly 
upheld by multitudes of serpents underneath, who bowed, in despite 
of their exertions to raise their dilated necks. 

14. The primeval being shewed due honour to that venerable 
person with an arghya and other ceremonies ; for wise persons enter 
not, with complacency, the houses of them who do not perform the 
sacred rites of civility. 

^^cm^^^w^ i 

15. Ere the people observed them, as they stood rivalling moun- 
tains of snow and of antimony, the primeval sage had made the saint 
sit down in front of him on a seat presented with his own hands. 

*T?Fr*^T3?t^^ I 

16. Sitting on a lofty throne before the foe of Kansa (who shone 
like a vast sapphire) the sage exhibited the beauties of the Moon 
resting on the orient mountain opposite to the dusk at eve. 


17. The being who is dear to pious votaries, pleased the saint by 
special honour shewn to him as he sat down ; for the wise delight in 
repeatedly conciliating venerable guests by respectful treatment. 

^ir^^iTfm^^^^ 1 

^srfawirfinffa^ ii\k|i 

18. Hart bowed his head as he received the fluid poured into his 
hands by the sage from a gourd, which contained water collected from 
every holy stream, and most efficacious to remove all taint of sin. 

20 Conference between Krishna and Ndrada. [Jan. 

19. The golden throne on which the hero, whose body was 
black like a fresh cloud, sat down at the bidding of the saint, surpassed 
the beauty of the cliff of Sumeru, embellished as it is by the fruit 
of the Eugenia. 

20. Resplendent like the orb of the Moon, and clad in apparel that 
equalled the lustre of tried gold, he resembled the ocean embraced by 
the flames of submarine fire. 

Annotations — Book I. 

V. 1. Brahma, was bom in an egg bright as gold (Menu, c. i. v. 9.) and from his hip 
sprang Narada. Krishna being an incarnation of Vishnu bears the titles of that 
deity; the name Hari, and the attribute of pervading and containing the universe are 
therefore given to him, at the same time that he is mentioned as the son of Vasudeva. 
His wife Rukmini is in like manner considered as an incarnation of Sri or Lukshmi. 
In the original, Sri is the first word of the couplet, purposely introduced there as an 
auspicious beginning of the Poem. 

V. 2. The first part of this triplet is an interpolation. The Scholiast leaves it unno- 
ticed. Aruna is the dawn, or the Charioteer of the Sun, and is figured without lower 

V. 3. The sagacity of Krishna is here meant to be contrasted with the stupid 
wonder of the people. 

V. 4. On certain festive days Siva dances before his wife Parvati. 

V. 5. The minei*al anjana that used for collyrium is here meant. 

V. 6. Balarama, brother of Krishna, derives several of his titles from the black 
apparel constantly worn by him. 

V. 7. Vishnu's bird named Garuda, is surnamed King of Birds. The down on his 
body is figured as much larger than that which is observed in his kindred of royal 

The King of Vultures, if the bird usually so named were meant by Sir William Jones, 
(As. Res. vol. vi. p. 128), has been described as a native of America and the West In- 
dies. The Pandits of Behar suppose the gigantic crane to be the Garuda. 

V. 8. The spotted Axis is the species of deer alluded to in this place. Airavata, 
surnamed King of Elephants, bears Indra, the sovereign of demi-gods. He is figured 
white like the royal elephants of Ava. 

V. 9. Narada being an ascetic is painted as here described, with a rosary in one 
hand, and his Indian lute in the other, his hair braided like an anchorite, his com- 
plexion fair, and his body covered with ashes, a sacerdotal string by way of scarf, a 
yellow cord round his waist, and the skin of an antelope on his shoulders. 

V. 10. Nauada's lute, surnamed Mahati or " the large," Saraswati's is called 
" KachJiapi" (testudo), as Viswavasa's Vrihati or "the best," and Tumburu's 
" Kalavati." 

1839.] Conference between Krishna and Ndrada. 21 

The dissertation of Sir W. Jones, on the musical notes of the Hindoos, may be 
consulted (A. R. vol. iii. p. 45). Murchana is hei-e rendered according to the passage 
quoted by the Scholiast from a musical treatise. " The ascent and descent of the 
seven notes in due order are called Murchha." There are seven in each octave, 
and consequently twenty-one in the three octaves. 

V. 11. The knowledge of God is attained by completely subduing worldly appetites. 
The discus is Krishna's weapon of offence. 

V. 13. Dhatri is a title of Brahma. Devaki was mother of Krishna. In the 
infernal regions vast serpents, analogous in figure to the common Naga, are supposed 
by Hindu mythology to uphold the world on .their dilated necks. 

Their sensation of Narada's weight as he alighted, is termed by the Scholiast a 
beautiful exaggeration. 

V. 14. Water with rice and grass presented to a guest in an oval vessel is named 
Arghya. It is one of the most auspicious ceremonies at the solemn reception of a 

V. 15. Primeval sage, like primeval being in the preceding verse, is a title of 
Vishnu, applied like all other titles and attributes of that deity, to Krishna. 

V. 16. Kansa was slain by Krishna. The Scholiast cites a passage from Agastya 
where sapphires (if this gem be really meant by the Sanscrit terms Maha Nila and 
Indra Nila) are described as produced in mines in the island of Sinhala or Silan. 

The earth is supposed by Hindu poets and mythologists to be terminated by 
mountains. The Sun rises from behind the eastern range, and sets behind the western. 

V. 18. Narada, like other ascetics, bearsa gourd by way of water-pot; making con- 
tinual pilgrimages he had attached water from every holy river or lake. 

V . 19. In conformity with the opinion of the Scholiast, Jumbu is here taken for the 
fruit of the Eugenia, which when ripe is of a very dark colour ; but Jumbu is also the 
name of a river which flows from the mountain Sumeru. 

V. 20-, The notion of submarine fire may be founded on volcanic phenomena ob- 
served in ancient times. 

Art. III. — On the Geographic Distribution of Birds, but more par- 
ticularly of the European Species ; with a critical examination 
of Mr. Swainson's account. 1 By Wm. Jameson,, Esq., Bengal 
Medical Service. 

The advantages to be derived from a study of the geographic distribu- 
tion of the organic and inorganic kingdoms, as presented to our view 
at the present day, are of the greatest importance, seeing that until 
this subject has been properly examined, that of a former world 
must remain imperfect ; and probably if more attention had been paid 
to it, many of the numerous errors connected with the distribution 
of fossil animals would not have been committed. Lately the foot- 
marks of birds 2 have been discovered in a formation said to be as old 
as the new red sandstone ; and the author, from an examination of 
these marks, has not only been able to point out the genus, but even 
characterise the species. The presumption in doing this, is scarcely 

1 Read to the Wernerian Natural History Society of Edinburgh. 

2 Prof. Hitchcock in Sillim. American Journ. of Science. 

22 On the Distribution of European Birds. [.Jan. 

worthy of attention. Cuvier from an examination of the internal ske- 
leton of birds, declared that it was, in many instances, impossible 
to tell the genus, far less than the species. Let us therefore receive 
with caution such observations, even although they have been consi- 
dered as plausible by several of the leading geologists. 1 We examined 
the casts of those so called foot-marks, in the collection of the Royal 
College of Surgeons of London, 2 but were not at all convinced of 
their ornithological origin, and till we have further evidence than 
such impressions, we would be inclined to argue the contrary; for 
we are as much, or rather more, entitled to infer that they are only 
vegetable impressions. 3 To find the remains of birds in such a for- 
mation as the new red sandstone would invalidate one of the grand 
principles of geology. 

In tracing out the geographic distribution of the animal and ve- 
getable kingdoms, various methods have been adopted. Some authors, 
as Humboldt and Latreille, have attempted to trace them according 
to parallels of longitude and latitude ; others, as Illiger, 4 Fischer, 5 
&c, according to the various Continents — which no doubt is the most 
unobjectionable method ; for we find, that when the former is properly 
examined, it will not stand the test of minute examination, seeing 
that we have in each of the individual Continents great groups entire- 
ly confined, and which have no representatives in any other of the 
other Continents under similar degrees of longitude and latitude, as 
we ought to find, if the views of Humboldt, &c. were correct. 

Till the laws which regulate the distribution of both the organic 
and inorganic kingdoms are explained, such a method can never be 
adopted. We no doubt find secondary causes, such as light, heat, 
moisture, greater or less distribution of water, configuration of the 
land, exercising a powerful influence, which is particularly marked 
out in certain quarters of the globe ; and from authors looking to these 
individual places alone, they have put more stress upon these causes 
than what we are entitled to do. Thus, for example, in Northern 
India, where we find the climate in some places to resemble so much 
the European, we have a large series of quadrupeds, birds, insects, 
plants, &c. either identical with the European, Or undergoing such 
slight modifications, as to entitle them to be considered as mere local 
varieties, or at least the representatives of the European species. 6 

1 Buckland's Bridgewater Treatise. 

2 For liberty to examine these we were indebted to Mr. Owen. 

3 Our reasons for coming to such a conclusion we shall afterwards give. 

4 Abh. d. Akad. d. Wiss. Zu. Berlin. 1806, p. 236 et 1812 a. 13, p. 221. 

5 Synopsis Animalium et Conspect. Distribut. Geographic. 

6 Vigors, Zool. Proc. Pt. i. pp. 7, 22, &c. Gould's Cent, of Birds. Wils. Cab. 
Lib. India, vol. iii. p. 78. Jameson, Wern. Trans, in Ed. New Phil. Jour. 

1 839.] On the Distribution of European Birds. 23 

But although these secondary causes seem to have a certain influ- 
ence in some places, yet that is far from being universal, all appearing 
to be subject to some great principle hitherto undiscovered, and which 
will probably remain for ever so. 

Nor is it alone in the organic kingdom that we find the distribu- 
tion liable to vary from unknown causes. In the mineral kingdom 
we observe phenomena of a similar nature. Thus we find, as has been 
well remarked, " the geographical distribution of minerals to be 
very different from mountain rocks ; we do not find the same species 
everywhere, on the contrary, they seem to have many kinds of distri- 
bution, in this respect approaching more nearly to what we observe in 
the physical arrangement of animals and vegetables on the surface of 
the earth." 7 

It is foreign to our purpose at present to give all the methods which 
have been proposed by Humboldt, Latreille, Fabricius, Swainson, &c. 
in order to point out the erroneous grounds upon which they are based 3 
but shall at present confine our attention to that one most recently 
given, viz. by Swainson ; and as he has entered into some detail, in 
regard to the birds of one of his divisions, allowing us an opportunity 
of refuting his statements, we shall therefore direct particular atten- 
tion to it ; we are the more induced to do so, as no person has 
ventured to point out the erroneous views of this author, which seem 
to have been based upon a few and unsatisfactory data. 

By Mr. Swainson the globe has been divided into a series of zoological 
regions or provinces, denominated, 1st. the European or Caucasian ; 
2d. Asiatic or Mongolian; 3d. the American; 4th. the Ethiopian or 
African ; and, 5th. the Australian or Malay. In the European or 
Caucasian province he includes the whole of Europe properly so called, 
with part of Asia Minor and the shores of the Mediterranean. In Nor- 
thern Africa, he states, the zoological peculiarities of this region begin to 
disappear ; they are lost to the eastward of the Caucasian mountains, 
and are blended with those of Asia and America to the north. 2. The 
Asiatic range comprehends the whole of Asia east of the Ural 
mountains, which form a natural and well defined barrier between 
the two Continents, The chief seat of this zoological region is, he 
states, probably in Central Asia; its western confines blend into 
the European towards Persia, and disappear in the west of the 
Caucasian chain ; it is united to the African range among the provinces 
of Asia Minor, and is again connected with Europe, and also with 
America, by the arctic regions of the three Continents ; finally, its 

7 Jameson, Werner Trans. Annals of Phil. vol. vi, p. 301. 

24 On the Distribution of European Birds. ' £Jan. 

most southern limits are marked by the islands of Java and 
Sumatra, where the zoological characters of the Australian regions 
begin to be apparent. 3. The American province, he states, is uni- 
ted to Europe and Asia at its northern limits, and comprehends 
the whole of the New World, but into which it blends at the 
other extremity is uncertain. 4th. The African province. In it he 
includes the whole of Africa south of the Great Desert ; part, at least, 
of the countries on the Mediterranean exhibits a decided affinity to 
the European range ; while the absence of large animals in Madagas- 
car, and the presence of genera peculiar to New Holland and the 
extreme point of Southern Africa, lead us to the fifth, or Australian 
range. 5. Australian province. Australia, New Guinea, and the 
neighbouring islands, mark its limits in that direction; Australia 
Proper is its chief seat, and it spreads over the whole of the nume- 
rous islands in the Pacific Ocean ; and he moreover remarks, 
whether this province blends with that of America or Europe, re- 
mains for further discovery; but its connexion with Africa and 
Asia has been already intimated. That the zoology of each of the 
individual Continents blend with each other at their junction, 
is a fact that never once has been questioned; but with regard 
to Madagascar forming the connecting link between Australia and 
the African Continent, Mr. Swainson can claim no originality in 
this statement, seeing that it was several years before the publication 
of Mr. Swainson's elaborate work, pointed out by M. Lesson ; 8 and 
it is a remarkable fact that lately several animals considered truly 
African have been detected in New Holland, 9 and, on the other hand, 
several pouched animals, which tribe were supposed to be peculiar to 
New Holland and America, have been discovered in Madagascar. 

The divisions which Mr. Swainson has proposed, appear at first 
sight very plausible ; but when thoroughly inquired into, will not 
bear the test of examination. Thus to arrange under one and the 
same division the Continents of North and South America, Mr. Swain- 
son has taken for granted what nobody has admitted, or can admit, viz. 
that the geographic distribution of birds is subject to the same laws 
as those which regulate man. 10 Upon this argument the whole of 
his divisions seems to be founded, which is quite at variance with all 
that is yet known in regard to the geographic distribution of ani- 
mals. In fact, there is no ground whatever for such an argument ; nor 
have we any evidence whatever, on the other hand, to maintain that 

8 Annal. de Science Nat. 9 Proceedings of Zool. Soc. of London. 
10 The divisions adopted by Mr. Swainson being in accordance with the views of 
Dr Pritchard in regard to the distribution of man. 

1839-3 On the Distribution of European Birds. 25 

man is liable to be influenced by the same physical laws as those 
which act upon the lower animals. 

If we take into consideration the Continents of North and South 
America, we shall find them fully as well, if not better, marked out 
as zoological provinces— at least South America — than any of the 
others enumerated by Mr. Swainson. Thus among the Mammalia 
in South America, we find, the genera Priodon, Apara Encoubertes, 
Dasyprocta Hydrochaerus, Coelogenys, 10 &c. entirely confined ; and 
in regard to the ornithological kingdom, the genera Pipra, Rupicola, 
Alector, Crax, Penelope, Dicholophus, Crotophaga, Rhamphastos, Rhea 
Tanagra, Trochilus, &c. are almost entirely unknown in the Northern 
Continent. No doubt a few extend their migrations as far north 
as Mexico ; and of the family Trochilidce, or Humming-Birds, four 
are found throughout the Continent of North America; two 11 of these 
however must be considered as accidental. One, the Trochilus colubris, 
extends as far north as the 57° or 58° on the west coast, ' 2 it also 
frequents the w r arm plains of Saskatchewan, and Mr. Drummond 
found its nest near the sources of the Elk river. It advances towards 
the north as the season lengthens, and delays its visits to the 
Northern States till the month of May, and still as remarked by 
Nuttal, as if determined that no flower shall blush unseen, or 
waste its sweetness on the desert air, it launches at once on wings 
as rapid as the wind, without hesitation, into the flowery wilderness 
which borders on the arctic circle. 13 Another species, Trochilus rufus, 
first discovered by Captain Cook at Nootka Sound, hence denominated 
the Nootka Sound Humming-Bird, has a much more extensive range, 
having been found by Kotzebue as far north as the 61° parallel of 
latitude on the Pacific coast ; and there are specimens in the Edinburgh 
Royal Museum of the same species from Mexico. Specimens have 
also been observed by Swainson from the same quarter, being killed 
near Real del Monte. In the Trochilus (ornismya) sephanoides, Less. 
we see a similar distribution in the Southern Continent, it having 
been discovered by Captain King at the Straits of Magellan, and 
in honour of whom it has been named the Melisuga Kingii by 
Vigors, 14 although erroneously, for it does not at all differ from 

10 For the different genera of quadrupeds proper to the two continents of America, see 
Illiger. Loc. Cit. Fischer. Loc. Cit., and Richardson's excellent Reporton North Ame- 
rican Zool. in Trans of Brit. Asso. vol. v. for those found- in North America. 

11 Audubon's Amerc. Ornith. 

1.2 Nuttal' s Amerc. Ornith. vol, ii, p. 605 

13 Nut. vol. i.p 585 

14 Zool. Journ 

26 On the Distribution of European Birds. [Jan. 

Lesson's species/ 5 who is quite correct in giving this name as a synonym* 
Lesson's specimen was received from Chili, and in the Edinburgh 
Museum there are several specimens, one of which was received by Pro- 
fessor Jameson from Mexico. The occurrence of Humming-Birds and 
Parrots in such high southern latitudes was long ago pointed out 
by Cook. His observations, however, were called in question, and 
denied by Buffon, but happily found to be quite correct by King. 16 
But are four species, two of which are accidental visiters, to be consi- 
dered equivalent to nearly one hundred which are confined to the 
Continent of South America? 17 The same applies to the Tanagers ; 
for of the three species found in North America, one alone is pro- 
per to it, the other two being also found in South America. The 
species we allude to, are the Tanagra rubra, Lin. and T. astaca Gm. 
Numerous other examples could be given from the families Psittacidce, 
Falconida?, Musicapidce, Tgrannidce, fyc. tending to shew the exclu- 
siveness of the ornithology of South America. Again, when we turn 
our attention to North America,' 8 we find it characterized by certain 
tribes, which however are not so numerous as those of the other Con- 
tinent, but quite sufficient in number to mark it out as provincially 
distinct from South America. But it is not only by the mam- 
malogical and ornithological kingdoms that these Continents are 
so pre-eminently distinguished from each other. In every department 
of animated nature we find similar characters, to notice any of which 
is foreign to our subject at present. But although we have divided 
the Continents of America into but two provinces, yet we believe the 
time is not far distant when the mammology, ornithology, entomo- 
logy, &c. shall be better examined, and more attention paid to the 
individual members of each class ; we shall then instead of two have 
many zoological provinces. For as in the botanical so in the zoologi- 
cal kingdom, we shall no doubt find series of birds, quadrupeds, &c- 
having as their fixed places of abode certain regions of the world, 
beyond which, although a few may migrate, yet upon a careful exa- 
mination, the greater number will be found to be confined. This 
statement is well borne out by the collections which frequently reach 
this country. 

Thus what ornithologist who has paid any attention to the subject 
of the geographic distribution of birds, could not at once distinguish 
a collection from Southern, from one from Western Africa ; or a collec- 

15 Man. Ornith. vol. ii. p. 80. Hist. Nat. des Ois. Mouches, p, 69, 

16 Zool. Joura. 

17 In Mexico a good many species occur. 

18 Richardson Loc. Cit. Faun. Bor. Amer. &c. 

1839.1 On the Distribution of European Birds. 27 

tion from Northern India, from one from Southern India ; or a col- 
lection from the Malayan Peninsula from one from any other part 
of Asia. The same holds true in regard to collections from different 
parts of the American Continents. Moreover, in the Continent of 
Australasia we have an ornithology in the neighbourhood of Port Jack- 
son quite different from that we find at Moreton Bay. Thus the 
Alectura lathami, Gray, 19 found at the latter, is not found in 
the neighbourhood of Port Jackson, its place being there supplied 
by the Menura lyra Sh. or M. Novce Hollandice Lath. It has 
also been shewn by Professor Jameson, that even in some of the 
larger islands we have a zoology quite different from that we 
meet with in the adjoining Continents. Thus he states — In the 
island of Sumatra, which is only a secondary one in point of 
magnitude in the Archipelago of Notasia, we meet with the Ele- 
phant, Rhinoceros, Hippopotamus, &c.,- but the species of animals are 
often different from those in the neighbouring Continents — Thus the 
Rhinoceros of Sumatra is different from that of Asia. Madagascar 
produces many species of snakes, which are found no where else. 
The inhabitants of Van Diemen's Land are very different from those 
of New Holland, and the greater number of mammiferous animals and 
reptiles are specifically different from those met with in the neigh- 
bouring Continents. — That many of the islands of the Indian Archipe- 
lago have a zoology peculiar to themselves, has been proved by the 
researches of Raffles, Horsfield, Sonnerat, Leschenault, Reinwardt, 
pussumier, Duvaucel, Diard, Relanger, Kuhl, &c, all of whom 
have increased our knowledge more or less in regard to them. Nor 
are the islands farther in the south without their own peculiar 
Fauna. Thus we find in New Zealand not only a great many 
species, but even many genera which are found to exist no where 
else. It is here that we meet with that most extraordinary bird the 
Apteryx Australis, first described by Shaw, but whose existence has 
more than once been called in question, 20 although erroneously, as has 
been pointed out by Yarrel. 21 

In New Guinea we also meet with a particular Fauna. It is 
here that we find the splendid group of Paradise Birds. We have 

19 Proc. Zool. Soc. 

20 Lesson Tracte d' Ornith. p» 12. et Man. d' Ornith. vol. ii. p. 210. 

21 Tran. Zool. Soc. vol. i. and Zool. Proceed, pt. i. pp. 24, 80. Of this bird 
there are now several specimens in Europe. In the collection of the Zoological 
Society of London we saw one specimen, in the Liverpool collection there is an im- 
perfect specimen, and we believe that there is a very fine specimen in the collection 
of the Earl of Derby, from which Yarrel drew up his description and made his drawing. 
See Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. i. 

28 On the Distribution of European Birds. [[Jan. 

therefore in our tables more for convenience, or rather till we get 
more information on the subject, arranged the birds under the heads 
of the different Continents, and including all the islands south of 
Java and Sumatra in the Continent of New Holland, adopting the 
term of Australasia. 

Let us now enter more in detail, and trace out some of Mr 
Swainson's so-called zoological provinces. We shall first notice hi& 
European or Caucasian Province. 

In tracing out the geographic distribution of this province, Mr. 
Swainson has divided the birds into a series of groups, or orders, thus 
Hapaces, Grallatores, Natatores, Gallinaceee, Scansores, &c, which we 
shall now notice individually. In regard to the first of these groups^ 
he makes the following statement — iC The rapacious order, next to the 
aquatic tribe, is of all others inhabiting the land the most widely 
spread. This is particularly the case among the nocturnal species. 
It is remarkable that of thirteen different Owls inhabiting Europe, 
six only are peculiar ; and two of these more particularly inhabit the 
arctic regions. Of the rest, four occur in America, two in South- 
ern Africa, and one both in Asia and America. The Falconidce, 
or diurnal birds of prey, in regard to their species, have a more 
restricted distribution than the nocturnal; yet of these, the Eagles 
enjoy no inconsiderable range ; of four discovered in Europe (I here 
use his own words 22 ) one is more properly arctic, three have been 
found in several parts of Africa, and one occurs in America — leaving 
three only to Europe. It is singular, he continues, that those rapacious 
birds which, from the peculiar structure of their wings, have been 
supposed to enjoy the greatest powers of flight among their con- 
geners, should nevertheless have a much more limited range. This 
is proved by the fact, that of eight genuine Falcons inhabiting Europe 
and Northern Africa, two only have been discovered in America, 
It has, however, recently been stated that the Peregrine Falcon of 
Australia is absolutely the same as that of Europe. 23 Upon the whole, 
the distribution of the forty-four European birds of prey appears to 
be thus regulated — three are more properly arctic ; eleven are 
found also in America, two in Asia and Africa, and one in Asia 
and America ; leaving twenty -seven, or more than one half, as 

22 Geography and Classification of Animals, p. 22. See also Murray's Encyclop, 
of Geography, vol. i. 

23 In regard to the identity of the Peregrine Falcon of Europe and Australia there 
can be no dispute. We examined minutely the specimen described by Horsfield and 
Vigors in the Linnaean Trans, now deposited in the Museum of that Society, but 
could not discover one trivial character of difference. For permission to examine it, 
and the collection generally, we were indebted to Prof, Don. 

1839.] On the Distribution of European Birds. 29 

characteristic of European Ornithology." How Mr. Swainson could 
have come to such conclusions, seems to us very remarkable ; not one 
of the statements which he has made, being at all correct. Thus of 
the thirty-five species of diurnal rapacious birds found in Europe and 
comprehended in the genera Vultur, Neophron, Gypaetos, Falco, Aqui- 
la, Halicetus, Pandion, Circcetus, Astur Accipiter, Milvus, Nauclerus, 
Elanus, Pernis, Buteo, Butaetes, and Circus, four are common to 
Europe and Asia ; three common to Europe and Africa ; three 
common to Europe and North America; ten common to Europe, 
Asia, and Africa ; four common to Europe, Asia, and North America ; 
one common to Europe, Africa (?) and North America ; one common 
to Europe, Asia, and Australasia; one common to Europe, North and 
South America ; one common to Europe, Asia, Africa, North and 
South America ; and three (?) cosmopolite, or found in all the 
different Continents of the world ; leaving only four species proper 
to Europe, or in the proportion of 1 to 8|, and it is even doubtful at 
present whether all the four species are confined to Europe. But 
Mr. Swainson has marked out in a particularly prominent manner 
the genera of Falcons and Eagles, properly so called, in order to shew 
that the distribution of birds is not in an equal ratio with their 
powers of flight — a statement no doubt quite correct ; but he has 
been very unfortunate in his illustrations, for among all the tribes 
of European birds, the Falcons and Eagles possess a most extensive 
distribution. Thus of the nine species of Falcons (one or two of 
which seem to be only occasional European visitants), two alone are 
proper to Europe ; three common to Europe and Asia ; one common to 
Europe and Africa; one common to Europe and North America ; 
one common to Europe, Asia, and North America ; and one common 
to Europe, Asia, Africa, Australasia, North and South America. 21 

That the maxim, as the powers of flight so is the distri- 
bution, is not correct, many instances could be given ; and in no 
tribe have we a stronger evidence to the contrary than in the Ballidce, 
seeing that they exist in the western hemisphere, so far north as 
Hudson's Bay, and in the eastern, as far south as the Sandwich 
islands, having thus a range of about 105° of latitude, and nearly 
280° of longitude ; and it is well known that the powers of flight in this 

24 Ch. Luc. Bonaparte, in his Catalogue of American and European Birds, gives a 
new name to the Osprey of America; upon what grounds we know not. Gould in his 
work on the Birds of New Holland, now publishing, has described the Osprey of that 
quarter as a new species, to do which he is not at all entitled, there being no characters 
whatever presented to mark them as specifically distinct. In the Ed. Museum 
there is one specimen from New Holland, agreeing in every character with specimens, 
killed in Europe. The same remarks apply to the American species. 

30 On the Distribution of European Birds. , £Jan. 

tribe is not at all well developed, at least to such a degree as to account 
for its extensive distribution. Nor does this remark apply to this group 
alone, many other examples, if it were necessary, could be given. In 
regard to the Eagles, Mr. Swainson's statements are equally in- 
accurate. Thus of the nine Eagles included in the genera Aquila, 
Halketus, Pandion, and Circaetus, two are common to Europe, Asia, 
and Africa ; one common to Europe and North America ; one common 
to Europe and Asia ; one common to Europe and Africa ; two 
common to Europe, Africa, and North America; one cosmopolite ; 
leaving only one proper to Europe; for it seems not at all improbable, 
that the Aquila imperialis will be found extending throughout the 
African Continent. 20 Moreover it may be stated as a general rule, that 
in whatever families we observe a large series of modifications, 
there we have a wide distribution. This is strikingly the case in 
the Falconidce, Anatidce, Sylviadce, Muscicapidce, Columbidce, 
Fringillidce, Laridce, Turdidce, Laniadce, &c. Nor is this rule 
confined to the ornithological kingdom ; we have a similar arrange- 
ment exhibited in the mammalogical, as well as in many of the other 
kingdoms of the organic world ; and when we direct our attention to 
the inorganic, we can trace out a similar arrangement. Thus in 
those families in the mineral kingdom in which the physical and 
external characters are very various, in them we find a most extensive 
distribution, as is well exemplified by the quartz, calcareous spar, 
and garnet families, modifications of which occur in every formation, 
from the oldest up to the newest ; in every climate, from the inhos- 
pitable regions of Melville island to the tropics, and in all the inter- 
mediate spaces ; and, on the other hand, from the tropics as far south 
as 70°, and also at all heights and depths yet attained by man, 
viz. from 20,000 feet above, to 1600 feet below, the level of the sea. 26 
In regard to the nocturnal birds of prey, comprehended in the genera 
Strix, Bubo, Otus, Scops, Surnia, Uhda, Syrnium, and Noctua, we 
have the following statement to make, which is quite at variance with 
that given by Swainson. Thus of the fifteen Owls found in Europe, 
three only are proper to it, one of these doubtful; common to 

25 Mr. Gray, m General Harclwicke's Work on Indian Zoology has figured a bird 
under this name, which however is quite a different species. The specimens noticed 
in the Asiatic Society's Journal for November, 1838, as varieties of the Aquila chrys- 
aetos by Dr. Evans, are quite different birds ; in fact they do not belong to the genus 
Aquila at all, being characteristic specimens of the genus Halicetus. The bird is a 
new species, and the only other specimen we have seen is in the collection of 
the Zoological Society, London. 

26 Jameson's manuscript Lectures on Miner, see also Man. and Syst. of Mineralogy. 

1839. j On the Distribution of European Birds. 31 

Europe and Asia, two; to Europe, Asia, and Africa, two; to Europe and 
North America, five ; to Europe, Asia, North and South America, 
one ; to Europe, Asia, Africa, and North America, one ; to Europe, 
Australasia, and North America, one; thus leaving a proportion of 
1 to 5 ; and from these statements it appears evident that the noc- 
turnal birds of prey do not possess such a wide distribution as the 
diurnal, as stated by Swainson. 

But Mr. Swainson in summing up his observations gives, as 
already stated, 27 species as peculiar to the European or Caucasian 
province — a number four times larger than we from a most careful 
and extensive examination have made it; the number being only seven, 
and it is even doubtful whether all these are peculiar to this so called 
zoological region or province. 

Having now finished our analysis of the distribution of the Rapa- 
cious order, we shall now proceed to another of Mr. Swainson's 
divisions, viz. the Gallinacece, whose distribution we shall follow out 
in a similar manner. " On looking," 27 says he, u to the whole number 
of our Gallinacece, we find twenty seven species, fourteen of which 
have their metropolis in Europe ; the remainder are thus dispersed— 
five extend to Western Asia; five to the confines of the great African 
Desert ; two are dispersed over Central Asia and Africa ; whilst two 
occur in North America." In the above statements Mr. Swainson 
differs very considerably from our examination ; at least it is difficult 
to understand what he has included in his Gallinacece, for to make 
up the number of species we must include the genera Columba, 
Tetrao, Bonasia, Lagopus, Pterocles, Francolinus, Perdix, Cotnr- 
nix, Hemipodius, Otis, Cursorius, and Glareola, comprehended under 
which we have twenty-seven species ; of course leaving out the Tetrao 
rupestris, a doubtful species, and which has only been met with in 
Europe once or twice. Nor do we include the Phasianus colchicus, 
an imported species. We however comprehend the Tetrao hytridus™ 
considered erroneously by some naturalists as a hybrid between the 
Tetrao urogallus and the Tetrao tetrix, it presenting many characters 
to mark it out as a distinct and well marked species. Of the twenty 
seven species found in Europe, five are common to Europe and Asia ; 
three common to Europe and North America ; one or two(?) common 
to Europe and Africa; and four common to Europe, Asia and Africa; 
thus leaving fourteen proper to Europe, or in the proportion of nearly 1 
to 1 ; and of these, one alone is peculiar to the British islands, which is 

27 Loco. Citato, p. 23. 

28 Yarrel, Proc. Zool. Soc. Gould's Birds of Europe. 

32 On the Distribution of European Birds. [Jan, 

rather curious, it being the only bird which is so. Moreover the manner 
in which Mr. Swainson has traced the distribution of this tribe is 
much to be questioned, it appearing to us a more plausible than real 
one, many of his statements no doubt being founded on the peculiarity 
of the country ; at least we are not at all aware of any thing being 
stated by any author which would authorize him to make such state- 
ments, and he makes no mention of being guided by personal examina- 
tions, which he no doubt would have done had he travelled in these 
regions, seeing that there is no individual more ready to inform us 
of the extent of his travels 

In regard to his next division, we have the following statement — 29 
" The Swallow-like birds, Fissirostres" says he, " are well known by 
capturing their food on the wing, and by, their migratory habits ; only 
one, the common or European Kingfisher, being stationary. Hence it 
is, that most of the European species occur in other regions ; the pro- 
portion of those which appear confined to Northern Africa is as 1 to 
3." He does not give any more details in regard to the Fissiros- 
tres, leaving his readers to fill up the rest by their own imagination. 
In his proportional number of species he is not correct. Thus of the 
fourteen included in the genera Hirundo, Caprimulgus, Merops, 
Coracias, Alcedo, three are probably confined to Europe ; and of the 
others, three are proper to Europe and Asia ; to Europe and Africa, 
three ; to Europe, Asia, and Africa, three ; to Europe, Africa, and 

North America, one ; and to Europe, Asia, Africa, and North Ame- 

rica (?) one ; thus leaving a proportion of 1 to 3^ ; but as many of the 

species, as stated by Mr. Swainson, of this order are migratory, it ren- 
ders the proportional number very doubtful : at least it is very liable 
to vary. 

In regard to the Scansores, Mr. Swainson states their number to be 
fifteen, including probably the genera Ficus, Apternus, Yunz, Sitta, 
Certhia, Tichodroma, Upupa, and Cuculus, eight of which he states are 
confined to Europe ; and as for the distribution of the other seven, as 
in the Fissirostres, he gives us no information. The number of species 
however is eighteen, and of these eleven are proper to Europe ; two 
common to Europe and North America ; three common to Europe 
and Asia ; one common to Europe, Asia, and Africa ; and one., the 
Wryneck (Yunxtorquilla) common to Europe, Asia, and North Ame- 
rica, which was many years ago pointed out. 30 Whether all of the 
above ten species are proper to Europe, is at present a question, owing 

29 Loc. Cit. p. 24. 
(0 Jam. ISdin. New Phil Jour, and Tames Wilson's Quart. Rev 

1839.] On the Distribution of European Birds. 33 

to the near approximation of several species from Northern India, 
which still require further examination ; and before the point can be 
settled, a large series of specimens will require to be examined. In 
the Indian Creeper (Certhia vitticaud a, Jam.) Jl and Indian Nuthatch, 
(Sitta Himalehensisf* although we have many characters in common 
with the European, yet still there are many others entitling us to con- 
sider them as specifically distinct. The occurrence of the former 
species in Northern India was a most interesting discovery, pointing 
out that the genus Certhia is more widely distributed than was 
originally imagined. In several of the Woodpeckers of Northern and 
Southern India we have also a great similarity with the European spe- 
cies, and in fact so remarkable, as to cause several of the more recent 
writers to consider them as identical. 

In noticing the Crow and Starling families ( Cor vidce and StumidceJ 
Mr. Swainson has made some most extraordinary statements. Thus 
he states that not only several species, but even peculiar genera are 
left to characterise this portion of the world. To us this is quite unin- 
telligible. Species we have, we will admit, but as for genera in this 
group peculiar to Europe, there are none ; and even among the whole 
birds of this so called province, there is not one genus peculiar to it, 
if we except one or two among the Sylviadce, whose generic characters 
however must be called in question ; and even if they should latterly 
be found to be correct, it would give but little more weight to Mr. 
Swainson ; for there is no group hitherto more neglected, and of which 
our knowledge is so imperfect, than the Sylviadce. 

For many years, no doubt, the genera Cindus™ and Nucifraga 
were supposed to be confined to Europe ; but species belonging to the 
former have been found in North America and Northern India ; and 
in regard to the latter, we have one species occurring in Northern 
India, considered erroneously by some authors as identical with the 
European — it is the Nucifraga hemispila of Vigors. We shall after- 

31 This bird has received other two names. It has been described by Vigors as the 
Certhia Himalayana, Proc. Zool. Soc. Pt. i. p. 174, and by Swainson as the Certhia 
Asiatica, Anim. Menag. p. 353. 

32 Jard. and Selb. Zool. Illust. 

33 The distribution of the Dippers stands thus — In Europe we have two species, 
one proper, the other being also found in Northern India. In America N. and S. (? ) 
osie species (Cinclus Americanus). The new species described by Bonaparte is 
the above. Audubon, since the above was written, informed us that he had receiv- 
ed two new Cincli and a true Nucifraga from the Rocky mountains, the latter 
however had been long before described as a Corvus. Brehm has described a third 
species under the name of Cinclus melanog aster } it however appears to me to be a 
mere variety of the Cinclus aquaticus. 


34 On the Distribution of European Birds. QJan. 

wards notice the European genera in regard to their distribution, but 
in the mean time shall confine our attention to the distribution 
of the species. In regard to the species included in the genera 
Corvus, Sturnus, &c. Mr. Swainson states their number at twenty- 
one found in Europe, thirteen of which, or more than one half, 
habitually reside ; four occur in Northern and Central Africa ; one 
common to Europe, Asia, and Africa; and three found in America. 
Nor are the above statements even in regard to the species cor- 
rect. Thus of the seventeen species, for we cannot make out 
more, included in the genera Corvus fregilus, Pyrrhocorax gar- 
rulus, Nucifraga, Pastor, and Sturnus, six are proper to Europe ; 
four common to Europe and Asia ; one common to Europe and Africa ; 
three common to Europe, Asia, and Africa; two common to Europe, 
Asia, and North America ; and one common to Europe, Asia, Aus- 
tralasia (?) and North America. We mark Australasia with an inter- 
rogation, for the occurrence of the Corvus corone in that Continent 
seems doubtful. It is upon the authority of M. Lesson, 34 that we make 
the statement ; who, however, we rather think has confounded with it 
a nearly allied, but quite distinct species. M. T'emminck 35 has also in his 
Catalogue of the Birds of Japan given the Garrulus glandarius, and 
marks it as the Japanese variety, which it undoubtedly ought only to 
be considered, for the characters which it presents vary so little from 
those of the European, and are of such a trivial nature. It is not to 
be confounded with the Garrulus bispecularis of Vigors, 36 a well- 
marked species, also presenting a close affinity to the European, it 
however is confined to Northern India. In the Garrulus melanoceph- 
aim, Bon. 37 we have another species presented, bearing a close 
affinity to the European, but it not only differs in several characters, 
but also, like the two Indian species, has a quite different distribu- 
tion, representing in its locality the common Garrulus glandarius?* 

34 Ann. de Sci. Nat. 

35 Man. d' Ornith. vol. iii. Introd. 

36 Proceed. Zool. Soc. Pt. i. p. 7. Gould's Cent. 

37 Gen. Mem. of the Acad, of Turin, vol. xxxvii. p. 298. 

38 Strickland on the Birds of Asia Minor. Proc. of Zool. Pt. iv. p. 97. 

(To be Continued.) 

1839.] On a new Genus of the Fissirostral Tribe. 35 

Art. IV. — On a new Genus of the Fissirostral Tribe. By B. H. 
Hodgson, Esq. Catamandu. 

[Note by the Editors. — This and the following paper were transmitted to the late 
Editor more than two and a half years back, and were acknowledged at the time, 
though by some accident afterwards mislaid. The expert ornithologist will perceive 
that Mr. H's. genus Ray a is equivalent to the Psarisoma of Swainson, and the 
Crossodera of Gould ; but, by referring to dates, it will be seen that Mr. H. was the 
first person to characterise this new form, of which he has given two species.] 

Dentirostres todidce, Swainson. — Fissirostres todidce, Vigors.— 
Syndactyles, Cuvier. 

Genus — new, Rdya nobis. Species two, new, Sericeogula and 
Hubropygia. Rai and Rai Suga of the Nipalese. Habitat, Central 
and lower regions. 

These singular birds might be considered with almost equal pro- 
priety as the Dentirostral type of the Fissirostres, or the Fissirostral 
type of the Dentirostres. 

Swainson would regard them in the latter light; Vigors in the 
former; Cuvier would probably have placed them with hesitation 
among his Syndactyly. They seem to me to be compounded of Ti- 
tyra and Eurylaimus — two parts of the latter, and one of the former. 

The bill is shorter, broader, more arched along the culmen, less 
suddenly hooked, as well as more deeply cleft in the head than in 
Tityra ; it is longer, and more covered by those frontal plumes 
which entirely conceal the nares, than in Eurylaimus. The nos- 
trils have exactly the same character as in Tityra, but they are 
considerably more advanced, being nearer to the tip than to the gape. 
The wings agree in their gradation with those of Tityra, but they 
are shorter and feebler than in that genus, or in Eurylaimus ; and 
in, consonance probably with this feebler structure of the wing is the 
elongation and extreme gradation of the tail of our birds, a feature 
in which they differ alike from Tityra and from Eurylaimus. 

The feet of the Rayae, like their bills, more nearly resemble those 
of Eurylaimus than those of Tityra ; and whilst they differ from 
both genera by the smoothness of the acrotarsia, they depart from 
their otherwise strict correspondences with the feet of the former 
genus by the essential circumstance of a more restricted junction 
between the toes. In Eurylaimus the exterior toe is united to the 
end of the second phalanx, the interior, to the end of the first. This, 
the typical syndactyle structure, is only half developed in Rdya; 
the connexion between whose lateral fore toes reaches forward only 
to the middle of the respective joints. 

36 On a new Genus of the Fissirostral Tribe, [[Jan. 

With these preliminary remarks we shall proceed to characterise 
the genus or sub-genus Raya, thus — 

Bill shaped as in Eurylaimus , but equal to the head, or longer, 
and having the soft frontal zone more produced, and concealing the 
nares ; orbits nude ; head large and crested ; gape very wide and 
smooth ; wings scarcely exceeding the base of the tail, rather feeble ; 
the third and fourth quills longest and equal; the first and second, 
very slightly gradated ; the primaries plus the tertiaries by about half 
an inch. 

Tarsi longer than central digit, slender, smooth, more or less plu- 
mose; toes and nails as in Eurylaimus exactly, but the connexion 
of the lateral fore toes reaching only to the centre of the second and 
first phalanges respectively; tail elongated, firm, conspicuously and 
equally gradated throughout ; tongue short, flat, triangular, sub- 
fleshy ; the tip pointed, cartilaginous, and sub-bifid or sub-jagged. In 
manners, and food assimilating with Troy on, and with Rucia (nobis). 

1st. Species. Sericeogula. Silken-throated Ray, nobis. Parrot- 
green, changing into verditer blue below ; head and neck, superiorly, 
black ; inferiorly, silken yellow ; a narrow band of the latter co- 
lour circling round the brows, and bottom of the neck, so as to enclose 
the black colour ; a blue spot on the crown, and top of the back, and 
a yellow one behind each ear ; tail, and external edge of the pri- 
maries blue ; wings and tail, internally, jet black ; orbitar skin yel- 
low ; iris hoary brown ; bill lively green ; legs dull greenish or yel- 
lowish ; crest vague ; tail considerably elongated, and wedged ; the 
gradation equal, and complete ; tarsi plumed at top only ; 11 inches 
long by 13 wide, and 2^ oz in weight ; bill \\ inch; tail 5| ; tarsus 

1 \ ; central toe j>> and nail «,; hind toe, j^? and nail j* g . Sexes 

2nd. Species. Rubropygia. Red-rumped Ray a, nobis. Structure 
less typical ; colour slatey grey blue ; lower part of the back, tertia- 
ries, and upper tail coverts, red ; wings, tail, tibiae, and a band from 
the eyes to the nape, black; primaries with a blue speculum, and 
blue tips ; the latter margined on the inner side with white ; rec- 
trices, except the two central ones, broadly tipt with white ; head con- 
spicuously crested ; tail shorter, and rather rounded than wedged ; 
tarsi half plumed ; bill soft blue ; iris brown ; orbitar skin, orange ; 
feet greenish ; size 7 to 7i inches by 10^ to 11 , and 1^ to 1J oz ; bill 

14 inch ; tail 3J ; tarsus 15 : central toe 11 ; hind toe j>. Sexes 
16 ft 16 16 


Nepal, May, 1836 







^ : 



























1839.] Two new species of Meruline Birds. 3J 

Art. V Description of two new Species of a new form of Meru- 
line Birds. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq. Catamandu. 

Merulidce philedones, Cuvier. — Merulidce crater opodince f Swain- 
son. — Tenuirostres meliphagidce, Vigors. 

Genus — new, Sibia nobis. Sibya of the Nipalese. Habitat. Lower 
and central regions of the hills. 

What shall we say to a Meruline form compounded of the bill and 
tongue of Chloropsis, the nares of Cinnyris, and the wings, tail, and 
feet of Cinclosoma ? for such is the general, though not the precisely 
accurate, indication of the form I am about to describe. 

Cuvier has separated from the promiscuous heap of the Meruline 
Birds a group which he tells us is distinguished from the Merles by 
a slenderer, sharper, and more arched bill, and by a brushed tongue. 
To this Cuvierian group my birds unquestionably belong; but the 
group itself is so large, and its contents have been so little accurately 
ascertained, that small way is made to a definite conclusion by the 
determination of that point. There are a vast number of the aberrant 
Thrushes, both short legged and long, which closely approximate by 
the bill and tongue towards the Tenuirostres ; but I am nevertheless 
of opinion that these relations are of secondary, not primary, importance. 
The birds in question are Thrushes, as Cuvier considered them to 
be; but whether or not they can be, most of them, ranged with 
propriety among the Brachypodinai and Crateropodince of Swainson, 
I know too little of his general system to enable me to judge. 

It may serve to illustrate the character of our birds to say, that they 
appear to me to belong to the latter sub-family, serving in many res- 
pects to link together the two. Mr. Swainson considers the long- 
legged Thrushes to be equivalent to the Tenuirostral Promeropidce. It 
is certainly remarkable that in one of our species we have the long; 
broad, and gradated tail of Promerops. 

Genus — Sibia nobis. 

Generic character — Bill and tongue as in Chloropsis ; but the bill 
more depressed and more keeled towards the base; and the tongue 
forked as well as brushed. Nares basal, lateral, elongated, pervious, 
lunated, and almost lineated by a large, soft, sub-arched and nude 

Nareal bristles, none ; rictal, small ; frontal plumes smooth ; wings, 
medial, round, acuminate, firm ; fifth and sixth quills longest ; first 
and second considerably, third and four trivially, gradated ; primaries 
plus tertiaries nearly one inch; tarsi elevate, stout, nearly smooth; toes 
submedial, simple, stout ; fores compressed, hind depressed and large ; 

38 Two new Species of Meruline Birds. [J 


lateral fores and hind subequal, last strongest ; nails stout, moderately 
curved, acute ; tail various, as in Promerops or in Cinclosoma. 

Species 1st. Pieaotdes. Pie-like Sibia mihi. Saturate slatey-blue ; 
palen and greyer below ; darker and merging into black on the wings 
and tail; speculum on the secondaries, and tips of the rectrices, 
white ; legs plumbeous ; bill black ; iris sanguine ; tail very long, and 
gradated conspicuously and equally throughout ; head not crested ; 14 
inches long and as many wide; bill \\ inch; tarsus \\; central toe 

f ; hind toe 9 ; its nail Z > ta ^ ®i > weight 1 \ to 1 f oz. Sexes alike. 

16 „ 16 

Species 2nd. Nig?'iceps. Black-capt Sibia mihi. Rusty, with the en- 
tire cap and the wings and tail, internally, black; central wing coverts 
white toward their bases, slatey toward their tips ; outer webs of the 
primaries slatey-grey; of the secondaries and tertiaries, slatey; the 
last, rusty, like the body; two central rectrices con-colorous with the 
body towards it, then black; the rest wholly black, and all with 
broad slatey points ; bastard wing black ; legs fleshy brown ; bill 
black ; iris brown ; tail moderately elongated, gradated only in the 
six laterals ; head with a full soft garruline crest ; outer web of the 
secondaries rather enlarged, discomposed, and curled downwards ; 
size 8^ to 9 inches, by 10| to 11, and 1^ oz. in weight ; bill 1 inch; 

tarsus 1 5 ; central toe 10, and nail 4 ; hind toe Z, and nail j> ; tail 

16 16 16 16 16 

4J. Sexes alike. 

3rd. Species. Nipalensis, nobis. Described already as a Cinclosoma* 
and forming a singular link of connexion between the Cinclosomos 
and the Sibioe. I postpone what I have to say upon the habits and 
manners of these birds to a future opportunity ; at present it must 
suffice to observe, that they are indissolubly linked to the Merulidw 
by the nature of their food and manner of taking it. 

Nepaul May, 1836. 

Art. VI. — On the Egyptian system of Artificial Hatching. By 
Don Sinbaldo Demas. 

Several unfruitful attempts have been made in different parts of 
Europe since the labours of Reaumur to introduce the artificial mode 
of hatching eggs. In some parts chickens have been brought forth 
which have not propagated ; in others, for instance in Aranjuez, 
instead of chickens, hard eggs have been made. Notwithstanding 
these failures, being persuaded that they proceeded rather from igno- 
rance on the part of the experimentalist than from any real or insuper- 
1 Note.— As Soc. Transac. Phy. Class., vol, xix. p. 143. 

1839.] On the Egyptian system of Artificial Hatching. 39 

able obstacle in the nature of the country where the experiments 
were performed, since my arrival in Egypt I determined to study in 
person minutely all the proceedings, without trusting to accounts 
which would always leave me uncertain of the truth. The enterprize 
was by no means an easy one. Few in Egypt possess the art, and 
those few make a secret of it. Besides, this first difficulty vanquish- 
ed, so much patience and perseverance is necessary to remain for 21 
days in an oven at 34° of Reaumur, full of the pestiferous smoke of 
burning dung — contending incessantly with the stupidity and pre- 
judices of the Arabs, who always suspect some sinister motive, 
and to every thing oppose difficulties, (believing, among a thousand 
other follies, that the thermometer warms t^ie room in which it is intro- 
duced,) — that no traveller before me, that I am aware of, has examined 
the matter in a satisfactory manner, or has given a circumstantial 
description of it. Nevertheless, my intimacy with my countryman 
Gaityany Bey, who rendered me every facility which the Government 
could oifer, my knowledge of the vulgar Arabic language, and my con- 
stitution of the south of Europe, enabled me to overcome all the 
obstacles which hitherto embarrassed all Europeans who attempted 
to investigate this subject. 

Before entering on a description of the process, I will stop 
a moment to shew that the artificial hatching, practised from time 
immemorial in Egypt, is not only a curious fact, but an eminently 
useful one ; since it facilitates with surprising rapidity the reproduction 
and abundance of the fowl, as well as the egg ; both of which may be 
reckoned among the most pleasing and salutary articles of food for man. 
The operation is carried on in an oven, generally composed of eight 
divisions or cells. In each of them 6000 eggs are hatched every 21 
days, for the space of 3 J or 4 months. It is admitted that Egypt con- 
tains more than 200 of these ovens. Deducting one quarter of the 
eggs which may be lost, we shall see that this artificial hatching gives 
37^ millions of chickens in one thirct of the year ; which again must 
produce an immense number of eggs, 1 Thus it happens that al- 
though latterly the price of all provisions has been doubled in that 
country, I have bought in Upper Egypt one egg for half a para, and 
the best fowl for a piastra. 2 It is to be considered also, that the 
power of establishing these ovens is given by Government to the 
highest bidder; and that from this circumstance a considerable re- 
venue is received, which cannot fail to raise the price of the article. 

1 In the Encyclopaedia Britannica the number of ovens is stated to be 360 ; 
and the chickens produced 92 millions ; which I think at least in the present day 
is a very exaggerated calculation. 

2 One Company's rupee=10 piastras< 1 piastra=40 paras. 

40 On the Egyptian system of Artificial Hatching. [Jan. 

To produce 274 millions of chickens without artificial heat, at least 
two millions of productive hens would be required in the space of 
four months ! 

The artificial mode of hatching does not oppose any obstacle to 
the natural one, since a hen born by means of the oven, or under the 
wings of the mother, at every season of the year can as well in Egypt 
as in any other country cover and hatch its own eggs. 

One great inconvenience has been attributed to this method — it is 
said that the fowl degenerates, and consequently its egg. 

This opinion originated in observing that the fowl of Egypt is ge- 
nerally smaller than that of Europe. The fact is true ; but I can by no 
means agree that it is the consequence of artificial hatching. It is to 
be considered, 1st, That in Egypt several animals are of smaller size 
than those of other countries. 2d, That the artificial hatching consist- 
ing only in applying to the egg the same degree of heat that it 
might receive under the hen, without changing any of the natural 
operations, the number of days which it employs in vivifying it, &c. 
there is no plausible reasons to suppose that the chicken does not 
under this process attain its natural size. 3d, That there is in some 
parts of Upper Egypt a large kind of fowl called bigany or dinderany, 
and its eggs placed in the oven produce fowls equal in size to the 
mother. 4th, and to me the most convincing argument of all — if the 
action of fire could so reduce the fruit of the egg during its develop- 
ment, other circumstances being the same, the same cause must continue 
to operate every year, and small as this annual diminution may be 
considered in the number of ages that this method has been practised, 
(we find artificial egg hatching mentioned by Herodotus,) the fowl 
of Egypt ought to be reduced by this time to the size of a fly 
at least. Lastly, even admitting the hypothesis of degeneration, we 
must admit that the decrement has operated in a very- slow and 
imperceptible manner. This diminution being so inconsiderable, can 
by no means neutralize the beneficial results of artificial hatching. 

The economy and benefit that this method is capable of diffusing 
among those who practise it being sufficiently demonstrated, I wili pro- 
ceed to give a circumstantial narrative of all the steps of the opera- 
tion, as I have seen it practised in the ovens established in Ghisa, 
a suburb of Cairo, situated upon the right shore of the Nile. 

The building is composed of a corridor with vaulted roof 40 feet 
long and 5 broad (A B C D, fig. 1st) The vaulted roof has five small 
apertures to give light. In the centre, to the right hand, there is a 
door of 3J feet high and 2± broad (E, fig. 1st) ; this leads to another 
corridor (F G II I ; fig. 1st) 48 feet long by 5 broad, also with vaulted 

1839.] On the Egyptian system of Artificial Hatching. 41 

roof, in the centre of which there are three apertures (J K L, fig. 2nd) 
of nine inches in diameter, to give light from above ; to the right and 
left hand of the corridor there are five divisions or cells of two stoves. 
Each inferior room or stove has an aperture of 1 J feet square (M, fig. 
2nd). The superior room has another aperture above of two feet five 
inches in height, and one foot nine inches broad (N, fig. 3rd) ; it has 
also an aperture of one foot square in the wall of the right hand, and 
another of equal size in the left, which I have seen constantly 
stopped up with tow (d, fig. 4th). The walls of the said upper stove 
begin rectangular from the ground, finish in a vault of 6J feet 
high (O, figs. 3rd and 4th), with a hole in the top of nine inches 
diameter (P, figs. 3rd and 4th). The ground of this room is nine 
feet long and eight broad (X Z V U, fig. 5th) and has in its breadth, 
that is to say in the same direction with the corridor, two grooves 
(Q Q, R R, fig. 5th.) of nine inches broad and two deep, and in the 
centre an aperture almost round of two feet in diameter (S, fig. 5th). 
The first room entering to the right hand is destined to keep a 
fire always kindled ; it has only one stove, and its door is larger 
than the others (T, fig. 2nd). The first room to the left hand 
has no hole in the ground of the upper stove, but only a fissure 
of two feet, which separates the ground from the interior of the wall, 
to which it is notwithstanding united by several iron bars in the 
form of an oblique grate, (b, fig. 6th.) In this cell the materials 
destined for combustion are thrown through the hole in the top. 
They pass through the grate as through a sieve, and are taken away 
by the inferior aperture to be transported to the opposite cell which 
contains the magazine of fire. 

There are, lastly, to the left hand of the exterior corridor two rooms 
15 feet square, with vaulted roofs of 12 feet high, with an aperture 
in the top ; they are intended for the preparation of eggs, as well as a 
place for chickens recently born, &c. (f and g, fig. 1st). 

The material for constructing the oven, is the same employed 
generally in Egypt for the houses of the peasants ; that is to say, 
mud mixed with straw. The vaults are constructed with burnt 
bricks. The ground which divides the cell in two stoves is sustained 
upon two trunks of palm trees parallel to the corridor, and a bed 
of branches of the same tree supported by the said trunks. Upon 
this entablature is spread the mud which forms the ground whereon 
the fire is placed. 

A little straw or tow is prepared on the ground of the inferior 
room ; upon it a mat is placed, and upon the mat 6000 


42 On the Egyptian system of Artificial Hatching. *g* [Jan 

which are not more than twenty-one days old, taken from a hen-yard 
in which there is a cock. 

For combustibles the dry dung of animals is used, which the 
Arabs reduce to small pieces with their hands ; this material they 
call y^^Aj (di?ns). In the first room to the right hand two pyra- 
mids of burning dims are formed, covered with common earth. 
The dims must take fire slowly, without making a flame. It is 
taken up with a fire shovel, put on to a plate of baked earth, and 
afterwards placed in the grooves (Q Q, R R, fig. 5th) which have 
been first half-filled with cold dims. Again a little dims is placed 
upon the burning portion, and upon the whole a little earth is strewed. 
The burning dims which is taken from the magazine is continually 
replaced with an equal quantity of cold material. 

On the morning of the day destined to begin the operation the 
fire is placed in the cell to warm it, and at sunset the 6000 eggs are 
disposed in the manner explained. The fire is renewed three times 
a day — at dawn, at midday, and at sunset ; there is however no 
very religious exactitude observed in this. If the fire put on in the 
evening is yet alive at the dawn of the subsequent day, it is. left, 
and is not renewed till midday. In one instance, which I saw, 
being ready about 12 o'clock to put on the fresh fire, a quarrel hap- 
pened, and it was not put on till 3 o'clock. At sunset it was not re- 
newed, and this dims lasted till the dawn of the subsequent day. 

When the new fire is put on, the door of the superior stove is left 
open, also the hole of the vault, and if the fire is too strong, even the 
small door of the inferior stove. The aperture in the ground of the 
superior stove is always covered, as well as the two apertures in 
the walls to the right and left hand. When the heat begins to 
miti'gate and the smoke to disappear, all the small doors of the inferior 
stove are stopped up, afterwards the hole at the top of the vault, and 
lastly the door of the superior stove, which is not generally stopped. 
The doors of all these apertures are merely handsful of tow for each. 
When the fire is recent, and the heat at its greatest strength, the ther- 
mometer marks 33° or 34° of Reaumur. When the fire is extinct, and 
before it is renewed, the heat is 30° sometimes as low as 29°.* Six or 

* Reaumur. Fahrenheit. Centigrade. 
24 = 86 = 30 
28 = 95 = 35 
32 =104 = 40 
36 =113 = 45 

1839.] On the Egyptian system of Artificial Hatching. 43 

seven times every twenty-four hours the operation that I am going 
to describe is practised. 

A man entirely naked enters by the door (N, fig. 2nd) ; he 
either carries a light in his hand or he opens the hole of the 
vault to procure light; he opens also the round hole in the centre 
of the ground, and comes down through it to the inferior stove. 
He carries all the eggs placed on the side V fig. 7th to the side U ; 
and those of the side U to the side V. The eggs placed under the 
central hole are found sensibly colder than those placed at V and U, 
and these latter not so warm as those of the sides X and Z. Generally 
they are heaped toward the corners. This operation is very neces- 
sary not only to apply the heat to all the points of the egg, but to 
apply it in the same proportion to all the eggs, so that development 
may not be effected sooner in one than in another. This removing 
of the eggs is performed during the day, and several times during the 
night. Thus the affair proceeds till the 7th day. On this day, as on 
the 8th, the whole of the groove before the door R R, fig. 5th, is not 
filled with fire, but only 2 or 2£ feet near the entrance. By these 
means the heat is diminished gradually ; and during these two days 
the thermometer at its greatest height marks only 32° or 31° of Reau- 
mur. . After the 8th day fire is no longer placed in the room. We should 
naturally expect that the cell unprovided with fire would return to the 
natural temperature of the surrounding air, but it is not so. We have 
already said that in the oven there are eight cells destined to the 
process of hatching. Three or four days after that on which the eggs have 
been put in the first room, they are placed in the second, and so on 
successively. The consequence is, that though one or two cells may be 
without fire, the others contain it ; besides which fire is always burning 
in the chambers wherein the fuel is prepared, the door of which is 
never stopped, while its temperature ranges from 36° to 38°. All these 
fires produce a degree of heat which diffuses itself through the whole 
building, and maintains even in those rooms which are without fires 
a temperature varying from 27° to 27|°. On the 14th day another 
operation is performed. Half the eggs are left in the inferior room 
(fig. 8th) and the other half are brought to the upper one upon a cir- 
cular bed of tow (fig. 9th) ; in this way they continue wrapping 
them up two or three times a day, but without bringing down those 
from above, or carrying up those from below. To this operation of di- 
viding the eggs they do not attach much importance. During my ob- 
servations of the operation, this division was not executed till the 16th 
day, because they had no tow ready to prepare the circular bed with. 
When the eggs are divided, the man does not enter again through the 

44 On the Egyptian system of Artificial [latching. [Jan. 

door of the superior stove, but through that of the inferior one, arrang- 
ing the eggs below ; afterwards standing up he pushes his head and 
arms through the hole of the roof, and arranges those above. 

The eggs which have not been in the oven eight days they call ^Sy^ 
(el tari) the fresh. I have eaten some of them after two or three 
days baking, and they were good. Towards the sixth or seventh 
day, they look at them before a light. If the egg appears opaque and 
obscure, it is inferred that the operation will succeed; on the contrary, 
if it is transparent and white, they conclude that the chicken will not be 
formed. The people who keep the oven eat these eggs or sell them. 
They have the appearance and taste of boiled eggs. Those which 
go on without fire after the eighth day they call £>^« (meldh) the 
good. Lastly, those which have continued more than twelve days 
in the cells they call J^Xw.*n (el mesku) which has taken ; or that 
wherein the chicken is already formed. The cells where eggs are 
divided half below and half above, as they are placed after the 
fourteenth day, have their doors constantly stopped with great care, 
During the last days of the process the hole of the top of the vault is not 
only stopped with tow, but with a great deal of earth upon the tow. 
Four or five days before the end of the operation, the door in the upper 
stove being open, as well as the hole of the vault, the thermometer in- 
dicates 26°, the hole being stopped 274°, and the door being stopped 27°. 
Two days before the birth of the chicken, being all well stopped, the 
temperature reached to 28°, and the day before to 28|°. At the mo- 
ment that the chickens are coming to life the heat is 28^° ; and in the 
inferior stove, in which there are about a thousand recently born, 30° ; 
an augmentation which proceeds no doubt from the animal heat of the 
young birds, since there is no fire in the room, nor has there been any 
in it for thirteen days. 

It is also curious to observe that the temperature varied during 
the last few days ; this probably is the effect of the animal heat which 
begins to develope itself in the inside of the eggs. 

If we reconsider all the facts I have detailed, we shall see that the 
hatching of which we are speaking, consists only in applying to the egg- 
equally and regularly during twenty-one complete days, a degree of heat 
which beginning with 33° or 34° of Reaumur, falls to 27^° or 27°, and 
rises again to 28° or 29° with the help of the animal caloric, produced 
by nature in the process of hatching. 

As soon as the chickens are born, the egg-shells are thrown away. 
The eggs of the inferior stove are carried to the upper, and the chicken 
to the inferior ; which is reserved for them. These are treated with 

1839.] On the Egyptian system of Artificial Hatching. 45 

very little care. They take them up in handsful and throw them 
below. Here they remain till the subsequent day, on which they 
are draw out to the corridor, where they pass some hours ; sometimes 
one whole day. After this they are carried in covered baskets to par- 
ticular houses, as will be explained, where they begin to eat ground 
corn or hard eggs. During the day they are exposed to the sun ; be- 
fore sunset they are carried to a room to be sheltered from the cold. 
The Arabs never help the chicken in breaking the egg-shell. 

During the hatching at which I was present, the natural tempera- 
ture in the shade varied from 13° to 16° ; the day on which the chick- 
ens were bom it was 16°, and the thermometer exposed to the sun 
about midday marked 29°. On the subsequent day, under the same 
circumstances, it rose to 33^°. The weather was always perfectly 
fair excepting the fifteenth day, on which a little rain fell during the 
night. All the apertures were on that occasion well shut up, and the 
dampness produced no bad effects. 

I have always placed the thermometer in the upper stove (n. fig. 3) 
in which the fire existed. That which served me for these observa- 
tions compared with others of Reaumur's, was found to be rather lower 
than these. 

The oven in which I studied this description, began its labours on 
the 2d of February last. Generally they begin fifteen or twenty days 
later. The hatching season closes in the month of June at the latest. 

In the midst of summer the sun is more powerful, and the eggs 
more abundant and cheap. Why, then sfrould this operation be prac- 
tised in the spring ? 

To give a satisfactory answer to this objection, there must be 
facts of which I am not possessed, never having had either opportu- 
nity or time to set one of the ovens in operation during the hot 
season. However I am fully convinced in my own mind that 
spring is the season best calculated for this operation in Egypt, 
according to the present mode of working ; for the first inventors of 
these ovens would not have fixed upon this season but through expe- 
rience, having no doubt made repeated trials. 

Where facts are wanting, conjectures founded on observations 
and reason, may frequently in a great measure supply the deficiency ; 
I shall therefore state what I conceive to be the reasons for giving 
spring the preference to summer in the lighting of the ovens. 

1. During the spring months a hot southerly wind prevails, which 
ceases at the commencement of summer, yielding to a strong, cold, 
northerly one ; this fills the whole atmosphere with dust and fine 
sand, of which there is such abundance in Egypt ; it is therefore im- 

46 On the Egyptian system of Artificial Hatching. [Jan. 

possible that the little tender chickens just hatched should be able to 
withstand the inclemency of such weather ; whereas if hatched in spring, 
they become strong enough before summer sets in. 

2. The great difficulty of collecting a sufficient quantity of fresh 
eggs during the summer, must be a decided objection for putting them 
into the ovens at that time, for in five or six days all the eggs become 
spoilt, and it takes some time to gather the required number of eggs ; 
indeed this is the reason which the natives themselves assign when 
questioned on the subject. 

Whatever may be the weight attached to these opinions, yet the 
very circumstance of this artificial hatching being practised in spring 
furnishes us with a strong proof that its introduction not only in hot 
but in temperate climates is feasible. 

In this firm conviction, and with the anxious desire of its adoption 
in other countries with success, I shall venture to offer a few remarks 
which I trust will be profitable. 

Without waiting to shew the different modifications and improve- 
ments of which the Egyptian ovens are capable, I shall only mention 
that the system of large ovens is subject to many inconveniences. 

1. This work becomes a monopoly to a few, and Government 
consequently levy a tax on the establishment. 

2. The collecting of so many thousand fresh eggs becomes a work 
of labour and expense. 

3. Taking care of the newly-hatched chickens would be attend- 
ed with immense trouble and loss ; for at sunset they must be placed 
in a warm room, their food and drink must be attended to, and 
cleanliness, and other little cares, must not be neglected to rear them, 
whilst the oven-keeper must be looking after more fresh eggs to 
continue his subsistence. In fact, these serious inconveniences have 
been felt and remedies adopted. 

In some districts people bring eggs to the ovens on their own 
account ; these they mark with ink or otherwise, and pay the proprie- 
tor for the use of the oven and his superintendence, taking the chickens 
away when hatched. 

In other districts Government allot six or eight villages for the exclu- 
sive use of the oven-proprietors, to whom alone the villagers must sell 
the eggs. In this case the proprietor farms out a certain number of 
chickens to several poor families, either paying them when the fowls are 
sold for the trouble of rearing them up, or receiving back generally one 
half for the number of chickens given; the persons taking as many 
above that number as they may have succeeded in rearing, as a com- 
pensation for their trouble. 

1839.] On the Egyptian system of Artificial Hatching. 47 

A small oven worked by a single family on their own risk and 
profit, would be free from these inconveniences, and no doubt would 
remunerate them for their labour and expense. 

An oven for that purpose ought to be of a rectangular shape, made 
of baked clay, 3 feet high and 3 feet broad, and from 4 to 6 feet long, 
with a double roof, so that the fire might be spread evenly on the whole. 
The lower roof should have a hole to allow of the heat passing into the 
oven where the eggs are. The upper roof must have an aperture for 
the smoke to issue, and if necessary to lessen the heat, and also for the 
purpose of introducing a Ihermometer. This aperture should be made 
like the lid of a box to lift up, for the greater convenience of removing 
the ashes, and renewing the fire ; one of the walls of the oven should 
be made to open to admit of the hands being introduced to remove and 
shift the position of the eggs. 

This oven moreover must be kept in a closed room, out of the way 
of any current of air ; while the room where the oven is placed would 
be further useful for keeping the newly-hatched chickens till they gain 

Perhaps it would be an improvement if the oven were made with a 
double wall an inch or two apart, and the space filled up with some 
non-conductor of caloric, such as cork or triturated charcoal. 

I think that any potter could make such an oven for the sum of five 
or ten shillings, and that this artificial hatching might thus be car- 
ried on in almost every country house, on a small scale, at all seasons 
of the year, particularly summer, with successful results. A high tem- 
perature must of course be more favourable than a low one for this 
process. In Egypt itself this fact is acknowledged by a common pro- 
verb among the people, 

*-1~>>Hj lM:1 CLiy£\ CL>y^> cHj^iJ^ JAj J>».5I cL,^.£a£J i 

il The chicken of the bean (i. e. the chicken hatched at the season 
of beans) eat and die ; the chicken of the mulberry eat and die ; but 
the chicken of the apricot eat and thrive." The season for beans is in 
February, and that of apricots in May. 

Besides this, a curious circumstance once occurred which still more 
strongly proves that this is the best season for hatching. Three eggs 
were forgotten, and left in a basket in July in the house of Mr. Aime 
at Cairo ; these were hatched spontaneously, and produced three 
chickens which thrived. Why should not then two or three hundred 
in a small oven succeed ? 

48 On the Egyptian system of Artificial Hatching. [Jan. 

Before I conclude this brief account, I would just mention that this 
artificial mode of hatching will apply equally to turkey's eggs. Several 
Europeans had put them into the ovens in Egypt, and a few did suc- 
ceed in being hatched, but Arabs being totally ignorant of the prin- 
ciples of the oven-hatching, they subjected them to the same condi- 
tions as fowl's eggs — hence the failure of the greater number. But that 
they might be hatched artificially was evident from some of the eggs 
which were put in having been hatched. By this means the supply 
of turkeys would also be cheap and abundant. 

I have no doubt that if this artificial hatching of turkeys as well 
as fowls were introduced into any country, and commonly adopted in 
farm houses, it would tend greatly to the advantage of the land. 

References to the Plate. 


1st. General plan of the oven. 

2d. Section of the corridor F G H I. 

3d. Section of one cell in the direction of the corridor F G H I. 

4th Section of one cell in the direction of the corridor AB CD. 

5th. Floor of the upper story of one cell. 

6th. Floor of the upper story of the cell Y. 

7th. Floor of the under story of a cell. 

8th. Floor of the under story of a cell after the 14th day. 

9th Floor of the upper story of a cell after the 14th day. 

Art. VII. — Report on the Mortality among Officers and Men in 
H. M. Service in Bengal, and on the comparative salubrity of 
different Stations. By the late Dr. W. A. Burke, Inspector- 
General of Hospitals."' 

To W. W. Bird, Esq. 
President of the Committee for the Insurance of Lives in India. 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, which 
a protracted and severe illness prevented my replying to as soon as I 
could have wished. I shall now endeavour as far as possible to comply 
with the request of the Committee in affording all the information 
in my power regarding mortality in the rank of officers as well as men 

* For this very valuable paper we are indebted to Mr. Martin, the Surgeon to 
the Native Hospital of Calcutta. Dr. Burke's tabulated returns form an important 
addition to our knowledge of the laws of vital statistics. In connexion with this 
paper the reader should consult Mr. H. T. Prinsep's paper on the " Value of Life in 
the Civil Service."— Journal of the Asiatic Society, 1832, p. 277, and 1837, p. 341 ; 
and his "Table of Mortality," founded on the registers of the Lower Orphan School, 
1838, p. 818.— Ed. 


T>r, Burkes Reports. 


in His Majesty's service in Bengal, and the comparative salubrity 
or otherwise of the different Stations for European Troops in this conu 

As to the healthiness of the Stations occupied by H. Majesty's Troops 
in Bengal, the following abstract from their Sick Returns will serve so 
far, to afford the requisite information for a period of four years, as to 
their comparative degree of health from 1830 to 1833 inclusive. 















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Kurnaul, .... 














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Among the Officers there were ten more deaths, but none of which 
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At Sea ...... 2 

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At Madras 1 

At Sultanpore Benares '. . 1 

At Allahabad , I 

On the Hills 2 

Giving the following proportions of deaths among the Officers His 
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Total ratio of 

Average strength 


deaths to strength. 





Br. Burke's Reports. 


Among the Men also there were other deaths, not within the scope 
of the foregoing Statement ; in consequence of which an abstract is give 
to include the whole of the casualties regimentally among all His 
Majesty's Troops throughout the Bengal command, for the period 
1830 to 1833. 


o . 

.2 rt 

Strength ot Com- 
mand, 1st January 
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By disease mRe- 
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&c. | 






















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11th Lt. Dragoons, .. 

16th Lancers, 

3d. Buffs, 

13th Lt. Infantry, 

14th Foot, 

16th Ditto, 

26th Ditto, 

31st Ditto, 

38th Ditto, 

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In the Column 'absent Deaths,' are included, 
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Total, . . . . 







Shewing the strength and deaths, and the ratio of deaths to strength, 
in His Majesty's Regiments, in the Bengal command. 

Total Average 


Total ratio of 



deaths to strength per cent 

Men, . . 

.... 33484 



It is to be observed that the strength of the troops in this statement 
J s as given in the Regimental Returns on the 1st January of each 
year, and which differs from the mean annual strength ; the latter 
being 32041, the ratio of total deaths to it is 499. In the different 
Stations of His Majesty's Regiments in the Presidency of Bengal, 
there is so little difference in the periods and duration of the seasons, 
as well as in their general temperature and climate, that it is upon 
the innate features of each Station itself, and from the data afforded by 

1839.] Dr. Burkes Reports. 51 

its Returns, that its comparative salubrity would appear to be best 

The steadiness or mutability of the climate, or considerable anoma- 
lies of weather, or physical properties, seem more to influence the 
health of the troops than either its heat or its cold, abstractedly consi- 

The causes of sickness in many Stations must be traced to other 
sources than climate. 

The soil of Bengal being composed of alluvial matter, formed by 
the detritus carried down by the great rivers, and accumulated for ages, 
there is a poison in the exhalations of such soils, the nature of which 
is unknown ; but from it emanate all those species and varieties of 
fevers, (dependent on marsh miasma as their remote cause) so fre- 
quent in Bengal, and to which one general character appertains — 
periodicity, or remissions, and exacerbations. 

A large proportion however of the cases of sickness and deaths 
among the European soldiers, may be more or less attributed to ex- 
cesses, especially in the use of spirituous liquors. 

The relative healthiness of each Station is according to the Returns, 
as follows, from 1830 to 1833 inclusive — 

Deaths to strength. 

Fort William J-59 per cent. 

Berhampore 6*77 

Chinsurah 610 

Cawnpore 4*55 

Boglipore 395 

Dinapore 384 

Ghazeepore 3*80 

Kurnal 3*00 

Meerut 198 

Agra 1 91 

There are given Classification Tables, taken from the Regimental 
Returns, shewing the different classes, numbers, ages, and deaths, of 
the soldiers of His Majesty's service in Bengal for the years 1826 to 
1833, viz. 


Dr. Burke's Reports. 









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1839.] Dr. Burke's Reports. 61 

The General Abstract of the foregoing shews that for the four first 
years, viz. 1826-27-28 and 29 the ratio of deaths is, 
From the age of 18 to 20 years 16*12 per cent. 
20 to 25 „ 933 
25 to 30 ' „ 10-13 
30 to 35 „ 6-92 
35 to 45 „ 954 

For the four last years, viz. 1830-31-32 and 33, the ratio of deaths is, 
From the age of 18 to 20 years 0'58 per cent. 


20 to 22 
22 to 24 


25 to _30 



30 to 35 



35 to 45 



There will be observed a striking difference between the ratio of 
deaths in each class of the two periods of four years; viz. first, from 
1826 to 1829, and, second, from 1830 inclusive. But there is to be 
taken into consideration, that in the first period there are included 
the casualties (in 1826) of the Troops His Majesty's service who 
had been in active service at Bhurtpore, Ava, and Arrakan. During 
the campaigns, in the latter places especially, the deaths from disease 
among the young soldiers recently arrived in India, was very great. 

Thus in the 13th Regiment Light Infantry, that had arrived in 
India in May 1823, and was composed chiefly of young soldiers, the 
mortality was, 

At Bengal from Mayl 
to December, 1823 j 






689 for 8 months 

At Ava in.. . . 1824 




Do. d> 1825 




In the 38th Regiment, which arrived in Bengal in May 1823, the 
mortality was, 




In 1822 in Bengal . . 

.. 743 


12*65 per cent. 

In 1823 do 

.. 695 



In 1824 in Ava . . 

.. 643 



In 1825 do 

.. 458 



62 Dr. Burkes Reports. [Jan, 

In the 44th Regiment, which arrived from England in November 
1822, the mortality was, 

Strength. Deaths. Proportion. 

In 1823 in Bengal 661 73 H'43 per cent. 

In 1824 at Chittagong > 5g8 88 , 4<96 

and Arrakan > 

In 1825 at Arrakan 500 203 4060 

There is a difference however in the mortality of young recruits of 
Regiments when on active service, and the contrary ; as, for example, 
in the 13th Light Infantry, which in 1826 in Bengal was joined by 
600 recruits, of whom there died in that year 79, being a proportion 
of 131 6 per cent in Bengal. 

His Majesty's 31st Regiment arrived in Bengal in June 1825, and 
was joined in that year by 500 recruits, of whom there died 65, a 
proportion of 11 per cent, in Bengal. 

The volunteers are generally men from the age of 30 to 35, in 
which class the ratio of deaths from 1826 to 1829 (including a period 
of active service) was 6*92, while during the same period, the ratio in 
the class from 18 to 20 years was 16*12 per cent. 

Besides the sending from England of lads too young for the service 
in India, there was another important circumstance as affecting their 
health, which was that of their having been sent out at improper 
periods ; for they arrived in Bengal at the hot and rainy seasons, found 
to be more especially obnoxious to the lad or boy recruits ; and of 
such, unfortunately, was the chief part of those sent out in 1826 to 
1829, as well as before. 

From the difference of habits of* military and civil life, young 
soldiers are in every climate peculiarly liable to disease, and cce{eris 
paribus the younger the more susceptible to feel the change ; and 
this change has a direct tendency to induce a highly inflammatory 
diathesis, leading to such explosions of disease as witnessed here among 
the recruits. The tendency to disease exists it is true in all seasons 
in India in the young and plethoric, but it is in the hot and rainy 
seasons, and particularly at the commencement and termination of the 
rains, that endemial diseases are most dangerous, and fatal ; yet this 
was the very time at which these recruits principally arrived in 

I took the earliest opportunity, and seized every occasion, to make 
the strongest representations on these important subjects, and of 
sending out soldiers for His Majesty's service to India at proper 

1839. J Dr. Burke's Reports. 63 

age, and season ; and there are on record my memorials on these 
subjects to the Commander-in-Chief in India, and to the Medical 
Department in England— of December 23d, 1826 ; May 31st, 1827 ; 6th 
January, 1828; and December, 1829— and upon which the Home 
authorities at last acted. In these memorials it was represented 
by me, 

1st. That the soldier should arrive in India at the age and period 
when he can be of the greatest use when called upon for actual 
service. That age to be 24 or 26, or full grown manhood, as most 
favourable to health, and least so to disease in India. 

2nd. That recruits and soldiers should be embarked in England, 
so as to arrive in Bengal at the commencement of the cool season, 
when they might be marched to their several Stations up the country, 
instead of proceeding by the river. 

These memorials I accompanied with various statements; such 
as those in this communication, in proof of the great comparative 
mortality among the lad recruits particularly; as also the com- 
parative mortality between the soldiers arriving in Bengal in the hot 
and in the cool season, as by the following abstract of statements from 
December 1825, to July 1829, of casualties of detachments His 
Majesty's service, arriving in Bengal from England, being, 

In the cold season, per cent, 0*75 

In the hot season, 30 

Proceeding by water to join their corps, 650 

On marching to join their corps, r . . . 0*50 

Average of casualties on the voyage out, 1'50 

Average of casualties from the date of arrival in Bengali fi w- 
to joining their corps, . . J ' 

Ditto of casualties of the whole of the detachments \ 

from their leaving England to join their corps in > 80 

Bengal, J 

The accompanying Returns* elucidate these subjects still further, 
shewing the state of each Regiment His Majesty's service, their 
strength, the numbers who joined, and that died, from the date of 
their arrival in the Bengal command to the 31st December last. 

On consulting the monthly admissions in the returns of sick, an 
abstract from which is given on the other side, the number of cases 
of disease (and they are particularly of the acute kind) and casual- 
ties, will be observed to correspond in a most remarkable manner with 
the range of the thermometer, especially at the Stations in Upper 
India ; and so great is the difference between the cold season and the 

* The Returns alluded to, will form an appendix to the next Number.— Ed. 


Dr. Burkes Reports. 


hot, that a partial illustration is afforded of the influence of climate 
which sets all theory on the subject at defiance. 

Among the soldiers exposed to the same degree of heat, the influence 
of the ingesta seems to be more powerfully injurious to the constitu- 
tion than climate. There is a marked difference in the ratio of sick and 
casualties between the Cavalry and Infantry Regiments, stationed in 
the same cantonments, of His Majesty's service in India, in favour 
of the latter. In the Cavalry the soldier's pay is greater, and among 
them a superabundance of stimulant food and drink keeps so great 
a number in an almost perpetual state of proximity to inflammatory 

During the cold months the men continually expose themselves, 
especially in the Upper Stations, to the direct rays of the sun, which 
is a great cause of disease, even when all accumulation of heat is pre- 
vented by the coolness of the breeze, for then the infringing of the 
direct rays of the sun upon an opaque body causes a greater increase of 
temperature than is observable by a thermometer. 

Abstract from the Monthly Returns of Sick shewing the proportion 
of the average daily sick, and of deaths to strength per cent for 
four years. -" 




Proportion of the average 
laily sick to strength per 

nof th 
sick t 

Proportion of deaths to 
strength per cent. 

O P 

2 >>« 

5 u 


o'S <o 






Total pro 





.8 sp 

A P 


-U CO 


January, . . 



5 45 
















March, . . 


5 80 









April, .... 











May, .... 











June, . 












































October, . . 
























706 6-23 



















The sick at Landour and Chirra Poongee are not included in the above. 

J 839.] Dr. Burkes Reports. 65 

By the returns for four years, the minimum of sickness and deaths 
•occurs in February. January and it are the driest months. The maxi- 
mum of sickness and deaths occurs in September ; being the cessation 
of the rains, when the exhalations have brought the surface to the 
consistence of mud — a state that appears especially to generate the 
miasmata producing fevers, &c. 


With respect to the localities of the Stations "as affecting their 
salubrity or otherwise," as required by the Committee, I have in 
reference to the return of the sick, &c. at the several Stations, given 
at the commencement, further to add, that at the Station of Berham- 
pore, the Barracks are so placed, that one particularly is close to a 
large stagnant tank, into which the sewers of the Barracks and 
necessaries, &c, empty themselves, so that in the dry and hot season 
especially, the men are enveloped in the stench from it. That the 
influence of its exhalations spreads far, I have no doubt. The malaria 
from it, as well as numerous other sources, is of course the active cause 
of much of the mischief that infests the Station of Berhampore. 

For the period of four years, from 1830 to 1833, inclusive, the 
average proportions of deaths to strength per cent was, at Berhampore, 

Officers 7*62 per cent per annum. 

Men 677 

Women 5*71 

Children 809 

Cholera prevailed epidemically in Berhampore in 1829 and 1830, 
and commenced in the temporary sheds recently erected, (not far from 
the great tank before mentioned) for part of His Majesty's troops ; 
after which it appeared in the women's quarters— a low one-storied 
brick-building; afterwards on the ground story; and then in the 
upper story of the Barracks next the great tank, &c. 

Fort William. 

In the Station of Fort William, in the Barracks generally occupied 
by His Majesty's troops, the apartments for the men are deficient 
in height and ventilation. The buildings are too crowded together. 
The estimate of space, and of domestic convenience, has been too con- 
fined for the climate. 

From the crowding of the buildings, and height and proximity 
of the fortifications, the radiation of heat is hot only very great, but 
there is prevented the dissipation of those malarious vapours of which 
there appears to be so copious a supply from various sources in Fort 


66 Dr. Burke's Reports. [Jan, 

One of the consequences of all these is, in the warm season especi- 
ally, the men feel so oppressed at night that they leave their rooms and* 
expose themselves to all the causes and bad effects of suppressed trans- 

The average ratio of mortality in His Majesty's troops quartered 
in Fort William is as follows, for four years from 1830 to 1833— 

Officers 5-88 per cent per annum. 

Men 7*59 

Women 10*73 

Children 16-29 

Fort William is one of the worst, if not the very worst, of the Mili- 
tary Stations in India for children. 

In the Station of Cawnpore for the period of four years, from 1830 
to 1833, the average proportion of deaths to strength is, 

Officers 3*10 per cent per annum, 

Men 455 

Women 4*04 

Children 9*22 

As to the locality of this cantonment, none of the Barrack build- 
ings come close to the river, excepting the Hospital in which the sick of 
the King's Regiment of Infantry are. treated. The soil rests on a sub- 
stratum of Kunkur, which is favourable to the dryness of the Station. 
The declivity of the site secures it against any accumulation of mois- 
ture ; the drainage is also facilitated by several small ravines or gullies, 
which intersect the cantonment, each of which during the rainy 
season becomes a streamlet ; thus the water does not lodge, but runs 
quickly off into the river (above which all the Barracks are sufficiently 
elevated) or it is speedily absorbed, so that the wet season at Cawnpore 
is generally found pleasanter than in many other Stations in Upper or 
Central India. 

The site of the Barracks of His Majesty's Infantry Regiment is 
pretty high, that of the King's Cavalry Regiment not so high ; but 
that of all however is sufficiently elevated to allow of the water pass- 
ing off. 

The ground in the rear of the King's Infantry Regiment's Barracks 
is broken in many places, by the violence of the periodical rains, 
into deep fissures and ravines, containing numerous cavities, which, 
however individually small, may form in the aggregate a consider- 

1839.] Dr, Burke's Reports. 67 

able deposit of stagnant water, which before its final evaporation 
cannot fail to be an agent more or less active in the generation of 

In the Barracks for the European troops here, the plans adopted 
by the architect would appear to have arisen from the idea of a 
Regiment standing in open column of companies, which however 
ingenious in a military point of view, is rather objectionable in a 
medical one, as it makes one building a screen to another, and thus 
opposes perfect perflation, an object of paramount importance where 
masses of men are to be congregated together, and where a perpe- 
tual current of air becomes the grand neutralizer of insalubrious 

The prevailing winds are from the west and east, varying to the 
north or south. If the buildings were placed in echelon this might 
be prevented. 


In the Station of Meerut the locality is in Meerut deemed good. 
There are a few j heels and swamps in the vicinity ; but not near, or 
considerable enough to have much effect on the health of the troops. 
The country around is flat ; the soil is sandy, with a slight declination 
to south sufficient to carry off the heavy rains into the Kallee Nuddy 
to the eastward. 

Notwithstanding the northern latitude of Meerut, considerably 
without the tropics, and in the third climate, the heat is intense in 
the dry and hot season, and tropical diseases are prevalent during the 
hot and rainy seasons. For the period of four years, from 1830 to 1833, 
the average proportion of deaths to strength is, at Meerut, 

Officers 1*35 per cent per annum. 

Men 1-98 

Women 221 

Children 491 

The diseases are such as arise from sudden and considerable varia- 
tions of temperature and malaria, and especially among the soldiers, 
aggravated by exposure to the sun and intemperance. 

In the Station of Dinapore the aspect of the Barracks being the 
reverse of what it should have been in respect to the prevailing winds, 
free perflation is prevented. The roof is flat and chunamed; the 
length of each building is 800 feet, and width 20 feet; there is a 
verandah on each side. 

68 Dr. Burkes Reports. [Jan. 

The masses of men, women, and children in „these Barracks, is 
another cause of the unhealthiness experienced generally in them by 
the troops. There are no separate accommodations for the women and 
children. The doors and windows are jealousied. 

The cold weather here was generally ushered in by severe hepatic 
and dysenteric affections. And in the hot season there were severe 
ardent fevers, very sudden in their operation, and often terminating in 

In His Majesty's 13th Light Infantry for the period of two years, 
for 1830 and 1831 last, at Dinapore, the average proportion of deaths 
to strength was, 

Officers 1*79 per cent per annum. 

Men 384 

Women 423 

Children 1237 

The facility with which the men could obtain toddy, and dele- 
terious liquors in excess, was one great source of disease and mor- 
tality, as also the difficulty of confining the men within bounds, 
there being no enclosure to the Barrack compound. 

The 13th being a Light Infantry corps, their movements were more 
jikely to expose them to profuse perspiration, and consequently to 
more frequent alterations of heat and cold, with the usual bad effects. 

In the Station of Boglipore the Barracks formerly occupied by 
His Majesty's 3rd Buffs, were merely a set of buildings erected tem- 
porarily in 1825 as stables for some Native Cavalry, and were very 
inimical to health. 

The Station of Ghazeepore appears to hold a middle station as to 
healthiness. The soil is readily permeable by the rain falling on its 
surface, which sinking down to a very considerable depth before it finds 
a hard bottom to detain it, is soon out of reach of superficial evaporation, 
&nd cannot afford the constant supply of moisture necessary in co- 
operation with other agents to produce the maturity of marsh mias- 
mata. From the continuation of these circumstances it might a priori 
be thought that the Station possesses to a great degree an immunity 
from marsh miasmata. 

1839.] Br. Burke's Reports. 69 

For the period of four years, from 1830 to 1833, the average propor- 
tion of deaths to strength is, 

Officers 2*75 per cent per annum. 

Men 3-80 

Women 329 

Children 662 


In the Station of Kurnaul the locality of the Barracks for His Ma- 
jesty's Regiment is the best the place afforded. The soil generally is 
light and sandy on the surface, but at the depth of 12 or 15 inches it 
is a stiff clay; in some parts however it is calcarious, (and of which the 
natives make lime). The large canal in the immediate vicinity forms 
an irregular semicircle near the Station, and tends in a great measure 
to drain that part. 

For the period of three years, from 183 i to 1833, inclusive, in which 
it has been occupied by a King's Regiment, the average proportion 
of deaths to strength per cent is, 

Officers 1*23 per cent per annum. 

Men 3-00 

Women 1'73 

Children 6*62 


In the Station of Agra the cantonment for His Majesty's troops 
is stated to be elevated about 170 feet above the level of the river 
Jumna, from which the distance is about the same as from the Fort, 
that is \\ mile. The immediate banks of the river are deeply in- 
dented with water-courses, which serve to convey the rain water into 
the river. 

The 13th Light Infantry Regiment has been healthy ever since 
its arrival there, a period of two years, in which there died 29 men ; 
but almost all of them had the foundation of their disease laid in 
Dinapore. This comparative healthiness, as far as locality is con- 
cerned, arises from the cantonment enjoying constant ventilation, the 
water running immediately off, the drainage being good, and there 
being no stagnant pools, or sources of malaria in the vicinity, and 
especially that the troops are well accommodated, and so are the sick. 

Setting aside intemperance, which is the cause of so many diseases 
of the soldier in India, they may be said to have enjoyed a state of 
health at Agra almost equal to what a Regiment would be found to 
do in the healthiest parts of Europe. 

70 Dr. Burke's Reports. [Jan. 

For the period of two years, for 1832 and 1833, in which there has 
been a King's Regiment in Agra, the average proportion of deaths to 
strength per cent is, 


Men 1-91 

Women 1*45 

Children 892 

I have the honour, &c. 

(Signed) W. R. BURKE, 

Inspect. Gen. Hospitals H. Majesty's Forces in India. 

Art. VIII Observations on the Burmese and Munipoor Varnish 

Tree, " Melanorrhoea usitata," which has lately blossomed in the 
Honorable Company's Botanic Garden, By N. Wallich, M.D. 

When I published my account of this tree in 1830,* I had only met 
with it in fruit, and was obliged to confine the description of the 
flower to what could be gathered from a few decayed and not very 
perfect samples in my possession. The generic character was chiefly 
derived from specimens of another species, Melanorrhoea glabra^ 
a native of the coast of Tenasserim. As I have recently had a tree of 
M. usitata in flower in this garden, I am able to furnish the following 
details, accompanied by a lithographic sketch of a flowering panicle, 
from a drawing made by one of the painters of the establishment. 

The individual tree to which I allude is one among several which 
were raised from Munipoor seeds presented by Mr. George Swinton. 
The seeds were sown in July 1827, and began germinating exactly 
a fortnight afterward. About the same period some seeds that had 
been procured from Martaban, being more fresh, sprang up seven 
days after being put into the ground. The tre*e which has blossomed 
is the largest among the seventeen individuals which we at present 
possess. It measures in height about 22 feet, with a clean stem of 
seven feet, having a circumference near the base of 14 inches. It has 
not many branches, and is now very scantily furnished with leaves. 
It began opening its flowers on the 20th of January last, and continu- 
ed nearly one whole month in flower. There are at present a small 
number of fruits on the tree, which I expect will ripen in the 
course of next month. 

* Plantae Asiat. Rar. 1. p, 9. tab. 11 and 12. 
f Ibid 3. p. 50 ab. 283. 


1839.] Observations on the Burmese and Munipoor Varnish Tree. 71 

Panicles of flowers terminal on leafless branchlets, broad-oval, 
spreading, much and loosely subdivided, 12 to 16 inches wide at the 
base; the divisions cylindric, covered with much soft down. There 
is a small linear, caducous bract under each branch. Flowers white, 
inodorous, rather large, two or three in each fascicle, supported by 
pedicels half an inch to an inch in length. Calyx smooth, consisting 
of five sepals which are marginally soldered together into one, 
forming a conical, attenuated, obtuse hood, slightly marked with paral- 
lel veins; it falls off the instant the coralla is ready to expand, 
leaving an annular vestige on the peduncle immediately under the 
coralla ; its base circular, irregularly slit a little way, in four or 
five places. Petals white, imbricating and slightly contorted in estiva- 
tion, lanceolate-oblong, rather obtuse, with entire, a little undulated, 
ciliated margins, thin and membranous, pubescent on both sides, mi- 
nutely reticulated, half an inch long. Torus large, fleshy, hemispherical, 
pitted for the insertion of the stamens, its base five-lobed. Stamens 
very numerous, straight, spreading in all directions, half the length of 
the petals ; filaments subulate, smooth; anthers oval, versatile. Ovary 
very small, obliquely oval, smooth, supported from the centre of the 
torus by a short, cylindric, pubescent pedicel, one-celled ; ovule sus- 
pended from a lateral ascending funicle. Style rising obliquely from 
the vertex of the ovary, subulate, not reaching to the ends of the 
stamens. Stigma minute, obtuse. 

The accompanying figure represents a panicle of flower reduced to 
one half of its natural size. Fig. 1, flower-bud, the hooded calyx 
commencing to detach itself, and at Fig, 3, completely separate. Fig. 2, 
corolla in estivation. Fig. 4, the same fully expanded. Fig. 5, 
petals separate, showing the pitted torus. Fig. 6, ovary opened show- 
ing the insertion of the ovule. 

72 Asiatic Society. [1839. 

Art. IX. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 

Wednesday Evening, the 2d January, 1839. 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Calcutta, Vice-President, in the chair. 

The Proceedings of the last Meeting were read. 

The Meeting then proceeded to the election of Office-bearers for the ensuing year, 

when the following gentlemen were chosen : — 

The Right Rev. Lord Bishop of Calcutta, -x 

The Honble. Sir J. P- Grant, ! „ r . '■ , Tr . „ ., 

TT „ „ „ > Were elected Vice-Presidents. 

H. T. Prinsep, Esq., j 

Col D. MacLeod, J 

Mr. W. Cracroft, Capt. Forbes, >w 

Mr. W. P. Grant, Dr. Stewart, | 

Mr. D. Hare, and ^ Me j£ b °™ ° f the Committee of 

Dr. Geo. Evans, Dr. Wallich. j 

Dr. M'Clelland, J 

Dr. Goodeve and Mr. R. O'Shaughnessy, proposed at the last Meeting, were 
balloted for, and duly elected Members of the Society. 

Messrs. A. Porteous and J. Cowie were proposed by the Officiating Secretary, 
seconded by the Vice-President. 

Dr. O'Shaughnessy apprised the Meeting that the Committee of Finance had 
recommended 20 rupees per mensem, as an increase to the Clerk Herambanath 
Thakur's salary. 

Resolved, — That the meeting approve of the decision of the Committee of Finance, 
and that it take effect from the date of the Clerk's application. 

Read a letter from J. K. Kane, Esq., Secretary of the American Philosophical 
Society, acknowledging receipt of the first part of vols. 19 and 20 of the Asiatic 
Researches, and vols. 5 and 6 of the Journal of the Asiatic Society. 


Read a letter from J. Vaughan, Esq., Librarian of the American Philosophical 
Society, forwarding the following works for presentation to the Society — 

Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Vol 6, Part 1, New Series. 

Transactions of the Literary and Historical Committee of the Society. 

Read a letter from M. Cassin, Book Agent of the Society in Paris, enclosing 
account of sales of oriental publications sold by him in France, and forwarding from 
the proceeds thereof several recent publications for the use of the Society. He had 
likewise sent several books for sale in this country. 

Resolved, — That the books for sale be advertized on the cover of the Journal, 
Asiatic Society, with their prices. 

A brochure by the Royal Society of Cornwall, presented by Capt. F. Jenkins 
through Dr. Wallich. 

Meteorological Registers kept at the Mauritius, during the last six months of 1836, 
and first six months of 1837, were presented by M, Julien Desjardins, Secretary 
of the Natural History Society of the Mauritius. 

Read a letter from Madhushudana Gupta, forwarding specimens of the plates for 
the " Sarira Vidya" engraved by Native artists. 

The Officiating Secretary with reference to the very high cost and inferior execution 
of the plates submitted, proposed a reference by the overland mail to Professors 
Quain and Paxton, by whose friendly co-operation he had no doubt casts of their 
anatomical wood-cuts could be procured at half the price, and in half the time the 
Native artist would require. 

The proposition was seconded by Baboo Ramcomul Sen, and unanimously 
agreed to. 

1839] Asiatic Society. 73 

Read a letter from J. P. Grant, Esq., Officiating Secretary to the Government of 
India, intimating that measures have been taken by the local authorities to prevent 
any further dismantling of the Kanarak temple, or Black Pagoda. 

Read a letter from Major Hay, with reference to a Museum of Natural History 
collected by him from the Cape and the Eastern Archipelago, 

Resolved, — That the Officiating Secretary be requested to inform Major Hay, that 
the present state of their funds entirely precludes their purchase of his collection, but 
that the Society will be happy to allow the use of their rooms for the reception of the 
specimens, and to employ their establishment for their care and preservation. It 
was further decided that the Society make a representation Government on the 

The Officiating Secretary then laid before the Meeting the Annual Report of the 
past year's transactions. 

[This Report will appear in a subsequent number.] 
Baboo Ramcomul Sen submitted the Account Current of the Society for the past 
year, in which a balance of rupees 7,755 : 1 : 2 stands in favour of the Society on the 
31st December, 1838. 

[The Account Current will be found at the end.] 
Proposed by Baboo Ramcomul Sen, seconded by Mr. Hare, and unanimously 
agreed, that a sum of rupees 4,500 be invested in Company's five per cent. Govern- 
ment Securities. 

The Officiating Secretary informed the Meeting, that with reference to a communi- 
cation made by him to Messrs. Sherriff and Co. regarding the repairs of the Society's 
house, that these architects report that the roof of the house is in a very ruinous state, 
and unless immediate steps are taken, serious danger is apprehended. 

Mr. H. T. Prinsep remarked that Mr. James Prinsep thought that additional 
rooms might be built for the Museum. 

Resolved, — That Col. MacLeod be i*equested to furnish a plan to that effect, and 
an estimate of the probable expense, in order that the Society may determine on 
the subj ect at their next Meeting. 

After the conclusion of the routine business, Mr. H. T. Prinsep called the at- 
tention of the Members present to M. Masson's large collection of coins and relics 
then exhibited on the table. 

This collection Mr. Prinsep stated had been made from the funds advanced to 
M. Masson by the Government; the proceeds having been forwarded through Col. 
Pottinger to Bombay for transmission to the Honble. Company's Museum in 
England, were ordered by the Right Honble. the Governor General to be first sent 
to Calcutta for examination and arrangement by the gentlemen connected with 
this Society. 

The articles having consequently been sent round in the " John Adam" from Bombay, 
were laid upon the table of the Society in order that if any gentlemen wore dis- 
posed to undertake their examination and arrangement, the Society might form them 
into a Committee for the purpose. 

The collection consisted of some hundred gold and silver coins and several thousand 
copper coins. 

Some discussion arose as to the steps to be taken by the Society with this collection. 
By an unfortunate coincidence, all the leading numismatologists of the Society being 
absent from Calcutta, either through illness (as Mr. James Prinsep and Professor 
Malan,) or on Military duty (as Col. Stacy, Capt. Cunningham, and Mr. Tregear) 
it was suggested that the Government be requested to forward the collection to 
England, where the Court of Directors might refer the examination to Mr. J. Prinsep, 
who will no doubt be happy to meet the wishes of the Court. 


Asiatic Society. 



The Asiatic Society, 

Establishment and Charges. 

To paid Secretary's Office Establishment, from December 
1837 to 30th November, 1838 



2,238 13 
3,571 3 



7,621 1 

199 12 

2,190 8 

383 3 

7,755 1 

Oriental Library. 

„ Paid Establishment for the Custody of Oriental Books 
deposited by Government, from ditto to ditto, at 78 Rs. 

Library and Charges. 

,, Paid Establishment, from ditto to ditto 1,627 15 

285 12 

,, Paid Establishment, from ditto to ditto 

.. 2,619 11 6 

705 7 6 

,, Making Cabinets 

246 C 

. 1st. part of the 


,, Paid Mr. Huttman for printing 20th vo 


Librarian in the 


;; Paid for making a Cook Room for the 


Journal Asiatic Society, 

,, Paid J. Prinsep, Esq, for the Journal 

being supplied to the Members of the 

.. Remitted to England for the bust of Mr 

Establishment and Charges for the Statis 

„ Paid Establishment for the Statistical Co 
Balance in the Bank of Bengal. , , 

Asiatic Society 

Society in 1837. 


tical Committee. 



Go's. 1 





Asiatic Society, 

for the year 1838, 


By Balance of account closed up to 31st Dec. 1837, . . 


,, Collections made for quarterly Contributions and ad- 
mission fee from January to December, 1838. 

Subscriptions for Busts. 

„ Subscriptions made for the Busts of Sir William Jones, 
H. T. Colebrooke, and H. H, Wilson 

Government Allowance. 

Cash received from the Sub-Treasurer, allowance for the 
Custody of Oriental Books transferred from the College 
of Fort William, from 1st Dec. 1837 to 30th Nov. 1838 
at 78 Rs 

Ditto ditto for the Museum of the Society from ditto to 
ditto at 200 Rs , 

Ditto ditto towards the Publication of Oriental Works, 
and Works on Instruction in the Eastern languages, for 
Oct. and Nov. 1838 at 500 Rs 

7,848 15 6 


,, J. Prinsep, Esq. balance of the Fund appropriated for 
the publication of Oriental Books 

,, Sub-Treasurer, interest on the Government Securities de- 
posited with the Govt Agent up to 30th June, 1838.. . 




3,599 1 1 
803 5 2 

Co's.Rupees 20,688 9 7 

2,323 3 10 

9,626 15 6 


4,402 6 3 

3Ut December, 1838. 

Officiating Secretary Asiatic Society. 


X. — Meteorological Register, 

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No. 86.— FEBRUARY, 1839 

Art. I. — Report on the Settlement of the ceded portion of the Dis- 
trict of Azimgurh, commonly called Chuklah Azimgurh, by 
J. Thomason, Esq. Collector of Azimgurh. dated Agra, De- 
cember 16th, 1837. 

1st. The completion of the settlement of Chuklah Azimgurh, 
affords the opportunity for offering some remarks on its state. The 
settlement operations have extended from the year 1833 to 1837, and 
been conducted either by myself, or others acting under my superin- 
tendence. I am hence desirous to place on record the principles 
which have guided me, and to note some circumstances, a correct 
understanding of which is essential to the future prosperity of the 
district. My remarks are intended to be strictly practical, and to 
convey impressions and opinions having reference to the locality. 

2nd. A brief statistical account of the Chuklah will form a fitting 
introduction to the subject. 

3rd. It lies between the 25th and 27th degrees of north latitude, 
and the 82nd and 84th degrees of east longitude. It is bounded on 
the west by the Oude territories, on the north by the river Goggra 
and district of Goruckpore, and on the south and east by the river of 
Benares. The country is generally low, with water near the surface, 
and abounding in large jheels, or lakes. It is traversed from west 
to east by several rivers or streams, all of which take their rise from 
lakes situated either in the district itself or in Oude, at a short dis- 
tance to the west between the Goggra and the Goomtee, and fall into 
the Ganges ; of these the Surjoo and the Tonse are navigable during 
the rains, whilst the Phurchee, the Koonwur, the Bainsehee, the 
Munglaai, the Beysoo, and the Gunghee, are never navigable, but are 
highly valued for the irrigation which they extensively supply. 



Report on the District of Azimgurh. 



4th. The soil is generally fertile, and peculiarly adapted for the 
cultivation of the Sugar-cane. There are however Salt or Oosur 
plains, which no culture can ever render productive. 

5th. The size and general character of the several sub-divisions of 
the district will best appear from the following tables. They show the 
arrangements which have been made for the fiscal and civil adminis- 
tration and for the police of the district, and the charge which the 
establishments constitute on the resources of the district. 


Table showing the size and resources of the several Pergunnah 
Divisions of the Chuklah. 

2 « 

en a) 

O) r-i 

«3 1 

Si CO 


g g 


« "S 


u > 






<Z 6 







o G 

a r co 


co a * 

^3 « 


A H 






h O V 

bC co •qJ 


Atrowlee \ 
Tilhenee, 5 








• • . . . . 









. . 

















































Bilaree, . . 
















Havelee Khoor- > 
mabad, . . S 








Khas, . . 









Total of Pergh. ) 
Suggree, 5 







































Koorhunee, .... 








Gontha, . . 

Total of Pergh. > 
Ghosee, . . . . $ 

Uturahee Roo-> 
shungunge, . ... > 





















Mahol, .... 






Report on the District of Aximgurh. 


Table showing the size and resources of the several Pergunnah 
Divisions of the Chuklah. — (Continued.) 










Area in Acres 
of cultivated 


2 o^-5 


CO 1 

«3 «♦-■ a 

4)0 > 










< » 








Highest Jum- 
ma of present 




Mahol," ?... 

Total of PerO 
gunh.Mahol, 5 


Phurchuk } 
Havelee, 5 
Dowlutabad, . . 

Total of PerO 
gunh. Niza-V 
mabad, ) 


Total of PerO 
gunh. Kurri-v 
at Mittoo, . .} 

Dhurwara, . . 
Suleemabad, . . 

Total of PerO 
gunh. Cheri-£ 
akote, .... 3 

Duhkunha, . . 

Total of Ph. 1 
Belhabans, $ 

I Oowkaf, . . 

Behrozpoor, .. 
















































Kurriat } 
Mittoo, > 

























J 2,470 




























bad Gohna, 












Report on the District of Azimgurh. 


Table showing the size and resources of the several Pergunnah Divi- 
sions of the Chuklah. — (Continued.) 


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ft to 



Report on the District of Azimgurh. 



Table showing the extent of the several Fiscal Divisions of the Chuk- 
lah, and the cost of the Tehseeldaree Establishments. 

Name of 

1. Koelsah, < 

2. Suggree, 

3. Ghosee, < 

4. Mahol, .. 

5. Nizamabad 

Name of 
Perghs. it 

6. Cheria 


7. Maho- { 
medabad < 
Gohna, / 

8. Deogaon. 

ah Tilha-V 
nee, Kow-> 
reeah, and\ 
Gopalpoor. -^ 

Suggree, ., 

Mithan- V 
poor, . . 3 




Keriat f 

Mitthoo, &f 

Belhabans, j 

bad, Gohna, f 
& Mownatf 
Bhunjun, j 

Deogaon, . . 










t-> i— i 







































as. 22 









(D o 

3 6§ 


3 1 
2 15 

4 8 

2 9| 

3 6 

3 4i 

Note.— The area, population, and Jumma are entered as in the preceding Table, 


Report on the District of Aximgurh. 



Table showing the extent of the several Police Divisions of the Chuk- 
lah, and the cost of the Establishment. 

Name of 






Ghosee, . . 

Mahol, . . 



dabad, ., 


Name of 


2. Koelsah, 

3. Maharaj- 


4. Belema- 

. TT g un J e > 
o. Uzmut- 


6. Ghosee, . . 

7. Muddho- 


8. Mahol, . . 

9. Deedar- 


10. Kutwal- 
leea Azim- 


11. Nizama- 


12. Gunnu- 


13. Cheria- 


14. Belha- 


15. Mooba- 

16. Kopah,.. 

17. Mhow, . . 

18. Deogaon, 







U i— i 

o to 











-*> a 

.8 § 


Kl U 

O ^ 

o a 



















































. 60,344 


































































3 2 


6 8} 

1 3i 

1 12 

1 5* 

2 2| 
2 9J 
1 13J 

1 151 

1 51 

1 11 

2 61 

3 6 

1 91 

3 3 

1 14J 

1 1* 

1 15| 

Note.— The area, population, and Jumma are entered as in the preceding Tables. 


Report on the District of Azimgurh. 



Table showing the strength and charge of the Local Establishment 
on the Jumma of the Chuhlah. 

Nature of Establishments. 


o °- 
o a 

£ s 









S « 


. CO 

o c 

a g 











Per Centage of 
charge upon a Jum- 
ma of 13,06,642. 


Sudr. Revenue Establishment, 
Mofussil Tehseeldaree Estabt. 




2 2| 

3 4§ 

f This is exclu- 
sive of the Ab- 
"^karee, Stamps 
'& Opium. 

C This excludes 
j the Jail Estabt, 
"}& Burkundaze 

Total Revenue Establishment, 









5 7J 

Sudr. Magisterial Estabt 

Mofussil Police Estabt 




2 9| 
1 15| 

4 9i 

Total Magisterial Estabt 



Sudr. Judicial Establishment, 
Mofussil Judicial Estabt 



3 01 

Total Judicial Establishment, 



3 43 

Grand Total, .... 



13 5i 

N. B. The Darogahs, Jemadars, Sowars, and Burkundazes are reckoned as armed, 
the rest are unarmed. The Sudder Establishments show that portion of the charge 
which should be debited to the Chuklah Pergunnahs, exclusive of Pergunnahs Se= 
cunderpoor, and Budaon, which are part of the permanently settled province of Bena- 
res. The charge has been distributed on the Jumma, but the total of persons is 
shown. The higher Civil Establishments are assumed at the average salaries of the 
respective grades, thus, 1 Collector and Magistrate at 22,500 per annum. 1 Judicial 
Magistrate and Deputy Collector at 12,000 per annum. 1 Judge at 30,000 per annum. 
1 Principal Sudder Ameen at 7,200 per annum. 1 Native Deputy Collector at 4,800 
per annum. 2 Moonsiffs at 1830 per annum. 

6th. The chief natural products of the district are Sugar, Indigo, and 
Opium. Comparatively little grain is grown in the district, seldom 
sufficient for the support of the whole population, which is partly 
dependent upon importation from the neighbouring district of Goruck- 
pore, or from Behar, or the Western Provinces, as the crops in either 
direction may happen to have been the most plentiful. The river 

£4 Report on the District of Azimgurh. [Feb. 

Goggra is the general channel for these importations. Golahs, or grain 
markets, are established all along the course of this stream, and the 
supplies are thence poured in, as necessary, to all the manufacturing 
towns in the district. 

7th. Sugar is the staple produce. It is cultivated throughout, and al- 
ways yields a high rent, generally 12 or 15 rupees the acre ; but in some 
parts of Pergunnah Mahol, where the finest Sugar land is situated, it 
runs as high as 30 or 40 rupees the acre. An effort has been made to 
ascertain the value of the Sugar annually produced in the district, 
founded on a calculation of the quantity of land shown by the settle- 
ment returns to be under Sugar cultivation, and the average produce 
of the land. This estimate gives a total area of 1,02,735 beegahs 
(acres 57,877)* the produce of which is 12,32,707 Ghazeepore maunds 
(11,55,663 cwt.) of Goor, or inspissated juice. This may be valued at 
33,89,946 rupees, and is calculated to yield 3,08, 177 maunds (2,88,916 
cwt.) of Sugar of 1st quality, and 1,23,271 maunds (1,15,989 cwt.) of 
Sugar of 2nd quality, and to give the manufacturers a net profit 
of 4,12,957 rupees. For this estimate, I am indebted to the ingenuity 
and research of my successor in the collectorship of the district, Mr. R. 
Montgomery. As the calculation is curious, I have given it in detail 
in the Appendix (A.) 

8th. The price 
of Sugar has 
varied consider- 
ably during the 
last few years. 
When that ar- 
ticle formed part 
of the Com- 
pany's invest- 
ment, about 5 or 

6,00,000 were advanced to persons in the district for its supply, and 
then prices were steady; but when this demand was suddenly stopped 
in 1832-3, and the Company withdrew from the market, prices of 
course fell, and some distress was consequently experienced till the 
trade found new channels. Lately, the reduction in England of the 
duties on East India Sugar, has occasioned much speculation, and a 
great rise of prices. It is not likely they will continue long at the same 
standard, but a much lower rate will handsomely remunerate the cul- 
tivator, and lead to considerable extention of the cultivation. 

9th. The immediate effect of the demand for the home market has 
been to draw down to Calcutta a great deal of the Sugar, which till 
lately had found its way to Mirzapore, and thence to the markets of 




Price of Goor in 1236 


for the rupee 

» 1237 

1830.. 12 


„ 1238 

1831.. 14 


„ 1239 

1832.. 17 

» i 

„ 1240 

1833.. 23 


„ 1241 

1834.. 20 


„ 1242 

1835.. 16 


„ 1243 

1836.. 16 


„ 1244 

1837.. 12 


1839.] Report on the District of Azimgurh. 85 

Central India, and the Western Provinces. The total quantity 
for which certificates have been granted under Act xxxn, 1836, 
from the time the provisions of that enactment came into operation 
in December 1836, till November 1837, was 1,58,162 maunds. All 
the raw produce of the district is manufactured into Sugar within its 
limits, and exported in the refined state. European skill or capital 
has not yet been largely or successfully employed in the manufacture : 
this is generally conducted at small native factories scattered all over 
the districts. There are scarcely any large villages without one or two 
of these factories, which afford a ready market for the produce of 
the surrounding country. The largest native factory belongs to 
Deep Chund Suhoo, and is situated at Decha, in Pergunnah Nizama- 
bad, about eight miles south east of Azimgurh. The same person 
has also a similarly large factory at Muchaitee in Jaunpore, just on 
the southern border of Pergunnah Deogaon, whence a great deal of 
the raw material is drawn. It should however be remarked, that the 
juice is expressed, and inspissated, i.e. formed into Goor, by every 
cultivator himself, at simple mills, and boilers erected in the immedi- 
ate neighbourhood of his field. The manufacturer confines his labour 
to converting this Goor into refined Sugar. 

10th. Indigo was some years ago much more cultivated than it is at 
present : the quantity now annually manufactured is about 1,500 
maunds. It is reckoned a good quality in the market, and brings a 
good price, but still neither the climate nor soil is peculiarly adapted 
to the production of the plant; and whilst Sugar is so much in demand, 
advances can readily be obtained by the cultivators on Sugar-cane 
crops, and the facilities of procuring land for Indigo will be diminish- 
ed. Since, however, Europeans have been permitted to hold land, 
several villages, or parts of villages, have passed into the hands of the 
Indigo planters by sale, or mortgage, and in these Indigo can be culti- 
vated to any extent that may be found profitable. 

11th. About 1,700 maunds of Opium are annually produced in the 
district. This, at the cost price of 300 rupees per maund, would bring 
upwards of 5,00,000 of rupees into the hands of the agriculturists. 
The cultivation of the Poppy is at present confined almost entirely to 
the Keorees, a class of industrious cultivators, some of whom are to be 
found in almost every large village in the district, conducting the gar- 
den cultivation in its immediate precincts. They are generally tenants 
with rights of occupancy, or at will, and are very seldom themselves 
proprietors of the land. They constitute almost a separate community, 
having Mahtoes or Sirdars from amongst their own body, through 

86 Report on the District of Azimgurh. |_Feb. 

whom their concerns, especially in the Opium department, are 
managed. The cultivation of the Poppy might be very much in- 
creased, and the north eastern parts of the district are peculi- 
arly adapted for its production ; but the expenses attending the 
cultivation are heavy, and now that Sugar yields so profitable a 
return, and is so much in demand, it is not probable that the 
production will be greatly increased at the present price. The 
cultivation is also generally unpopular ; the Zemindar is jealous of his 
Keorees taking advances from the Opium department, because it 
renders them, in some measure, independent of him, and introduces 
into the village another authority than his own. The Keorees 
themselves would like the employment, if they were always sure of 
protection from the exactions of the inferior officers of the depart- 
ment. This of course depends upon the nature and vigilance of the 
superintendence exercised over the department. At present the organi- 
zation is far more complete and efficient than it has been for some 

12th. The manufactures of the district are a considerable source of 
wealth to it. These consist mainly of Cotton cloths, but some Silk 
goods are also made, and others, containing a mixture of Cotton and 
Silk, commonly called Tussur. The demand for these goods used to 
be very great, but is now much diminished by the competition of 
English goods. English twist is also very extensively introduced into 
the market, and has in a great measure supplanted the use of the 
native thread. This again has much injured the quality of the cloth, 
for though the English is more regular and even in its texture, it is 
far less durable than the country thread. The Cloth is made at looms 
erected in the private houses of the weavers, who are congregated in 
great numbers at some of the principal towns, such as Moobaruck- 
poor, Kopah, and Mhow, and are also to be found in many large 
villages in all parts of the district. They are all Mahomedans, a 
weak and sickly looking people, but mostly possessing fire arms, and 
very liable to be excited to riot by any thing which affects their 
religious prejudices. They have of late years been particularly tur- 
bulent, in consequence of the spread amongst them of the tenets of 
Seyud Uhmud. This sect is especially opposed to the ceremonies of 
the Mohurrum, and the several superstitions which characterize the 
prevailing belief of the Sheeas ; whilst, by its general intolerance, it 
tends to embroil the whole body of Mussulmans with the Hindoo 

13th. Every loom pays a small acknowledgment to the Zemindar, 

1839.] Report on the District of Azimgurh. 87 

under the title of Kurgahee (from Kurga, a loom). This is com- 
monly called a tax, but it is more properly a rent, or equivalent for 
permission to reside on the estate, and obtain the protection of its 
owner. The payment is very trifling, generally of a few annas on 
each loom in the year ; it is highly prized by the Zemindars, and 
cheerfully paid by the weavers, when no attempt is made to raise 
the rate, or to infringe upon the established custom regarding it. 

14th. It is calculated that there are 13,682 looms in the district, of 
which 10,561 are for the manufacture of Cotton, and 3,121 of Silk 
and Tussur goods. These looms probably produce 10,00,000 of pieces 
in the year, which may be valued at 23,00,000, and are supposed to 
yield a net profit of nearly 4,00,000 to the manufacturers. The 
particulars of this estimate, also furnished to me by the kindness of 
Mr. Montgomery, will be found in the Appendix (B.) It is not 
likely to be too high, for the value of the exports in Cloth are sup- 
posed to be about 10,00,000 rupees, which would leave only 13,00,000 
rupees worth to clothe 8,00,000 of people. None but the more wealthy 
classes wear any other than the manufactures of the district. 

15th. It is not easy to account for the existence of these manufac- 
tures, so far inland, and in a country where no Cotton whatever is 
produced. Their rise was probably occasioned by peculiar encou- 
ragement afforded by former Governments ; and in Mhow, tradition 
especially states this to have been the case, when the little Pergun- 
nah formed the appanage of one of the Begums of the imperial house 
of Delhi, in the reign of the Emperor Shah Jehan. Probably, too, 
the superior fertility of the soil, the uniformity of the climate, and 
the exemption of the country from the severe droughts which occa- 
sionally lay waste other districts, has contributed to this. The great 
variation of the price of food in the large grain districts, would tend to 
discourage the formation of a manufacturing community. The habits 
which would be naturally engendered in a year of plenty would 
necessarily cause ruin and emigration in a year of local scarcity. On 
the other hand, a district which is always dependent on commerce 
for the support of its redundant population, would never suffer much 
distress, except in a season of general famine, when the whole country 
would be reduced to equal misery and destitution. 

16th. There is not much trade passing through the district. The 
Goggra and Goomtee on either side of it, and the Ganges at no great 
distance, are the great channels of commerce. Some Salt finds its way 
across from the Ganges to the Goggra, and grain is carried back in 
return, but this is mostly intended to facilitate the supply of the local 

88 Report on the District of Azimgurh. [Fe?. 

wants of intermediate towns. A considerable quantity of Cotton 
however passes from Mirzapore, and the markets near Allahabad to 
Goruckpore, and Nipal through Jaunpore and Azimgurh. 

17th. The chief Exports and Imports of Goods may be roughly stated 
thus, though the latter are evidently much underrated — bullion, in 
shape of cash remittances by the Government, is not mentioned. 


Cotton and Silk Piece Goods (entirely in hands of 

Native traders), 10,00,000 

Opium, 5,09,700 

Indigo, 2,70,000 

Sugar exported by Europeans, . . . . . . 19,00,000 

Ditto ditto by Natives, 3,50,000 

Total Rs. . . 40,29,700 


Raw Cotton, 2,15,000 

Miscellaneous Spices, &c. . . . . . . 90,000 

Grain, 9,40,000 

Total Rs. .. 12,45,000 

18th. The total Receipts and Disbursements of the Government 
Treasury in the whole district (including Pergunnahs Seeunderpore,, 
and Badaon of the province of Benares,) are Rs. 19,64,150, thus, 


Land Revenue, 14,77*150 

Stamps, 35,000 

Abkaree, 72,000 

Miscellaneous, 3,80,000 

Total Rs. 19,64,150 


Local Expenditure, . . . . . . . . 5,63,000 

By Bills, 8,27J50 

Transported to Benares, 5,74,000 

Total Rs. 19,64,150 

.v,,,,,,, i '■//' 


„ti„i> i/i ilir Ihslnct "f Azumjinh 

< nU.wI.-.I !.,- 

:: , 1 i l "'" r " r: "" 

om ■ !<■■ 


Tto-lir "-.-r, »,ll, II..- N-» I.M...K.,, 





I J. BJ n !■• „ 


Bc.h,. B. D 
21,836 12 15 

3.873 6 

1699 S 
3,951 16 

thumb 1'- 
12,252 21 n 

8 ;'H 13 , 

15,183 .1- 10 

1.916 23 3 
6,811 21 I2j 

in.. 12 

95,061 i; i 

19,013 26 li 

7,00,809 ii 12 

. :i 930 i. - 

1,27,818 11 S 


96,270 1 1 
2,54,719 15 16 

6,37,1 ! 

5 -• 1 r. 12 

1.05,631 8 u 
2,31,563 10 


\ ; :. .;:„,:,„,: 
/,, S •■ :::::::: 

i WW 


' .\ , .'-Vj.,..i-V..' l .'"ii. :: ;; ':. :. ;; 


;. I-J I : 

- 1 ! 

i l,2i : ii : 

6,37,099 2 ii 

l-'.'l- - 16 1 

7.12,857 9 8 1 
8.28,288 13 17 2 

j,28 1 15 12 " 

J '31ii5l> 15 3 2 

25,991 J u 

3.U0.544 II ii ii 

•'. - ■■ 

3 l 3o~S99~Tiir~u 




- - ■ 

1 . ./I s I | 

1,5.3,638 1 12 U 


K „»,,„,„ 


i !: J 2M li li 2 

iSfinf ? 

1,16.191 10 8 U 
6,071 I" 17 1 


1,23.166 5 5 1 
i . 120 i ■ i i 


i -III - 16 i. 
2/.JM&2 10 . " 

11,787 ., 7 



,-,,.,* ,.||; 


71167 sun 

i .. ,, , 


1,10,977 - " ii 

1.:.'..:., i ii .i 

I.II.Z.'U 12 ll ii 

1,30,508 6 8 il 

7,630 - i i 

1,51,837 3 2 1 

• I. ,-.. . 

-Hi- I 7 11.08, , I 

;.._•.. ,n , 

96,210 1 1 11 
5,776 3 19 3 

1,02,046 5 3 .1 
1,13,773 11 II 1 

2,31,583 10 ii ■■ 

2,.H;I9 l'i I'. 'I 

2.70.UU1 3 1 2 
1,01,032 11 7 

■ ' 

■ ■> 7 1 » 23 2 


*,81.7VJ 11 li 

9,84 Ol 15 3 



Total of Cotton 1 
1 cloths, Silk and 

Total Pieces and the Value. 

Total Value. 




Total Profit. 




1 Rs.As.Gs.Cs. 



^2 8 



14,07,509 11 4 


1,98,946 11 4 

J 1 

G^ 0| 



32,873 8 

11,043 8 














75,697 8 

28,624 8 




19,515 13 10 

7,558 2 10 



75,769 8 

70,366 13 

5,402 11 



57,557 12 8 

49,913 12 8 




67,061 12 8 

56,249 12 8 















14,843 4 

3,636 12 

C1P o 


90,515 15 

78,365 6 8 

12,150 4 12 
















9,99,436 22,72,308 6 12 18,91,635 13 6 013,80,672 9 6 

1839.] Report on the District of Azimgurh. 89 

It is only during the last year that so much money has been drawn 
from the district by bills, and that is occasioned by speculation in 
Sugar, which is generally paid by bills on the Collector, drawn either 
direct from Calcutta, or intermediately from Ghazeepore, Benares, or 

19th. The inhabitants of the district are generally very illiterate. 
The Rajpoots, who constitute the great mass of proprietors, are seldom 
able to read or write. Endeavours have been frequently made to 
obtain returns of village schools, but these have been very unsatisfac- 
tory. Indeed there are very few professed instructors of youth ; nor is 
instruction regularly afforded to the youth of any part of the country, 
except at the Sudder station and its immediate neighbourhood, where 
the Residents have established schools. In other parts of the country 
the village Putwaree, or some other Lallah, occasionally gives instruc- 
tions in Hindee as it suits his leisure or inclination, and his neighbours 
will occasionally send their children, and acknowledge his services by 
small presents, perhaps of money, or more probably grain or other 
agricultural produce. All Brahmins of any learning have a few 
disciples attached to them, but this sort of instruction is not professedly 
for gain. It is restricted to their own class, and partakes greatly of the 
nature of a religious duty. 

20th. The returns show seventy-seven schools, where instruction is 
given for remuneration. The number of scholars is supposed to be 
674, and the total monthly emoluments of the teachers about 300 Rs. 
per mensem. The great majority of these are for the instruction of 
Mahomedans in Arabic, Persian, or Oordoo. There are also sup- 
posed to be 134 schools where instruction is given to 1,334 scholars, 
without any express remuneration to the teacher, all of which, with 
one exception, are kept by Brahmins for giving instruction in Sanscrit. 

21st. Having thus generally stated the extent, disposition, and 
resources of the district, I proceed to explain the nature of the landed 
tenures, as they are now found to exist. In doing this it will be 
necessary first to decide in whom the proprietary right to the land ac- 
tually rests. 

22nd. In discussing this subject, it is of little use to view it theoreti- 
cally, and to refer to the maxims and principles laid down in books of 
law. Supposing these to be ever so clear and decisive (which they by 
no means are) it is questionable if they ever were acted upon with 
any consistency ; or supposing them at any time to have been acted 
upon, the period has long since passed away, and the disuse into which 
they have fallen for centuries has practically annulled them. It is of 

90 Report on the District of Azimgurh. [[Feb. 

more use to look to the actual state of things, and ascertain as far as 
may be possible, what that was in any one part of the country, or at 
any particular time. It is my purpose to do this as far as I may be 
able, for the tract of country to which this report refers, and for such 
period as we may have tradition or history to direct us. 

23rd. The whole of Azimgurh must have originally formed part of 
Rama's kingdom of Ujodhya. The inhabitants of that time are call- 
ed by the present race of men Rajburs and Assoors. The latter is 
evidently only another instance of the tendency to attribute every 
thing that is old or wonderful to superhuman agency. There are 
still existing a race of men called Burs, a very low class, who general- 
ly tend swine. They are said to be the descendants of the aborigines, 
and it is not impossible they may be ; but they have lost all traces 
of their original character, and I do not know a single instance of their 
now possessing proprietary right. 

24th. The inhabitants of the country, by whatever name they 
are distinguished, were a powerful and industrious race, as is evident 
by the large works they have left behind them. Immense mud forts 
still exist, such as are seen at Hurbunspoor and Oonchagaon, near 
Azimgurh, and at Ghosee, which are attributed to them ; and traces 
of a large excavation still exist, which seems to have connected 
the Koonwur and Munghai Nuddees, and is known by the name 
of Asooraeen. The Huree Bandh at Ameinuggur, in Pergunnah 
Nizamabad, is another work generally attributed to them. 

25th. These people were overwhelmed by incursions of Rajpoots, 
who seem to have come over from the west, under different lead- 
ers, and to have completely subjugated the country. Whether the 
incursions were successive or simultaneous, or at what time they took 
place, there are no means of ascertaining. An inscription found 
in Deogaon shows that in the middle of the twelfth century that 
Pergunnah was included in the dominions of the king of Canoje, 
and was probably a favorite place of resort for the court. 

26th. These invasions of the Rajpoots are the foundation of the 
present existing proprietary right in the land. Different tribes located 
themselves in different spots. The descendants of each chief mul- 
tiplied, till at length, in some instances, they displaced all other 
occupants of the land, or at least assumed to themselves all proprietary 
privileges. The stocks were numerous : each Tuppah, or sub-division of 
a Pergunnah, is marked by the prevalence of its own stock. These all 
pretend to trace their origin to a single person, who first conquered the 
country. Thus, the Gautum Rajpoots came from the Dooab un- 

1839.] Report on the District of Azimgurh. 91 

der two leaders, Gen Rai and Men Rai. They established themselves 
in Tuppah Dowlutabad, and there founded two villages. Mehannug- 
gur was the residence of Men Rai, and Goura of Gen Rai. To one of 
these two stocks all the Gautums of that part of the country trace 
their origin. It is impossible to say when this incursion took place, 
but circumstances will afterwards be stated, which show that in the 
beginning of the seventeenth century, the family had increased to such 
an extent, that some of the stock were obliged to leave the country in 
search of subsistence. 

27th. It is not to be supposed that the families regularly multiplied 
without interruption from the first stock to the present day. Vio- 
lent changes constantly took place. Tribes were swept away by 
the incursions of foreigners, or by the aggressions of their neighbours. 
During the fifteenth century the kings of the Sherki dynasty from 
Juanpoor, exercised great sway in the district. Parts of the country 
seem indeed to have been held by Mahomedans. Pergunnah Belha- 
bans is said to have been peopled by Mahomedans, who were extermi- 
nated by an incursion of the Bais Rajpoots, who are at present in 
exclusive possession of the country. Thus too Tuppah Shah Suleem- 
poor, in Pergunnah Deogaon, seems both from its name and the 
numerous Mahomedan tombs still existing, to have been not very long 
ago in the possession of Mussulmans, though it is held entirely by a 
race of Bhooimjars, who came originally from Goruckpore, and are of 
the same stock as the Rajah of Benares. 

28th. The occasional incursions and supremacy of the Mussulmans 
is strongly marked in different parts of the country by the existence 
of shrines and tombs of Shuheed Murds, who are believed to have 
fallen in contests with the inhabitants of the country, either Hindoos, 
if in later times, or evil genii, if in older times. Thus the town of 
Mhow obtains its distinctive title of e Nath Bhunjun' from the exploit 
of a saint called Mullick Tahir, who expelled the evil genius Deo 
Nauth, and made the country habitable by men; or, in other words, 
was some adventurer, who drove out the original inhabitants, and 
located a colony of Mussulmans. The followers of Mullick Tahir 
have however long since given place to a colony of Dhoonwar 
Rajpoots, and no trace of the exploit now remains but the old shrine, 
with numerous other graves strewed around it, where the devotion of 
all classes, Hindoos as well as Mahomedans, constantly keeps a light 
burning. Instances similar to this are numerous. 

29th. Near the close of the 16th century a member of the Gautum 
family of Rajpoots in Tuppah Dowlutabad, Pergunnah Nizamabad, 

92 Report on the District of Azimgurh. [Feb. 

who had left his native village of Mehannuggur, in consequence of 
the smallness of his share being insufficient for his support, found 
employment in the imperial court at Delhi, turned Mussulman, 
became an eunuch of the palace, and obtained in the fourth year of 
Jehangire (a.d. 1609,) a grant of the Zemindarry of 22 Pergunnahs, 
in which Chuklah Azimgurh was included. 
« . , TTU1 . From a.d. 1609 to a.d. 1771, nine succes- 

Rajah Ubluman Sing 

Alee Mahomed Nadir sions of these Rajahs are said to have taken 
Ra^XHurbunJ place. Their power appears to have varied great- 

Rajah Dhumee Dhur, ly. Their rule is said to have been very oppres- 

Rajah Azim Khan, . _, . , _ ' ■ jL A\ 

Rajah Ikram Khan, sive. They never paid more than 50,000 to 
Rajah lmdufKha^, han ' 1,00,000 Rupees into the imperial treasury, and 
Rajah Jehan Khan, even this was often withheld, and the efforts 

Rajah Azim Khan. „ , ^» . i • i . i i .«, 

of the Rajahs are said to have been uniformly 
directed to the annihilation of all other rights but their own. The 
Canoongoes were proscribed, and all Pergunnah records that could be 
found destroyed. Hence none are now found of a date belonging 
to this period, or prior to it. The Rajahs were first much resisted by 
the other tribes of Rajpoots, and it was not till after much fighting 
that Azim Khan, the fourth of the race, about a.d. 1620, overcame 
the Bais Rajpoots of Uthaisee, and founded the Fort of Azimgurh, 
Mahabut Khan (said to have reigned from 1677 to 1722) was the 
most powerful, and established his authority from the Goggra to the 
Ganges. In 1 77 U the Nuwab of Oude, Shoojahood Dowlah, resumed 
the grant, expelled and proscribed the family, and governed the district 
by Chukladars, till it was ceded to the British in 1801. 

30th. Subsequently to our acquisition of the country, the descend- 
ants of this line sued the Government in the Provincial Court of 
Benares for their restoration to the Zemindarry. The suit was of 
course thrown out, but in the course of it the claimants produced an 
Altumgha Sunnud as the foundation of their right, granted in the 
fourth year of Jehangire. Doubts may be entertained of the authen- 
ticity of this document, but there is no reason to doubt that some 
such Sunnud was given, and the document produced in Court, if not 
the identical one, was probably an imitation of it, or at least was 
drawn up in the form which such grants generally assume. As the 
document possesses some interest, from the light it is calculated to 
throw on the proper meaning of the much contested term Zemindar 
I subjoin a copy of it, and a translation in plain English, divested of 
the redundancies of the original. 

1839.] Report on the District of Azimgurh. 93 

s . . ..... ... .«•.••. v It has happened in this pro- 

, ' . , i .«, . iv. M f pitions time that Ubhinan 

. ^ . . Sing, Zemindar of Mehannug- 

• T J J J ^ gur in Nizamabad, has embra- 

&>>< »W*b * l (>^ J***" 8> ^ J> ! ced Islamism, and been hono- 

^Ik^jUsM^^J^Ij^LJ red with the title of Rajah 

cIIa^j sJs^ jU^^ls^j^aU*^.!. Nadir Dowlut Khan. We 

p|^1 ^ioT *N *>>** j 1 *^y t 5*} have therefore bestowed upon 

i » .. i^, • . I ; him 22 Pergunnahs in Soobah 

' . ... ... Allahabad from the commence- 

* " y . ment of the Khureef Crop, 

J JJ J- J J J ^ jj and according to the specifica- 

JUB 3f i^ fi^^idJSJr^^ij tion beIow> 0ur illustrious 

«-ll»Uy-o (^b «3s/fiA*A»^ ^1^.3 CIajUS sonSj an( j ru i ers f the pro- 
2 jUalw. oltoU^ ^Uasa-o^ ^^.^ vinces, and Mootsuddies must 
y*} IjkjI JUaa>! j JL* &\J&j£ ^ ever use their strongest en- 

r <^ ^i jj.^] 3j\j&»ij* i*i deavors P er P etuall y t0 main - 

Vj**s")ji ***V J^J> u-**- tain this grant, and confirm the 
... (/ . . ..^ Zemindaree of the above Per- 

^ -* •" gunnahs to the afore-mention- 

iJsXdr * liSlls 1# .k-> .Xxj Ukj « (J^*j , , , . , , 

-? » • • -* ed person, and his descendants, 

i^U,>? ^>iij j^j*y. 3 J 1 ^ for ever. They will deduct 
lJo jVo j^- w 4-^b J^° O^*' 1,25,000 Rupees, as his Nan- 

y 9 j6te^>jj\j^3^*>>3*fi kar from the total Jumma 
• . . , . ... payable to the Government, 

J ' in order that he may spend 

H->W ^J *«y ^ -^T it, and the fixed allowance 

Ay£ vJIaa^x^ <*-9j.*a c?jl .Xm^ j per village and per centage in 

,gjj, Jj Jvy 3 j-aaXj *aLaj j!^ ^jt^w the Jumma and other Zemin- 

xv A U —o v- t darry dues for his support. 

. This Sunnud will not require 

^ c ^ ^ ^ renewal. Dated Rubeeool Ak- 

^j^U ^jj J ^^j uil^l Jij j Jxi* hir 15thj in the 4th year of the 

94 Report on the District of Azimgurh. [Feb. 

Specification on the reverse. 

" Uf Pergunnahs 22, Nizamabad, 

\-J yj \^ r^ lsi Li^ifcu *£y Kowreea Tilhenee > G °p al P ore > 

^1 ^:JU ^ *J& abT Jia Su ^e, Mahomedabad, Goh- 

? ~ f .? i, ^ na, Ghosee, Chukeysur, Nu- 

^ v " v ^ ./ I *- ' thoopoor, Chenakote, Kenat 

^, ^ -^ j. ^ Mittoo, Belhabans, Deogaon, 

b^ &# jH >& jOTjji ^ Mown ^ Bhunjunj Shadee „ 

l^b ^^iUt^b^ aUT^C^S abad ^ Behreeabadj pachotur, 

CIj Ubitf^jSU'^i* 2^»u*Jb Seydpoor) B i t t r ee, Zuhoora- 

*;f ^ a b La-U ^ x &^ bab, Bhudaon. 

*^^*y *¥ ^* *^ T <**« Nankar 1,25,000 Rupees, 

^';>t^ *^>J ^^ jH*#" Zemindarry dues per village 

i£,!aJ*oj ^W &1 ] <*& *^X 2 Rs., per cent 1 Rs. 

31st. If the holder of this Sunnud had been in power when we 
first acquired the country, it is not improbable that we should have 
acknowledged him sole proprietor of all this tract of country, and have 
reduced the real proprietors to the rank of mere tenants. 

32nd. From these revolutions the Pergunnah of Mahol was gene- 
rally exempted. A family of Seyuds obtained possession of it in 
a Zemindarry grant at a very early period, the tradition of which is 
now lost. They contrived to locate themselves firmly in the Per- 
gunnah. Branches of them entirely suppressed the Rajpoot commu- 
nities in many of the villages. The Rajah was dispossessed of the 
government by the Nuwab of Oude, previous to our acquisition of 
the country, but he still retains many villages as his private property. 
Some of these have passed from him, by sale for arrears of revenue, 
to the hands of the notorious Amil Sheo Lall Dhoobe, and yet in some 
of these villages the old Rajpoot communities exist, though they have 
long been broken down, and the members reduced to the rank 
of mere cultivators on fixed rates. Instances sometimes occur of 
the strength with which ancient proprietary associations are maintain- 
ed, even long after all exercise of the rights has ceased. The two 
contiguous villages of Mohujah and Newadah had long been held by 

1839.] Report on the District of Azimgurh. 95 

the Mahol Rajah. Soon after the cession they passed, by public sale, 
into the hands of Sheo Lall Dhoobe. No proprietary right had ever 
been claimed by the village communities, and yet in 1834 they fought 
regarding their common boundary, and lives were lost on both sides. 

33rd. The above historical facts have been mentioned merely to 
illustrate the mode in which the proprietary right was generally 
exercised, and how this right was transferred, and the present existing 
diversity of tenure introduced. I suppose the original conquest of the 
Rajpoots to have been the general foundation of the existing proprie- 
tary right in the soil. That right we often still find exercised in 
its original purity, but in many places no trace of it can be found. A 
few instances in which the mode of its annihilation, and the rise 
of a subsequent right is known, may account for these irregularities. 

34th. Tuppah Hurbunspoor extends along the south bank of the 
Touse, opposite to Azimgurh. It was held originally by a tribe of 
Sukrawar Rajpoots, a remnant of whom still survive in Ooncha- 
gaon. In order to strengthen their fort, the Rajahs of Azimgurh 
determined to lay waste a great part of this tract, and encourage 
the growth of jungle upon it. The Sukrawars were accordingly 
expelled, and the country depopulated. The soil however is rich, 
and in time, when the whim of the day had passed away, it was 
considered desirable to bring this tract again under cultivation. 
The Sukrawars were, however, then broken and ruined, and in 
no condition to assert their rights in opposition to the Rajah of 
the time. In this space, accordingly, to the south of Azimgurh, 
in its immediate vicinity, we find all sorts of tenures existing. The 
village of Siddharee was given to Baboo Baz Bahadoor, a member of 
the family, and added to his Talookah. He located cultivators upon 
it, and it is now his absolute property. A portion of land, for- 
merly called Sarungdurpoor, was given to Ikram Khan, who brought 
it into cultivation, and there located a body of Puleear Rajpoots from 
Sumaidah, in Tuppah Behrozpoor, Pergunnah Mahomedabad, and 
called the place Ikrampoor. He passed away, and the resident Raj- 
poots became recognized as the proprietors. Thus too Jaffurpoor is 
formed out of the land of the old villages of Pooranahpoor, Bullaisur, 
and Golwarah. Baboo Jaffur Khan brought the land into cultivation, 
and located some Dhoonwar Rajpoots, who afterwards, on the extinction 
of his family, became the proprietors. Another tract of this waste land 
was assigned to some Buneeahs, who brought it into cultivation, built 
a large village, and have left traces of their industry and wealth in 
numerous topes, and some artificial bunds for irrigation. This village 
was called Bodhaitah. In the days of the Chukladars it was plunder- 

96 Report on the District of Azimgurh. [Feb. 

ed, and the inhabitants massacred ; since which time it has remained 
without one inhabitant (Be-chiragh). In default of other claimants, 
the Canoongoe of the Pergunnah engaged for it, and now holds it 
in proprietary right as his Zemindarry. A Bunniah in Azimgurh, 
who claims his descent from the old proprietors, attempted to establish 
his right in the Special Commission Court, but failed. Ask any intelli- 
gent resident in the neighbourhood, who is the rightful Zemindar? — he 
he will answer, the Bunniah. Question him more strictly, and he will 
admit the prior right of the Sukrawar Rajpoots. Tradition reaches 
no higher. 

35th. Achar, and its dependant villages in Pergunnah Mhownat 
Bhunjun, was held by a tribe of Kaut Rajpoots. The Dhoonwars of 
the neighbouring estate of Khabseh were the more powerful : they at- 
tacked, and massacred most of them. The little mud Ghurree is still 
shown where the last who held their ground were put to death. This 
took place only a few years before the cession. Some of the family 
fled into the neighbouring district of Ghazeepore, then in our posses- 
sion, and have in vain since attempted to recover their rights. 

36th. A family of Chundel Rajpoots emigrated from the Juanpore 
district and settled in Pergunnah Nuthoopore, where they acquired 
much land about the place where the Durgah of Kullooah Bund has 
since flourished. A chur was subsequently thrown up between the 
Kuttooby Talow and the river Goggra. Of this chur the Chundels 
took possession. Their prosperity kept pace with the increase of the 
chur, and the Chundels of Doobarree are now one of the most flourish- 
ing clans. Their Talookah till lately was included in Pergunnah 
Secunclerpore ; it has now been annexed to Nuthoopore. 

37th. In many cases the origin of the present Zemindarry right has 
been the rent-free grant of waste land to the ancestors of the present 
proprietors, such grant having been made by the actual sovereign, the 
Emperor of Delhi, or his local representative. The grantee brought 
the land into cultivation, and as the former proprietors had passed 
away, on resumption of the grant by some succeeding ruler, was 
acknowledged as proprietor. Some terms of this sort are said to have 
had their origin in grants by the Sherki sovereigns of Juanpore. 

38th. The appropriation of waste lands was sometimes, however, 
founded on mere acts of usurpation by powerful individuals or com- 
munities, or has grown up by sufferance. Thus the powerful Pul- 
wars of Kowreeah have encroached on the neighbouring forest land 
in Pergunnah Nizamabad. Their occupation of Kadarampoor is 
a case in point. The rise of some Aheer communities appears to 
illustrate the latter mode of appropriation noted above. These people 

1839.] Report on the District of Azimgurh. 97 

were familiar with the forest, fixed their residence on some favorable 
spot, and began to cultivate ; and when a settlement came to be made, 
appeared to be the most convenient persons to admit to engagements 
for the land. Thus the villages of Tumbolee in Tuppah Phurchuk 
Havelee, Pergunnahs Nizamabad and Muhason, in Tuppah Chit- 
pore, Pergunnah Mahomedabad, are held by Aheers. 

39th. These instances serve to show in what way the original pro- 
prietary right, resting on conquest, may have often terminated, and 
been replaced by another right founded on grant of the ruling power, 
actual usurpation, or voluntary act, sanctioned by sufferance. It is 
immaterial now to discuss the validity or the legality of the circum- 
stances, which originally created the right previous to our rule ; it was 
asserted and maintained whenever there was strength enough to sup- 
port its assertion. Since our rule commenced, it has been recognized, 
legalized, and consolidated. When no other private rights are pre- 
judiced by the recognition, its admission must be beneficial. 

40th. Under the circumstances stated above, the proof of the pro- 
prietary right is of very different degrees and nature. 

41st. It is of course strongest where the village communities have 
flourished for centuries, and where they have been powerful enough to 
hold together, and to keep out intruders. In other cases, where the 
origin of the right is not so clear, we find it settled on the prescription 
of many years, and capable of immediate adoption. Generally in the 
formation of a settlement, possession is the point regarded, and if this 
be for only a few years, it is still sufficient to give a title, till a better 
be shown ; it being always borne in mind, that possession is only good 
as far as it goes, and that a Talookdar who has been recorded by us 
as Zemindar, may still have below him bodies of people, exercising full 
proprietary rights, and entitled to the recognition and confirma- 
tion of all those rights. In the settlement however of Towfeer 
Mouzahs, and of resumed Maaffees, the greatest difficulty often occurs. 
Here the proprietary right has been long in abeyance. All around a 
proprietary right is exercised, and has been so for ages, so that there 
is every reason to believe it has existed on the spot in question, but 
it has been in abeyance once, and perhaps disputed for so many years 
as to be difficult of determination. If wells have been dug, or trees 
planted, or bunds erected on the spot, these are always appealed to as 
proofs of old proprietary right. The enjoyment of the fruit of the trees, 
or of the fish of the ponds, or of any other of the spontaneous products 
of the soil, are adduced as proofs of possession of that right. It is a com- 
mon and convenient practice to refer to the Canoongoe's records, 
though these are of doubtful authority. Under present rules the case 

98 Report on the District of Azimgurh. [Feb. 

is referred to a jury, but even they are often perplexed, and I have 
known cases where contending parties have agreed to leave the deter- 
mination of the point to lot. 

42nd. In rent-free lands some neighbouring Zemindar has generally 
acquired some recognition of his proprietary right from the Maafeedar, 
either by direct money payment, or by an allowance of land called do- 
biswee (i. e. equal to two biswas in the beegah, or ten per cent, of the 
whole area) free from the payment of rent, or by cultivating a large 
portion of the land on favorable terms. Generally too the Zemindar 
appropriates to himself the sayer, or spontaneous productions of the 
land, but all these of course often depend on the relative strength 
of the Maafeedar and of the claimant of the Zemindarry. 

43rd. In the large co-parcenery villages, intricate questions some- 
times are raised by the claimants of shares, and it becomes difficult to 
decide whether a man is a sharer or not. A member of a village 
community often falls into distress, either because his share is really 
inadequate to his support, or because he has become impoverished 
by his own fault, or by misfortune. Under these circumstances he 
may make over his share to a co-parcener, or let it lie waste. In 
either case he may leave the village, or continue to reside in it. If he 
continue to reside in the village, he may still have his share of the 
sayer, though he have no cultivation. If a partition of waste land 
attached to a village takes place, he immediately asserts his claim, 
and if the settling officer were to take the determination on himself, he 
would find the task no easy one. 

44th. I have thus endeavored to show the probable origin of 
private proprietary right in the land, and of the forms under which it 
is found to be at present exercised. I will proceed next to classify 
these forms, and to point out the principal features which characterize 

45th. The proprietary right in the land may rest either in a single 
individual, or in a community of people. This community may divide 
amongst themselves the profits of the estate either according to their 
ancestral shares, or according to some arbitrary rule, having reference 
to the quantity of land which each member cultivates. Of the two 
latter tenures the former has been sometimes styled the Zemindarry, 
the latter the Putteedaree, or Bhyachara. None of these terms have 
local application. The term Zemindar is generally applied in the 
district to any one having a proprietary right in the land, whilst 
Putteedar is restricted to those members of the village community 
who are not under engagements directly with the Government. The 
term Bhyachara is not known. 

1839.] Report on the District of Azimgurh. 99 

4Gth. We will proceed to consider separately the three classes of 
tenures mentioned above. First, those where the proprietary right 
rests in a single individual. 

47th. All these are evidently liable to partition under the existing 
laws, in the course of the succeeding generations. The vesting of the 
entire right in an individual is rather incidental than natural to the 
tenure, and yet deserves special notice, because it is generally created 
in a way that brings with it special rights and relations. The sole 
proprietors of villages are mostly those who have purchased them at 
public sale for arrears of revenue, or under decrees of Court, or by 
private contract. 

48th. Purchasers by public auction, on account of arrears of rent, 
must be held to have become possessed of all of what is commonly 
termed the Zemindarry right. From the cultivated land they may 
collect the established and fair rates : of the uncultivated land they have 
the entire disposal. The Sayer, including the Phulkur, the Bunhur, 
the Julhur, and whatever Zemindarry cesses are levied in the village, 
of right belong to them, as does also the whole of the timber, which 
is not the personal property of the resident who planted it, or his heir. 
With the former non-proprietary cultivators the relations of the pur- 
chaser are well defined. He steps into the place of the former 
proprietors, and is entitled to collect whatever they used to collect 
before. From the old proprietors he is entitled to demand for their 
Seer the average rate paid in the village, or its neighbourhood, for 
similar land, by similar classes of cultivators, though this may be some 
times difficult to determine immediately. 

49th. An individual may have become possessed of a village under 
sale in satisfaction of decrees of Court, and this is more frequently the 
case than might be expected, even where the former proprietors were 
numerous. A wealthy and intriguing man who once gets a footing in 
a village will soon contrive to bring the interests of all the others to 
sale, and by purchasing them, become himself the sole proprietor. The 
right thus acquired is evidently more absolute than where it rests on 
sale for arrears of revenue, though the latter gives the better title. 
The latter absolutely transfers only the Zemindarry right, guaranteed 
by the State against all other claimants; the former gives the whole of 
the rights and interests of the persons whose estates were sold, but 
liable to challenge by any other claimants. In the latter case, the old 
proprietors retain their rights as cultivators ; in the former, they lose 
them, and sink to the ranks of mere tenants at will. 

50th. Purchases under special contract are of course ruled by the 
terms of the contract ; but here, as well as in the case of sales under 

100 Report on the District of Azimgurh. [Feb. 

decrees of Court, our mistaken practice has introduced much confusion. 
It became customary to consider the recorded Malgoozar the absolute 
proprietor of the whole share, for which he paid the revenue ; and 
hence the sale of his rights and interests was held to be a conveyance 
of the whole share ; a transfer of the names was made in the Collector's 
books, or, in technical terms, Kharij Dakhil was taken out, and it 
became no easy matter to determine what really was transferred. No 
doubt recorded Malgoozars have often taken advantage of this mis- 
apprehension of their rights seriously to injure their co-parceners and 
enrich themselves at their expense, but great injustice has also been 
caused the other way. A Putee has raised money on mortgage, or 
stood security in the name of its recorded Malgoozar, and received all 
the benefit accruing from either transaction ; and afterwards, when the 
terms of the contract have come to be enforced against them, have 
endeavored to throw the whole weight on the Sudder Malgoozar 
alone. The Government has frequently been thus a loser by accepting 
a Sudder Malgoozar as security in the full amount of his recorded 
liability. Cases of this sort must of course be decided each on their 
separate merits. I would only mention one rule, which I have found 
arbitrators adopt. Co-parceners living together, and holding their 
property jointly and undividedly, are held to be bound by the act 
of their recorded managers. The presumption in such cases is strongly 
in favor of common agreement to the act, and they must be very 
strong and peculiar circumstances which could establish a right of 
exemption from all the liabilities implied in the deed. 

51st. Talookahs are not always held by an individual, but they 
frequently are held either by one person or by a few living together, 
and exercising their rights as one. Any collection of villages held 
together, either by one person or by many, is in the common usage of 
the district called a Talookah ; but I employ it here in the more res- 
tricted sense in which it is generally received in the Western Pro- 
vinces, as meaning a collection of villages, each having a separate 
community of its own, which by some act of the ruling power had 
been assigned to an individual, who was to collect the revenue from 
them, and pay over a certain portion of it to the Government. 

52nd. Of such Talookahs there are not many in Azimgurh, nor are 
the few that exist of any great size. Talookah Baz Bahadoor perhaps 
is the only one which deserves very particular notice. Baboo Baz 
Bahadoor was a j unior member of the family of Gautum Rajahs of 
Azimgurh, already mentioned. He obtained from the Rajah of the 
time several villages. Some of them were waste, and he brought them 
into cultivation ; some of the village communities were weak, and 

1839.] Report on the District of Aximgurh. 101 

either he hoped to crush them, or they anticipated advantages from 
being placed under his care. He thus acquired about 20 or 30 
villages in different Pergunnahs, and by superior address managed to 
keep some hold of them till we acquired the country. Our first act 
was of course to call him Zemindar, and constitute him absolute 
proprietor of the whole. He himself however was not in a condition 
to avail himself altogether of the favorable opportunity. He fell into 
pecuniary difficulties — was obliged for sometime to make over his 
estates in mortage to a banker, and at the last settlement was unable 
to enter into engagements himself, and saw many of his villages 
transferred in farm to the members of the village community. Now 
in some of these villages the Talookdar was the only claimant of the 
proprietary right. The lands had been waste, and he had brought 
them into cultivation at his own cost, and here his recognition as 
Zemindar was proper. Where, however, the village communities 
had retained their rights, these were confirmed to them with reserva- 
tion of a Talookdaree right. Some cases were found in which the 
Talookdar had never exercised any right whatever over the village, 
nor derived any profit or emolument from it for many years, although 
he had all the time been nominal and recorded Zemindar. These 
were severed from the Talookah and settled with the proprietors. 

53rd. If the proprietary right rests in many members of a village 
community, they many divide the profits according to their ancestral 
shares, or according to some arbitrary rale regulated by the quantity 
of land in the cultivation of each proprietor, or, in other words, his Seer 

54th. When the profits are divided amongst the several co-parceners 
according to their ancestral shares, they may, or they may not, be 
cultivators of the land, i. e. the holders of Seer. The simplest form 
which the case can assume, is when they all live together as a joint 
undivided family, one person managing the estate for the rest, or 
appointing a common manager, and dividing the profits at the close of 
the year. Sometimes they divide the estate, their responsibility con- 
tinuing joint — sometimes the cultivators only are divided by the 
Putwaree, each collecting from those assigned to him ; and this assign- 
ment may take place annually, or when once made may continue in 
force till a re-partition is demanded. There are instances where 
each person collects from each cultivator the portion of the rent which 
is his share, but this is very uncommon. 

55th. When the proprietors cultivate themselves, the case is rather 
more involved. If the Seer of each parcener bears the same propor- 
tion to the total quantity of Seer land, that his share does to the 

102 Report on the District of Azimgurh. [Feb. 

whole, the Seer may be thrown out of account and the collections 
from the Assamees divided amongst them, according to their shares. 
This however is seldom the case. It is more usual to levy a rate on 
the Seer land, either the same that it would bear if cultivated by 
Assamees, or some other fixed and arbitrary rate, generally a low and 
favorable one. The village accounts being thus made up, the profits 
are divided according to the shares. In this case, if the rate levied on 
the Seer land is the same as on the Assamees land each parcener 
can take up as much land as he likes as his Seer, otherwise there are 
constant bickerings on the subject, for of course the increase of Seer 
cultivation diminishes the rent roll. 

56th. When however the proprietors live separate, but divide the 
profits amongst them, it is by far the most common to divide the 
estate, and each person to manage his own share as he likes. In 
course of time, however, inequalities arise either in the quality of the 
land in one share by superior management, or by the gradual en- 
croachments of one share on the common waste land. This gives rise 
to violent disputes — some claiming re-partition, others resisting it. 
These disputes are commonly Called in the district, " kum a beshee" 
i. e. where the contending parties affirm that the shares are less or 
more one than another. The man who thinks he has less than his 
right, claims to pay not according to his ancestral share, but according 
to his possession. This is not admitted by the other, and default 
ensues. Estates have thus been often brought to the hammer, at the 
time when sales by auction were the favourite means of realizing the 
public demand. Now they constantly lead to attachment of the 
estate. The only effectual method of terminating such disputes is 
by re-partition of the whole, presuming, of course,, that participation 
according to ancestral share be an admitted feature of the tenure. 
Clause 2, Section xu, Regulation vu, 1822, evidently contemplates 
cases of this sort, and confers the necessary power on the settling 
officers. Disputes of this nature are most common in the Pergunnahs 
of Kowreeah, Gopalpoor, and Atrowleeah Tilhenee, and they also 
occur in Deogaon. 

57th. But where the proprietary right rests in a community, the 
profits of the estate are often enjoyed not according to the ancestral 
shares, but according to some arbitrary apportionment on the Seer 
land of each proprietor. This apportionment of profit shows itself 
in the form of a reduced rate of assessment on the Seer land. In such 
cases the Government revenue is said to be paid or made up by a 
bachji on the Seer. These tenures of course suppose that each pro- 
prietor is himself a cultivator, though it may so happen, and sometimes 

1839.] Report on the District of Azimgurh. 103 

does, that the proprietor is not a cultivator, but has acquired the share 
by purchase, public or private, from a cultivating proprietor. Where 
the profits of the estate are divided according to ancestral shares, the 
Seer of a Zemindar is that which he has under his own cultivation, 
i. e. which he has cultivated at his own cost, and by his own capital. 
In tenures however of the kind which we are now considering, the 
word Seer acquires as it were an artificial meaning. It is that por- 
tion of the land in the possession of a sharer on which he pays the 
bachyh, and which when compared with the total amount of Seer 
in the village, represents his interest in the estate. It depends upon 
the custom of the estate whether this be all or any part in his actual 
cultivation, or whether he have any other cultivation in the village 
than this. Instances are not very common where the sharer cultivates 
no part of his Seer, and they generally arise, as above stated, out of 
forced, or voluntary transfers from cultivating proprietors. It is com- 
mon however for the proprietor to under- let a part of his Seer, 
obtaining from the tenant the full Ryottee rates, and paying himself 
only according to the bach,h. Instances are not common where the 
proprietors cultivate more than their Seer. One singular case deserves 
special notice. In Mowzah Oomahpoor, Pergunnah Mhownat Bhunjun, 
thirty-six beegahs were set apart in the village, and each sharer's 
right was determined by the portion of this thirty-six beegahs which 
he cultivated. It was his Seer, but besides this he might cultivate 
as much more of the village as he liked at the common Ryottee rates, 
and so all the sharers did to a considerable extent. Other instances 
probably might be found where sharers cultivated the land of other 
sharers, or the common lands of the villages, at the usual Ryottee rates, 
but they do not come permanently into notice. 

58th. It is evident that the Seer land may in such case bear any 
proportion to the Ryottee. It may be very small, and the great bulk 
of the estate may be cultivated by persons claiming no proprietary 
rights in the estate, or it may absorb the whole of the estate, which in 
that case is parcelled out amongst the several co-parceners as their 
Seer. The latter is commonly the case in the old Rajpoot communities, 
which have been strong enough to resist all the changes which 
violence or fraud so often effect. In Tuppahs Chowree and Koobah, 
in Pergunnah Deogaon, and in a great part of Pergunnah Belhabans 
this prevails. The members of the Rajpoot communities are very nu- 
merous and strong. They will not admit that there are any cultivators 
but themselves, and record the land as their Seer, each man paying 
a proportionate share of the Jumma according to the bachji. There 
is strong reason to believe that this is by no means so generally the 

104 Report on the District of Azimgurh. [Feb. 

case as they aver. They have no idea that an arrangement of this 
sort enables them more effectually to conceal the real resources of the 
village, and would be more effective in resisting the inroads or power 
of an auction purchaser, if any one were to attempt to take then- 
estate at a sale for arrears of revenue. It is certain that many 
under-let their Seer, and do not cultivate at their own risk. All aver 
that they give portions of their Seer in payment of service to their 
ploughmen, herdsmen, and other agricultural labourers. The Putwaree 
however does not enter these appropriations of the Seer in his accounts : 
their all appears as Seer, his papers merely showing the extent of 
each man's Seer, and the portion assessed on him for payment of the 
Jumma and village expenses. An exception to this may perhaps be 
said to exist in what are called in Deogaon, Muzhooree Ryots ; but these 
are only persons to whom the village community have made over 
shares which have lapsed, or are in abeyance from any cause, so that 
the land may not be waste and leave a heavier burden on the rest 
of the village. Where the whole of the land is Seer, in these cases 
the custom which regulates the payments is called bhahinsee, in other 
places it is called beegah dam ; in both, the practice is the same. 
The payments of the early kists are made according to a low esta- 
blished rate on the Seer land, and towards the close of the year the 
whole community assemble to audit the accounts. The village ex- 
penses are added to the Government Jumma, and from the total is 
deducted the payment of the Ryots, if there are any. The remainder 
is distributed according to the bachji upon the owners of the Seer 

59th. This audit of accounts (or boojharut, as it is called) is a most 
important process to the whole of the community. The right of 
admission to the audit is the criterion of proprietary right. It may so 
happen that a proprietor has lost his Seer, either from poverty or its 
accidental appropriation or destruction. Still he has a voice in the 
audit, and can claim a scrutiny of the Putwaree's papers. It may so 
happen that the force or fraud of a part of the community or of an 
individual in it, has for a course of years kept some of [the community 
from the audit. Such exclusion is fatal to the possession of the party. 
He is considered as dispossessed. 

60th. In a community it must always happen that there are some 
members of superior intelligence or wealth who obtain a prepon- 
derance in the brotherhood. Where so much respectis attached to 
hereditary right, this influence often descends from father to son, 
although the descendant may not be distinguished by personal worth. 
The engagements with Government run in the names of these indivi-, 

1839.] Report on the District of Azimgurh. 105 

duals, who are commonly styled Lumberdars (i. e. bearing the 
number in the Government Registers). These persons in many parts 
of the country arrogated to themselves the whole of the proprietary 
right, and imposing upon the ignorance of the European officers of 
the Government, succeeded in obtaining recognition of themselves as 
the owners or Zemindars of the estate, instead of mere managers on 
the part of the whole community. This however was less the case 
in Azimgurh than in the other neighbouring districts, especially in the 
province of Benares. The hereditary right of the managers had not 
become established, and it had been usual on re-settlement of the 
estate to alter the name of the manager, and sometimes to increase 
the number of managers. In the present settlement the question has 
been set at rest by the filing of an agreement entered into by the 
whole of the village community, declaring the office to be elective, not 
hereditary, and the incumbent to be liable to be ousted by the 
voices of the majority of the Puttee or Thoke he might represent, on 
proved mis-management. 

61st. Still under any circumstances the audit of the accounts is the 
fertile source of discord in the community. The village expenses 
are primarily authorized by the Lumberdars, or managers, and as 
they frequently include fees or bribes to public officers, or other items 
utterly unsusceptible of proof, are regarded with a very jealous eye 
by those of the community who are not managers. The power 
which the Putwaree possesses of fomenting these discords is great, 
and frequently used in the most injurious manner. It remains 
to be proved by the result, how far the avowedly elective nature of the 
office will be now effectual to stifle these dissensions. 

62nd. Although, however, the profits of the estate may be divided 
according to the Seer cultivation of the proprietors, it does not follow 
that the ancestral sharers are always lost sight of. Sometimes 
they are, and in such cases the only record of right consists in the Seer, 
which regulates not only the direct profits arising from cultivation, but 
also the Sayer, and other proprietary dues. Of this the best instances 
are Kotelah and Sirsal, and some other villages held by Mahomedan 
communities in Tuppah Phurchuk Havelee, in Pergunnah Nizama- 
bad. The origin of these communities seems to be totally lost, proba- 
bly they were originally Hindoo communities, and the genealogy was 
lost in the confusion which occurred when the Mahomedan faith was 

63rd. In other class of cases the ancestral shares are known 
and recorded, but profits are still enjoyed according to the Seer. This 
no doubt has often resulted from over-assessment When the demand 

106 Report on the District of Azimgurh. [Feb. 

of the Government is excessive, the proprietors are compelled to throw 
their profits as cultivators into the common fund, and of course those 
who do not cultivate could not share the profits, whilst amongst 
the cultivators the profits would be made to correspond with the culti- 
vation. Accordingly we find that since the cession, and especially 
lately, when the cultivated area, and consequent assets of the village, 
have increased without a correspondent increase of demand, many 
changes have taken place, and villages which formerly paid Beegah 
dam (i. e. by a rate on the Seer,) now pay Khoo taitee (i. e. according 
to ancestral shares.) 

64th. In the large Rajpoot communities where the whole of the lands 
are Seer, though the ancestral rights are well known, yet the custom 
of paying according to the Seer prevails from another cause, viz. 
from the constant transfer of land or of shares (generally by mortgage, 
but sometimes by sale) which takes place amongst the several proprie- 
tors. The natural multiplication of some branches of the family 
of course reduces their shares to so small a fraction that some are 
obliged to seek other modes of subsistence, and leave their shares 
in the hands of the wealthier members of the family. In other cases, 
want or temporary distress induces the mortgage of part of the 
share. The mortgage generally conveys the land with its portion 
of the revenue. Instances where the land is mortgaged free of reve- 
nue are rare, and the periods of such mortgages are short, nor are they 
often made, except to regular money dealers, the security of course 
being bad, as it is liable to be endangered by default of the mortgager. 
Wherever transfers of this sort are paid amongst the members of 
the brotherhood, the effect is to lodge large portions of the village in the 
hands of the wealthier proprietors ; and as the mortgages are often not 
reduced for a long series of years, or perhaps not at all, and are at 
length lost sight of, the ancestral shares cease to regulate the profits of 
the proprietors. 

65 th. I would here remark a curious distinction in these mortgages, 
which will often be found to afford the clue to disputes amongst 
the proprietors. Mortgages are either of specific fields, or of shares ; the 
former are called Khet khut, the latter Khoont khut. A man 
in distress will mortgage away all his fields one after the other, and at 
last he makes over his share also ; but this transfer, perhaps, carries no 
land with it. Khet khut does not impair the proprietary right of the 
mortgager, nor does it create any such right in the mortgagee ; but the 
execution of Khoont khut at once terminates the connection of 
the mortgager with the village, and substitutes the mortgagee in 
his place. The Khoont khut probably conveys only a nominal right, 

1839.] Report on the District of Azimgurh. 107 

or at least only a right to some small item of Sayer, still it is 
given with great reluctance,, and only under the sternest necessity, and 
on account of the higher value attached to the privileges it represents, 
may command a considerable sum. 

66th. A similar distinction often exists in titles acquired otherwise 
than by mortgage. In the village of Burragoon, in Tuppah Chitpoor, 
Pergunnah Mahomedabad, there were two Puttees in one half of the 
villages, and only one in the other half. The owners of the lat- 
ter found themselves numerically the weaker, and fearing that 
they might be overborne by the two Puttees, summoned a distant 
member of the family from a neighbouring village, gave him an interest 
in their half, and had his name inserted in the engagements with 
Government, together with the representative of their Puttee. There 
was much waste land in the village, and it was agreed that in each 
half the waste land was to be apportioned on the Seer of the pro- 
prietors. The stranger claimed his share, the owners of the one Puttee 
resisted it. On further inquiry it was discovered that the stranger 
had acquired a right to certain fields only, not to a share, he was an 
owner of khet not of khoont, and his claim of course fell to the ground. 
This is an instance of one of the modes, in which the practical bearing 
of the distinction developes itself. 

67th. The mortgage bonds of this sort are frequently worded so as 
to be deeds of sale, and yet by common custom redemption is allowed. 
It is astonishing what good faith is generally observed among the 
members of the large Rajpoot communities regarding these mortgages. 
A member may have been absent for years, but when he returns 
to his village in circumstances admitting of the redemption of his 
share, a meeting of the community is held, his share is determined 
and given up to him, or the mortgaged fields traced out and restored. 
An attempt to resist any claim of this sort is highly reprobated 
amongst the Rajpoots, and indelibly fixes a stain upon the person who 
resists. Unfortunately the artificial system which is springing up 
under the influence of our Courts weakens and undermines this 
generous conduct. Supported by the strong arm of our civil power, 
a man will now venture to brave the hostility of a community, which 
in another state of Society, would summarily have enforced its own 

68th. The man in possession is now supported by the Government 
till he is ejected by the decree of a Civil Court. The usual way of 
resisting claims of redemption is either by pleading actual sale, 
instead of mortgage, and taking shelter under the rule of limitation, 
which bars the admission of a claim after a certain period, or admit- 

108 Report on the District of Azimgurh. [Feb. 

ting the mortgage, by bringing forward a long counter-statement of 
expenses incurred in maintaining possession of the mortgaged lands, 
or in cultivating them. This account may be swelled to a length far 
exceeding the value of the land, or the means of the mortgager, and 
he is at the same time tempted to bring forward a counter-claim for 
the refund of mesne profits. A case of this sort can only be settled 
by arbitration. In some parts of the district, as in Tuppahs Chowree 
and Koobah, Pergunnah Deogaon, the admitted custom is, that re- 
demption takes place on payment of double the mortgage money, and 
here disputes of this sort are less liable to cause litigation. The 
village of Ailwul, held by a body of Bissen Rajpoots, which includes 
a part of the town of Azimgurh itself, is an instance of the ruin which 
disputes of this sort occasion. Two of the Puttees deserted the village 
during the oppressions of the period prior to the cession. After that 
they returned and reclaimed their shares. This was resisted by the 
remaining proprietor, who had borne all the difficulties which had 
led to the expulsion of his weaker brothers. The arbitrators absolute- 
ly, and free of expense, restored their shares to the claimants. A bloody 
affray ensued, and the subsequent bitter animosity between the parties 
compels the constant interference of a Suzawul on the part of the Go- 
vernment to collect the Jumma for the several individuals separately. 

69th. The system of Beegah-dam, however, very frequently prevails 
in villages where the shares are the subject of dispute, and here the 
greatest animosity prevails. The lapse of a share by failure of issue, 
the conflicting claims of children by different mothers, and the irre- 
gular transfer by widows, who may retain the management of their 
husband's land, are amongst the fruitful sources of these dissensions. 
Here the contending parties dispute to the utmost the point of in- 
herent right, and when driven from that, the predominant party fall 
back on the question of village custom ; and dropping all mention of 
the manner in which they originally acquired their large portion of 
Seer, claim the maintenance of the custom which makes it the cri- 
terion of their interest in the village. 

70th. The circumstances of Tolookah Sithwul, Tuppah Phurchuk 
Havelee, Pergunnah Nizamabad, so clearly illustrate many of the 
curious and difficult questions attending cases of this sort, that I 
cannot refrain from mentioning it somewhat in detail. 

71st. This Talookah originally belonged to a family of Rajpoots, 
who are now represented by four branches. Between the years 1085 
a. f. and 1130 a. p. (a. d. 1677-1722) they sold the estate to a 
Ranee of the reigning family at Azimgurh, who founded on it a 
Bazar, now called Ranec-ka-Serai. It was subsequently re-purchased 

1839.] Report on the District of Azimgurh. 109 

for 875 rupees by Tannee Rai, a distant relative of the proprietors, 
and a resident on the estate, but not himself an owner before that 
time. From the period of the purchase to the present day the 
descendants of Tannee Rai held with the heirs of the original pro- 
prietors, and all paid Beegah-dam, but till sometime after the ces- 
sion, the family of Tannee Rai remained superior. About the year 
1820, the descendants of one of the old branches sued for a quarter 
share of the estate, and on inspection of the genealogical tree, and 
a reference to the law officers of the Court, obtained a decree in 
their favor. In this suit the real question was never brought forward, 
nor the circumstances explained, under which the Tannee Rai branch 
was introduced. This decree was never executed, but at the time 
of settlement, the holders of the decree claimed execution of it from 
the officer who was conducting the proceedings. They were of course 
referred back to the Civil Court for an order on the Collector to give 
possession under the decree, and at the same time a proceeding was 
held, setting forth all the peculiar features of the case for the con- 
sideration of the Court Now we are able to perceive in this particu- 
lar case the origin of the tenure, and the means whereby a new 
branch was introduced amongst the community of proprietors, alien 
to the original stock, but still possessed of rights in reality far stronger 
than any of the others. The principle of the Civil Court's decision 
went to the exclusion of these, in fact, the rightful owners, and whose 
proprietary tenure had been sanctioned by the uninterrupted possession 
of upwards of 100 years. Similarly good reasons, no doubt, often exist, 
though the trace of them has been lost, for the numerous apparent 
anomalies, which exist in tenures of this description. The memory 
of the transaction had been maintained by its comparatively recent 
date, the high station of some of the parties concerned, and the ex- 
istence of the Bazar, which was named in commemoration of it. 
Similar transactions which were not rendered equally illustrious, 
were doubtless often forgotten in the convulsions and revolutions of 
former times. 

72nd. It is well to remark some of the incidents of this tenure, and 
the points wherein they vary from each other. 

73rd. Sometimes the Sayer are divided according to hereditary 
shares, sometimes according to the Seer ; the latter prevailing where 
the shares are acknowledged, the former where they are unknown. 

74th. The sharers may themselves cultivate, or they may have the 
option of under-letting their Seer. This depends more than any thing 
else on the circumstances in life of the sharers. If they are respectable 
men, who do not cultivate themselves, or have other means of liveli- 


110 Report on the District of Azimgurh. [Feb. 

hood, they are accustomed to under-let their Seer; but not if they are 
themselves of the class of cultivators, and have no other means of oc- 
cupation. In some instances each person pays the bach,h upon his 
Seer, whether it be cultivated or not ; but in general he only pays 
upon what has been actually cultivated. The former custom is usual 
when the proprietor is at liberty to under-let his Seer. 

75th. The managing proprietor, or Lumberdar of each Puttee, 
sometimes receives a fixed sum, or pecuniary allowance. This is the 
case in Sithwul, which has just been mentioned. Each manager 
there gets 25 Rupees, which is charged to the village expenses. In- 
stances of this are at present rare, because the other unauthorized 
advantages possessed by the proprietor have generally caused the office 
to be much an object of desire ; now that the situation has become 
elective, and held only at the pleasure of the community, it is probable 
that it will more frequently be remunerated by money payments. 

76th. Generally the Zemindars are not allowed to extend their 
Seer without the consent of the community, but where there is much 
culturable waste land attached to the village, or cultivators are scarce, 
the rules on this head are little attended to. 

77th. In all villages or estates held by communities, exertions 
have been made in the present settlement to specify and place on 
record the several peculiarities and incidents of the tenure, which 
have been referred to above. The members of the community have 
been called upon voluntarily to define these in a joint deed, executed 
by as many members of the body as could conveniently be brought 
together. The points alluded to in these deeds, are the mode in 
which the profits of the estate are to be divided, and the rules re- 
garding the enjoyment of the Sayer, the cultivation of waste land, the 
management of Seer land, the rights, privileges, power and tenure of 
Lumberdars, or managing proprietors. As far as practicable, whenever 
a desire to that effect has been expressed, the non-proprietary cultiva- 
tors and the waste land have been divided amongst the several 
sharers or families of sharers, so that whilst the joint responsibility is 
maintained, there still exists the greatest encouragement for the im- 
provement of each several share. 

78th. I have thus attempted to describe the principal sort of pro- 
prietary tenures ; but before proceeding to any other branch of the sub- 
ject, would briefly notice the topographical distribution of property 
which prevails in different parts of this district, and mention the 
mode in which the settlement proceedings bear in this respect on the 
state of property. 

79th. The simplest form of an estate is, where an individual, 

1839.] Report on the District of Azimgurh. Ill 

or community of individuals own the whole of a plat of ground 
lying within certain limits, and bearing a fixed name, as a Mouzah. 
This may from time immemorial have borne a single name, and 
be generally recognized as such, or it may contain within its area two 
or more Mouzahs, Uslee or Dakhulee, or both, whose separate bounda- 
ries have long been lost sight of, and which have become intermingled 
so as to form one village, probably bearing the double name. 

80th. The estate however may comprise two or more such Mou- 
zahs, and these may be situated together or at a distance from each 

81st. The ancestors of many of the Rajpoot communities were 
possessed of large tracts of land containing many villages. As 
their descendants multiplied, this tract of land was subdivided, and 
formed into separate Mehals. This subdivision sometimes was effect- 
ed so as to assign whole Mouzahs to different branches of the family. 
It was seldom, however, especially when the subdivision was amongst 
many sharers, that the property could be so divided. In this case, 
perhaps, some entire Mouzahs were given to each branch of the family, 
and the inequalities thence arising were made good in the division of 
some Mouzahs held jointly by all, or else each Mouzah was divided so 
that every branch of the family should have a portion. The whole 
Mouzahs, or portions of Mouzahs, belonging to each branch, were 
collected together, and made into one Mehal, or estate. But in 
the Mouzahs held jointly, the division probably was not in distinct 
portions, but field by field, or as it is commonly called, Khet Bhut. 
Now these fields sometimes became the subject of sale from one 
person to another, and the purchaser might call the purchased field by 
the name of his own Mouzah. It thus happens that many Mouzahs 
in Tuppah Chowree, Pergunnah Deogaon, contain within them fields 
known by the name of other Mouzahs, perhaps two or three miles dis- 
tant, and have attached to them fields in other Mouzahs at an equally 
great distance. In Tuppah Koobah, Pergunnah Deogaon, the case was 
still more involved by the circumstance, that sets of fields in se- 
veral Mouzahs, belonging to different branches of the family, bore 
distinct names. This distinction existed sometimes in the Govern- 
ment records, and not in common usage, sometimes in both. 

82nd. Now in all cases of this sort, the system of survey which has 
been followed is the most convenient which could have been devised. 
The professional survey gives the locality of the villages, or of the 
plots of ground constituting the site and the bulk of the village, 
whilst the native field maps give the several fields within the circuit 
of each village. These fields can be distinguished by different colors 

112 Report on the District of Azimgurh. [Feb. 

according to the different Mehals to which they are attached ; and the 
fair proportion of Jurama allotted to the Mouzah, may be readily 
assigned to each field, or knot of fields. The fragments of villages 
thus assessed may be grouped together in Mehals, so as to suit general 
convenience, and without any trouble to the revenue officers of 
the Government, or any risk to the interests of the Government. 

83rd. It may be useful to attempt a definition of these two terms, a 
Mouzah, or village, and a Mehal, or estate. 

84th. A Mouzah, or village, is one or more parcels of land called by a 
certain name, of fixed limits, and known locality, neither of which are 
liable to change. At the time of settlement, each Mouzah has a name 
and number assigned to it in the Government lists, and must so 
remain till the ensuing settlement, or till, for any special reason, it 
should appear fit, under express orders from the Government, to break 
up or alter the arrangement of the Mouzahs. 

85th. A Mehal, or estate, consists of one or more Mouzahs, or a part 
or parts of one or more Mouzahs, covered by one engagement with the 
Government, or Durkhaust, and belonging to one individual or body 
of persons, who are jointly responsible for the Jumma assessed upon the 
whole. These are liable to constant variations, according as transfers 
of property may take place. An annual adjustment of Mehals at the 
time of making up the annual kistbundee if done with discretion, and 
under certain precautions, will be found very conducive to the comfort 
of the people, and the convenience of the Government officer. 

86th. I would now proceed to notice the right possessed by non-pro- 
prietary cultivators, i. e. cultivators not under engagements with the 

V. p. 23, Gov. Government themselves, or through their representative. 

Genl's. minute of mi ,,..,,. 

Sept. 26, 1833. These may be divided into, 

First, — Those having an hereditary and transferable right to hold 
their land at a fixed rate. 

Second. — Those having a right of occupancy at a fixed rate, either 
for a certain period or during their own lives, or those of their imme- 
diate descendants. 

Thirdly, — Mere tenants at will. 

87th. Under the first term I would include all holders of resumed 
Maaffees, with whom such an arrangement has been expressly con- 
cluded by the Collector at the time of settlement, and generally those 
who by purchase, gift, or special compact, have obtained rights of this 
nature from the Zemindars, such as Bisweedars, Sunkullupdars, the 
holders of land at reduced rates, or rent free, as security for loans, the 
holders of land on special terms in lieu of proprietary claims on the 
estate. These persons may be, as it happens, themselves cultivators or 

1839.] Report on the District of Azimgurh. 113 

may have cultivators under them. At the time of settlement the 
extent of land held by them, and the conditions of their tenure, have 
been clearly recorded. The proprietor is of course responsible to the 
Government for the Jumma fairly assignable to their holding, but 
he may sue them summarily for the amount, and on failure of pay- 
ment may oust them or bring their tenures to sale. It may happen, 
and it frequently does happen, especially in Talookahs, that a whole 
Mouzah may thus be held as an under tenure by the old proprietors, 
who are responsible to the Talookdar and not to the Government, and 
who yet may manage the village concerns according to established 
custom as a proprietary body. The provisions of Act viii. of 1835, 
which authorizes the sale of under tenures of this sort, on failure to 
pay the amount decreed in a summary suit, afford considerable faci- 
lities for the realization of the rents from tenures of this description. 

88th. In the second class may be placed the former proprietors of 
estates sold by auction for arrears of rent, as regarded their Seer 
land — ousted proprietors, or old claimants of proprietary right, as 
regards the land they have long had in possession, and generally those 
who, whether actually resident in the village, or otherwise, may be 
proved to have long held the same land on the same terms for a course 
of years. The period which constitutes such prescriptive right has 
been no where settled. It has been held, that land so possessed since 
the cession may come within this class. A shorter period however 
might fairly be assigned, and probably the Civil Courts would recog- 
nize the term of twelve years as sufficient to constitute the claim. It 
is not unfrequently the case that tenures of this sort originate in con- 
tracts entered into by the Zemindars themselves, with cultivators 
whom they may engage to bring waste land into tillage. 

89th. Now it is evident that all tenures of this kind are liable to 
adjustment at the time of settlement. No proprietor is at liberty to 
fix rates which should hold good beyond the term of his own tenure, 
or lease, nor would the settling officer be justified in recognizing 
rates which fall below the average of the Government demand, or the 
fair proportion of assessment which may be levied from the fields in 
question. It is sufficient that the fair rate fixed at the time of settle- 
ment should be invariable during its duration, and that the extent 
of land thus held, with the rate and right of permanency, should be 
clearly defined. Of course if the holders of this land extend their 
cultivation, and take other fields than those which they are recorded 
to possess, they do not carry their privileges with them, but must 
make their own terms with the Zemindars for their new requisitions. 

90th. The most perplexing cases of this sort which are likely to 

114 Report on the District of Azimgurh. [Feb. 

occur, have reference to estates formerly held by large bodies of 
cultivating proprietors, which are brought to public sale for arrears of 
Government revenue. In such cases it is only the proprietary 
right of the defaulters which is extinguished, their rights as culti- 
vators remain intact. They are still entitled to cultivate their Seer 
land at a fixed rate, but the rate requires to be defined. Before the 
present settlement there was the greatest difficulty in deciding cases of 
this sort. The Putwaree's papers, supposing them perfectly genuine, 
show only the extent of each Zemindar's Seer and the bach,h he had 
hitherto paid. But the extent was stated in an arbitrary Beegah, 
commonly called the Bhaiunsee Beegah, much larger than the ordi- 
nary standard Beegah, being used only amongst the brotherhood, 
where relative and not absolute area was the only requisite. In 
order then fairly to fix rates for the Seer land, it was requisite that 
the auction purchaser should first measure the land, and then deter- 
mine the average rates which were paid by other cultivators for 
similar land. It was seldom, in former times, that auction purchasers 
were able to accomplish this. Any attempt to measure the lands of a 
turbulent village community would have inevitably led to a breach of 
the peace and bloodshed, and the loss to the proprietor would have 
been immense. The matter used generally to end in a compromise, 
which of course was more or less favorable to the purchaser according 
to the strength or influence of the two parties. The rate once fixed, 
and in general it was a very low one, the efforts of the old proprietors 
were always directed to including in their Seer the best, and richest 
Ryottee land. Hence the rental was soon reduced so low as to yield no 
profit to the Zemindar, and ultimately, in all probability, the estate 
was returned on the hands of Government as over-assessed. No other 
purchaser would of course come forward, a Government Suzawul was 
helpless, and unless some great exertions were made by the officers of 
Government, the deterioration of the estate was permanent. 

91st. Talookah Oonhaitch, formerly included in Pergunnah Pucho- 
tur, Zillah Ghazeepoor, illustrates the process. It was permanently 
settled in 1197 F., but broke down in 1223, and for many years 
had been held kham by Government at a considerable annual 
loss. It has now been re-settled with the former village communities 
at the old Jumma, and arrangements made with the proprietors for 
the repayment of the balances by instalments within twenty years. 
The Jumma, and the instalments have now been regularly paid two 
years, without the smallest default. The estate has since been 
transferred to Azimgurh, and forms part of Tuppah Purduha, Pergun- 
nah Mahomcdabad. 

1839.] Report on the District of Azimgurh. 115 

92nd. The case under the new settlement will be very different. In 
all estates held by cultivating bodies of proprietors, the custom of 
bach.h only is recorded regarding the Seer. There is no necessity for 
vexing or alarming the proprietors by fixing Ryottee rates on their 
Seer. If therefore the estate be brought to sale by public auction, 
there will not be found any rates fixed on the Seer. But still its 
extent and locality will be certain, and the rates paid by other culti- 
vators of similar rank in life for similar land will be found recorded. 
There are generally in Azimgurh two rates of rent for the same land, 
varying according to the rank in life of the cultivators. The respect- 
able, or Ushraf pay less than the lower classes, or Urzal. The Ze- 
mindars would of course pay the Ushraf rates. 

93rd. The cause or origin of this distinction is not very clear, but 
reasons may be alleged in its justification. The Ushraf are generally 
Brahmins or Rajpoots, who are connected with the Zemindars by ties 
of religion, family connexion, or friendship, and hence are somewhat 
favored ; besides which their respectability gives better security 
for payment. On the other hand, the Urzal, consist of Bhurs, 
Chumars, and low caste persons, who are generally located on the 
estate at some expense of capital, and are liable at any time to be 
left entirely dependant on the Zemindars, who must either support 
them during a season of scarcity or see his estate depopulated, and his 
future sources of profit destroyed. 

94th. The third class, or tenants at will, consist mostly of those who 
are styled Urzal in the preceding paragraph. They neither have nor 
assert in general any rights, other than the will of the Zemindar. 
They take what land he gives them, and pay the utmost that they can, 
either in money or in kind. Besides their direct contributions to his 
rental, they render him many personal services. If Kuhars, they 
carry his palankeen, merely receiving in return food to support them 
during the time. Other classes bring him wood, tend his cattle, 
or perform numerous other similar services for very inadequate remu- 
neration. Under former Governments this power was no doubt 
recognized, and permitted. They were then predial slaves, who were 
beaten without mercy for misconduct, and were liable to be pursued, 
and brought back if they attempted to escape. Their state is now 
much improved. The power is now conventional. A Chumar can 
now sue his Zemindar in the Criminal Court for an assault, and if 
detained against his will, can bring his action for false imprisonment. 
He can even recover in a Civil Court the wages of labor perform- 
ed. Nothing vexes or annoys the Zemindars in our whole system, so 
much as this. It has struck at the root of a power, which has long 

116 Report on the District of Azimgurh. [Feb. 

been exercised most tyrannically, and yet so strong is the force of habit 
and custom, that often as the power of the Zemindar is still abused, 
it is very rarely that they are brought into Court to answer for their 

95th. The foundation on which the right of the Zemindar now 
avowedly rests, is that of pecuniary obligation. He expends capital in 
locating the cultivator in the village, he builds his house, feeds him till 
the harvest time, supplies him with seed, grain, and implements 
of husbandry. On all these, an exorbitant interest is charged, and in 
consideration of the pecuniary obligation thus incurred, the services of 
the man are exacted. Hence the connexion is rather personal than re- 
sulting from the tenure of the land, and various circumstances support 
this view. In mortgages those rights are seldom, if ever, transferred ; 
in private sales very rarely, unless specified ; in public sales by autho- 
rity for arrears of revenue, never. Hence an auction purchaser never 
acquires any rights over the tenants at will of a former Zemindar, 
and thus the Zemindar always struggles to include all such cultiva- 
tion under the term of his Seer. In the partition of an estate, each 
Puttee keeps its own Ryots, and sometimes the most violent disputes 
exist as to the right to certain Ryots. 

96th. An instance may go far towards exemplifying these customs. 
In the partition of a village in Nizamabad, held by Rajpoots a dis- 
pute arose regarding the right to an Aheer. Each party claimed the 
man as his own Assamee, and wished his name to be inserted in the 
list of his own Puttee. Both claimants, and the man himself came 
forward. The facts of the case were admitted by all. A's ancestors 
had first located the man in the village, given him his house, sup- 
ported him, and for a long time retained his services — such as the 
first day's ploughing of the season, the first day's use of his bullocks 
in the Sugar Mill, the usual petty offerings of grain, molasses, &c. 
To improve his cultivation the man had dug a well, for which pur- 
pose he borrowed money from a Mahajun. A, was in reduced cir- 
cumstances, and could not pay the debt. The creditor pressed for 
payment, and at last B came forward, paid the debt, and subsequently 
claimed the services of the man, who now left his former house, and 
resided in one assigned him by B. The man himself, apparently a 
respectable and sensible cultivator, never thought of denying the ob- 
ligations of his situation, but said that on A's inability to support him 
his services were transferred to B. The matter was referred to several 
respectable Zemindars, who were present, and they unanimously and 
at once decided that A's right was indefeasible, except by his own 
transfer to B, and that the Aheer was consequently still bound to 

1839.] Report on the District of Azimgurh. 117 

render as before all the usual service to A, whilst B might claim in 
liquidation of the new debt, whatever else the Aheer might be able 
to do. This decision was communicated to the parties ; the Aheer 
was registered as A's Assamee, and all parties went away apparently 
satisfied that the case had been fully heard. 

97th. There are however many varieties of this class. In propor- 
tion as they are good cultivators, and raised above the menial castes, 
they acquire by prescription, rights which at length become valuable. 
The Keorees are an instance of this. They are by far the best cul- 
tivators, and they excel in gardening. A Zemindar is always glad to 
get some of them located in his village. He treats them liberally, 
because they improve the ground by constantly manuring it, and 
pay him high rates, and that punctually. Hence their cultivation is 
never interferred with. They get as much as they like, and are allow- 
ed to keep it as long as they will. The self-interest of the Zemindars 
would always be sufficient to protect them, except against sallies of 
passion. Lately however the independance of this class has been 
established by the rapid spread of Poppy cultivation in the district. 
The Keorees are the only class of people who will produce Opium. 
By taking advances from the Opium Department, and putting them- 
selves under the protection of that powerful establishment, they have 
quite freed themselves from any dependance on the Zemindars. It is 
needless to say, that nothing is consequently more odious to the 
opulent and powerful Zemindars than this Department. 

98th. It is clear that non-proprietary cultivators of this third class 
by long prescription would rise to the second class, and acquire the right 
of holding their land at fixed rates. 

99th. The better to define and secure these rights, it has been one 
great object of the settlement proceedings to form an accurate record of 
each of these classes, according to their several designations. In the two 
first classes, the extent of their cultivation and rate of payment has 
been determined ; and in the third, the land actually held, and the 
rate actually paid recorded ; this rental thus formed by the village 
Putwaree, in the presence of as many members of the community as 
may be on the spot, has been afterwards advertized for information in 
the village, and at the place where it was drawn out, a time fixed for 
hearing objections, and at the close of that time, the question has been 
finally disposed of. Whenever the prevailing rates may have been 
reduced below the fair Pergunnah average, from collusion, partiality, 
by special contract, or other cause, it has been sometimes necessary to 
re-adjust and fix the rates, which may be hereafter demanded. 
100th. The future maintenance of those arrangements must be left to 


118 Report on the District of Azimgurh. [Feb. 

the Courts of Law, but it is well to see how the present practice of the 
Courts affects them. Summary suits for rent will be decided accord- 
ing to these rates, unless proof be adduced that they have been set 
aside by the Dewanny Courts, or altered by voluntary agreement; 
and such voluntary agreement should never be admitted on the 
denial of either party, except under the clearest documentary proof, 
or alteration of the rates previously made by both parties in the 
register of the village. Any cultivator forcibly dispossessed of the 
land he holds, according to the register, might sue summarily before 
the Collector for reinstatement, to whatever class he might belong, 
and would be re-instated accordingly. A summary process is provided 
to maintain a cultivator in possession against his Zemindar, but no 
summary process for ejecting a tenant at will is open to the Zemin- 
dar. If any Ryot fails immediately to liquidate a demand for rent^ 
adjudged against him in a summary process by the revenue authori- 
ties, he is liable to ejectment, and his land is then made over to the 
Zemindar. Tenants at will seldom resist the requisitions of those who 
are really their Zemindars, that is, who claim the supremacy which 
has been before described ; but few would yield up their possession in 
favor of an auction purchaser. In such cases, then, although the 
Zemindar possesses legally the right of ousting the tenant at will, he 
can only legally enforce it through a regular suit. The Courts also 
can of course always take cognizance of claims to be removed from 
one class of cultivators to another. It is however very questionable 
how far they could interfere in altering the rates fixed by the revenue 
officer, unless on pleas originating subsequently to the settlement. 
They could at least only take cognizance of the question as between 
man and man, between the Zemindar and the Ryot, as it might be 
affected by contracts existing between them. They could not posi- 
tively alter any rate fixed by the Collector. If the estate were held 
kham, or farmed, or sold by the Government in consequence of 
default, the settlement rates might be demanded, notwithstanding the 
decree of the Court. If this were not the case, the rental might be 
reduced below the Government demand, and the interference of the 
Civil Courts might be thus exercised in regulating the Jumma, which 
it is an established principle that they have no power to call in 

101st. If it were desired to introduce the European system of 
farming, or, in Indian parlance, to make the whole lands of the village 
Seer, this could only be effected by purchasing up the rights of 
the two first classes, and by purchasing out, or ejecting, the last class, 
probably by long and expensive litigation. The insuperable aversion 

1839.] Report on the District of Azimgurh. 119 

which the upper classes (Ushraf) have to engage with their own 

hands in any agricultural operations, would render it very difficult to 

persuade them to part with their rights. 

102nd. It is necessary to allude here to the great number of 

summary suits regarding the payment of rent, which are instituted 

in this district. The number is still increasing, and the causes 

Number of Suits in- which have produced so much litigation de- 
stituted m the three first 
quarters of 1823— 374 serve note. 

1834— 358 First, — The operations of the Special Commis- 

1835- 675 sion under Regulation I, 1821, and I, 1823, for 
1837—1305 the reversal of fraudulent sales, and transfers of 

property ; was one of the chief causes. In the 
early period of our rule the district suffered exceedingly from the 
effects of our Code. This was hastily introduced, immediately on the 
cession, and gave a rich harvest to numerous intriguers, who poured in 
from the neighbouring districts which had been longer under our rule, 
and were better accustomed to the tricks and chicanery, which an ar- 
tificial system of the sort is likely to produce amongst an illiterate 
people. The choice too of some of the first agents for introducing the 
new system appears to have been unfortunate. The natural result 
was, that extensive frauds were perpetrated both in the registration of 
owners of estates at the time of the first settlement, and subsequently 
in the transfer of property under forced and collusive sales. To 
remedy this state of things was highly desirable, and the remedy 
ought to have been promptly administered immediately the evil was 
discovered. As it turned out, the attempted remedy was almost worse 
than the evil. 

]03rd. In 1829, that is, twenty-six years after the commencement 
of the evil, the Commission was called into operation in the district. 
Its conduct was entrusted to Mr. R. M. Bird, the Commissioner 
of Revenue and Circuit for the division, who was perfectly aware 
of the necessity, and importance of the measure. The Regulations 
quoted above confer an immense discretionary power, and admit 
of great latitude of interpretation. Mr. Bird commenced the work 
with energy, and began to act on the strong views he justly enter- 
tained upon the subject. Had these views been then carried through 
with promptitude and decision, great good might have resulted. An 
immense number of suits were immediately instituted, but in the 
mean time a change had taken place in the views of the superior 
authorities on the subject of this Commission. Some of the first cases 
decided by Mr. Bird gave rise to much discussion, and were reversed 
in appeal. No further decisions were passed, and the time of the 

120 Report on the District of Azimgurh. [Feb, 

Commissioners was speedily so completely occupied with their other 
duties, that the investigations lay thus in abeyance for seven years, 
till in 1835 a separate officer was appointed to close the investigations. 
When this took place, the views which led to the original enactment, 
had become completely altered, and all the claims which had been kept 
alive for seven or eight years, were speedily thrown out. In addition 
to this, the appellate authority, as well as the primary, had become 
clogged and overwhelmed, till about the same period a special provision 
was made for the discharge of its functions. Hence many of the claims 
which had been allowed by the Special Commissioner in the early 
part of the period between 1829 and 1836, and the parties put in 
possession accordingly, were disallowed in appeal at the close of the 
period, and the decree holders again dispossessed, and made to account 
for mesne profits. 

104th. Amongst a people extremely sensitive regarding their rights 
in landed property, it may well be conceived what injury resulted 
from operations such as these. It is unnecessary to notice here the 
evil effects upon the prosperity and morals of the people. Its effect in 
all estates which had been purchased at public auction for arrears of 
public revenue (and very numerous they were) shewed itself in the 
refusal of the members of the old village communities to pay their 
rents. Hence the proprietor of such an estate was sometimes com- 
pelled to file sixty or seventy suits in a single village or Mehal. 

105th. Secondly, — By far the larger number of suits were instituted 
in Pergunnah Nizamabad, and many of these resulted from the fiscal 
mismanagement of the Pergunnah whilst under settlement, from 1822 
to 1834. It was the field where every young and inexperienced officer 
began to make settlements, or to introduce a new system, and hence 
was the subject of many crude and rash experiments. Amongst these 
was the arbitrary fixing of rent rates, from which the Government, 
demand was deducted. In proceedings under Reg. vu, 1822, this was 
frequently done, and with the most injurious effect. The arbitrary 
rates could often not be exacted, but they gave the Malgoozar a pretext 
for demanding them, and consequently involved him in litigation. 

106th. Thirdly, — The very unsettled state of the landed property 
was another fruitful source of litigation. Disputes regarding boun- 
daries, and between Putteedars, were constantly thrown into the 
summary suit file. 

107th. Fourthly, — But all these causes were ten-fold magnified by 
the delay which used to occur in the decision of these suits, then 
falsely called summary. Till the Sudder Board of Revenue took up 
the subject in 1833 with their wonted energy, suits of this sort used to 

1839.] Report on the District of Azimgurh. 121 

remain on the file ten years or more. When the Civil Courts had 
the charge of the summary file, very few decisions were ever passed, 
and these few were, based on no fixed principles. Contumacious cul- 
tivators derided the efforts of the proprietor to compel payment by the 
institution of summary suits, whilst these were still placed on the 
file by the disheartened proprietors, lest failure to assert the claim 
might have compelled reference to a regular suit, which seemed more 
expensive and still more hopeless of speedy termination. 

108th. A recourse to distress and sale of personal property of the 
tenant was equally fruitless, replevin immediately took place, and 
further proceeding was stopped till that could be disposed of. 

109th. A very different state of things has followed close upon this. 
Within the last three years summary suits have been decided and 
enforced, through the agency of the Tuhsildars, with a promptitude 
never known before. A month or six weeks is the average duration 
of a suit, and none lie over for more than three months, whilst the 
Cutcherry of the Tuhsildar is a tribunal at the door of every man. In 
the mean time, the Special Commission has nearly closed its course, 
rent rates have been adjusted, and boundary and Putteedar disputes 
settled. It must also be remembered that the division of property is 
very minute, the number of subordinate tenures large, and that every 
effort has been used to induce the Malgoozars to have recourse to 
summary suits, instead of relying on the irregular and illegal inter- 
ference which used to be exercised by the Tuhsildars in the adjust- 
ment of their Putteedaree disputes, and collection of their rents. When 
all these things are taken into consideration, it will not perhaps be 
considered strange that the summary suit file is heavy. It will rather 
be thought a happy proof of the efficiency of the process, and a sure 
indication that regularity and legal modes of redress are rapidly taking 
the place of confusion and misrule. 

110th. The state of the rent free lands requires some notice. All 
the claims to hold land free from the payment of revenue have been 
investigated and finally disposed of. The quantity resumed and set- 
tled is very large. This consisted mostly of unauthorized grants by 
A mils, or Tuhsildars, or Zemindars, in which the original grantee, 
however, had generally demised, and the property had devolved upon 
the heir, contrary even to the terms of the grants. A large portion of 
the grants had conveyed tracts of waste land which had been brought 
into cultivation after the commencement of our rule. 

111th. An uniform principle regulated the settlement of all these 
tenures. Possession and the actual state of things was maintained so 
far as it was unaffected by the assertion of the right of the Govern- 

1 22 Report on tlte District of Azimgurh. [Feb. 

ment to its share of the produce. If any other than the Maafeedar 
was in possession of the Zemindarry, i. e. the proprietary right, the 
settlement was made with him. If the Maafeedar- had obtained the 
Zemindarry right by legal transfer or by prescription, the settlement 
was made with him. If he had not obtained the Zemindarry, but 
seemed to possess other rights as an under tenant or cultivator, those 
rights were secured to him on easy terms, and he was protected from 
any encroachment on the part of the Zemindar, so long as he faithfully 
performed his part of the contract. 

112th. A few tenures were confirmed for life, or in perpetuity. The 
latter are old religious endowments, which appear to have been held 
from time immemorial, and to have been respected by all. 

113th. The settlement of this province for twenty years has been 
formed in the seasons 1833-34 to 1856-7? and extends according to the 
year in which each settlement was formed from a. f. 1241 to 1264. In 
all, the settlement has been conducted professedly under the system 
generally designated as that of Regulation ix, 1833. The adjudication 
and demarcation of village boundaries prior to survey, the measurement 
both by Ameens and by professional Surveyors, the determination of 
the Government demand from general considerations of former fiscal 
history, and comparison with other neighbouring and similar villages, 
without a minute scrutiny into the assets of each estate, and the sub- 
sequent record of proprietary rights and rent rates, are the main 
features of the system. In particular cases the system may have been 
a little deviated from, as will hereafter appear, but this arose from 
peculiar circumstances. 

114th. The former assessment was in general light. The country 
was imperfectly cultivated. There had been no settlement since 
1220 f. and subsequent to that period much waste land has been 
brought into cultivation. There was therefore less caution necessary in 
fixing the Government demand than where the assessment had formerly 
been overstrained, and large reductions were called for. 

115th. Very few instances of recusance on the part of the Zemindars 
ever occurred. It is true that the average of the assessment on the 
cultivated land is not low, but it must be remembered that the land 
is very valuable, and pays rates generally much higher than elsewhere. 
Sugar, Indigo, and Opium are the crops which bring the greatest 
pecuniary return, and it is satisfactory to bear in mind that the rates 
were assumed about 1833-34, when all these products were in less 
demand than general. The advances of the Government for Sugar 
had ceased a little before that period, and materially deranged the 
market for that article. The failure of the agency houses in Calcutta 

1839.] Report on the District oj Azimgurh. 123 

had depressed the Indigo market, and the cultivation of Opium even 
now is less extended than it might be. 

116th. The chief labor of the settlement consisted in the difficulty 
of deciding the numerous boundary disputes, and fixing the relations 
between the proprietors amongst themselves, or the proprietors on one 
hand, and the numerous subordinate tenants on the other. The whole 
area of 2,121 square miles is parcelled out into 5,541 villages, which 
gives an average of less than 245 acres to each village. When we 
advert to the former state of this district, and the rapidity with which 
it has been in our hands, it is not surprizing that numerous disputes 
should exist between the different villages. The adjudication of these 
had never yet been attempted on any uniform plan, and it was a task 
of no small difficulty, in many cases, to reconcile or give effect to the 
different decisions which had been formerly given; voluntary arbitra- 
tion between the parties was the means generally employed for deter- 
mining the boundary, but where the parties would not arbitrate of 
their own accord, persons were appointed by lot, under the established 
mode, to settle the dispute. 

117th. I cannot say that I contemplate with satisfaction the mode 
in which this duty has been performed. Too much was left to private 
arbitration, and the awards thus given were too strictly followed. The 
venality of the arbitrators became at length notorious, and there were 
some, who were known to have amassed large sums in this method. 
When the work was nearly completed, all persons were convinced 
that the preferable method was to refer as little as possible to ar- 
bitration, and in the cases which were so decided, to tie down the 
arbitrators within the narrowest limits, and to insist upon a prompt 
decision in the immediate presence of the superintending officer. This 
plan was pursued very successfully after the completion of the unsettled 
portion of the district, in the permanently settled Pergunnah of Secun- 

1 18th. Whatever may be the defects of these operations, it is how- 
ever certain that the amount of good has been enormous, and quite 
throws the other into the shade. Possession has been scrupulously 
upheld, so that the main injustice which could ever be inflicted was to 
transfer more or less of the cul tumble waste between two interjacent 
villages to one or the other. To this waste it was seldom that any 
title could be made good. By no other plan than that prescribed by 
the system of settlement could these have been ever brought to adju- 
dication. They have now been all decided, marked off, and a record 
of the boundary formed both by native Ameens in a rough manner, 
and by professional Surveyors, on scientific principles. It is scarcely 

124 Report on the District of Azimgurh. [Feb. 

possible hereafter to conceive that any doubt should exist as to the 
decision, and the real position of the boundary. One cannot but 
regret that the agents employed in these operations should often have 
been false and corrupt ; but there can be no doubt ; that any attempt 
now to revise these proceedings, or any failure of decision in support- 
ing the demarcation now made, would be attended with the greatest 
possible evil, and throw the whole district into confusion. 

119th. The only authority competent in any way to alter the de- 
cisions already given, is the Civil Court in a regular decision. The 
Courts will now have each case clearly before them, and every possible 
light will be thrown on its merits. The sound rule to lay down is, 
that every decision must be confirmed, unless it can be proved that 
it was unjust, and the right to another boundary established. If this 
rule be strictly followed, no evil will result. 

120th. One great advantage of the system is, that the district is twice 
visited by the revenue authorities, once before survey, to settle the 
boundaries, and again after survey to fix the Government demand. 
The latter is a valuable opportunity to inquire into any cases of alleged 
hardship or injustice, which occurred in the former operations. This 
has been always done. The officer who came on the second occasion 
to form the settlement, was generally of superior experience to the offi- 
cers employed on the former occasion, and the opportunity seized to 
examine the former decisions. I can confidently say that no cases have 
been left, where the correction of apparent partiality would not have 
violated some important principle, which could not, according to the 
spirit of the law, or the dictates of sound policy, be shaken without very 
injurious results. 

121st. The adjustment of the right of co-parceners and of the rates 
payable to them by non-proprietary cultivators, has also been a work 
of great labor. It has been much increased by the expression of a 
general wish on the part of the people, subsequently to the settlement, 
to have their shares in the estate separated, both in the cultivated and 
culturable parts. This has been very generally done at their own 
expense, towards which they readily contributed. In such an event, 
the village has been remeasured ; the holding of each person distin- 
guished by a peculiar colour; and new Khusreh Khuteonee and Ten)' 
formed accordingly. Nothing, I believe, has given more satisfaction 
in the district, or tended more to the security of property, than the way 
in which this operation has generally been performed. 

122nd. The incidental advantages arising out of the present settle- 
ment, and the other operations which have been conducted to a close 
during its progress, may be thus enumerated :— 

1839.] Report on the District of Azimgurh. 125 

123rd. The formation of an accurate map of the whole district lias 
enabled the local authorities to fix a regular boundary with the neigh- 
bouring districts, and to determine the limits of the several Pergun- 
nahs, Tuhsildaries and Thannah jurisdictions. The greatest possible 
efficiency has thus been given to the several establishments, and the 
comfort of the people greatly consulted. The statements inserted 
after paragraph 5 present a complete view of the organization of the 
Mofussil establishments of Revenue and Police, which has been thus 

124th. The accounts of each village with the Government were 
adjusted at the time of settlement. Arrangements were made for the 
liquidation of any outstanding balance of land revenue, or tuccanee, or 
the remission of the demand determined. The items in deposit regarding 
the village were examined, and either refunded, carried to the account 
of Government, or otherwise disposed of, as was necessary. The several 
items standing under the head of law charges, and arising out of 
previous litigation between the Government officers and the different 
villages were adjusted. The confusion into which the accounts had 
fallen, rendered the careful execution of a work like this, at such a 
period, important in its financial results, and a great accommodation to 
the people. At the same time it tended to bring more completely 
before the settlement officers several considerations which were es- 
sential to the formation of a right estimate of the capabilities of each 

125th. The arrangement of villages at the time of settlement, made 
after the limits of the district and its several subdivisions had been 
fixed, as shewn in the general statements furnished with the report on 
each Pergunnah, has also been the basis of a system of registry and record 
for the whole district. The Pergunnah number attached to each 
village in the general statement, is the same that is borne by the 
bundle in the Record Office, which contains all the proceedings that 
have reference to that village. The lists attached to these bundles are, 
in fact, registers of all the transactions that have affected each village. 

126th. Having thus sketched the general operations pursued in the 
district, it will be of some practical use to notice the particular degree 
or method in which they were carried into execution in each Pergun- 
nah. I will endeavour to do this faithfully and impartially, with all 
the light which subsequent experience has thrown on the earlier ope- 
rations in the district. 

127th. Pergunnah Nizamabad is the largest and most important 
in the district. It was first selected for settlement soon after the pass- 
ing of Reg, vn, 1822, and was the field where every young officer 


126 Report on the District of Azimgurh. [Feb. 

first attempted to make settlements, and obtained his experience. The 
results, as might be expected, were very incongruous. In 1833-4-5 all 
these operations were recast on the model adopted on Reg. ix, 1833. 
The professional survey was conducted by Capt. Simmonds, whilst 
the field measurement, where it had not been already completed, was 
conducted by the revenue authorities. One great evil of this was, that 
the revenue survey, especially on its first commencement in 1833-4, 
was far from correct. The interior survey, especially, was often consi- 
derably in excess of the truth, as is al ways likely to be the case, when 
it is not checked by the native field measurements. The culturable 
land was also given considerably in excess, from an opinion held by the 
surveyor, that all the land which would produce any thing whatever 
should be classed under this head. 

128th. In estimating the settlement, advertence must always be 
had to the mode in which the "general statement in acres" was from 
necessity drawn out, and the averages there exhibited. 

129th. The cultivated area was always taken from the measure- 
ment on which the settlement was formed. This was frequently 
many years previous to the professional survey, and exhibited a much 
smaller cultivated area than was found to exist at the time the settle- 
ment was prolonged for the extended period from 1241 to 1262. The 
prolongation of the settlement was partly thus determined on consider- 
ations, which, although they may have influenced the first settlement, 
were not the foundation of it. The total of the cultivated area there 
exhibited in the general statement is considerably less than the sur- 
vey gives, and also below the fact. This of course makes the average 
rate of assessment higher than it would otherwise have been. The 
total area was necessarily taken from the survey returns, which were 
undoubtedly under this head correct. 

130th. The diversity of plan and of persons who had conducted the 
operations in this Pergunnah, produced its natural effect in great in- 
equality of assessment. In the remarks I have made on the errors of 
inexperienced officers, I by no means except myself from the number. 
On first joining the district in 1833, with no previous revenue expe- 
rience, I found the Pergunnah distracted, and almost ruined by the 
mal-administration of the preceding ten years. Large balances accrued 
annually, not from over-assessment, but from unadjusted rights and 
disputed claims. Affrays frequently occurred, from ill-defined bounda- 
ries. There were numerous unadjusted claims, and every thing point- 
ed out a state of considerable disorganization. It became an object of 
great importance to terminate this state of things as soon as possible. 
At the close of the year the revenue survey commenced, and did 

1839.] Report on the District of Azimgurh. J '27 

not terminate its operations in the Pergunnah till the end of the next 
season. It thus happened that this was the first part of the district 
prepared for settlement, and in addition to the other causes which 
urged a speedy termination of the settlement, it became necessary 
at once to enter on the revision and completion of the operations here, 
or to remain unoccupied. The settlement was completed and reported 
in the middle of 1835. Two years' experience since then has con- 
vinced me that some of the assessments are higher than they ought to 
have been. Some of the errors were those of my predecessors, which 
I left uncorrected ; some my own, into which I was betrayed either 
by erroneous surveys, or by the partial assumption and application 
of averages. I think, however, that these cases are few. During the 
two years above alluded to, a Jurama of nearly three lacs has been 
collected, with a real balance of only one or two hundred rupees at 
the close of the year. Even this has been realized soon after ; and in 
addition, large sums have been collected in each year, the balance of 
former years. In one instance, a small village was sold for its arrear 
and fetched a good price, and in another a farming arrangement was 
made for the share of a defaulter. Both these cases were peculiar, 
and with exception to them, the whole has been collected by the or- 
dinary methods. Imprisonment of the person, and distress of personal 
property, have been very rarely resorted to. It is probable that so long- 
as the present high prices of Sugar are maintained, and the demand 
for Indigo and Opium remain what they are now, little difficulty 
will be experienced in collecting the revenue during ordinary seasons. 
Any failure, however, of these sources of profit, or adverse seasons, will 
probably throw some of the villages, for a time at least, on the hands 
of Government. It was for some time a question in my own mind, 
whether I should propose a reduction of the Jumma on a few estates. 
The remission of 2 or 3,000 rupees on ten or eleven villages would 
have been all that was required. But after consulting with the most 
intelligent natives in the district, it seemed best to avoid shaking the 
confidence of the people in their settlement, or to check the efforts 
they were rapidly making to improve their estates by extending the 
cultivation, or increasing the means of irrigation. If the opinion had 
once prevailed, that default and reluctance to pay might produce a 
reduction of assessment, these industrious habits would have been 
checked, and many estates have been injured at a small advantage to 
a few. The operation too of this principle would have probably been 
felt in other Pergunnahs where no such inequality existed. 

131st. The confusion in this Pergunnah was not confined to the 
assessment. The demarcation of boundaries was also attended here 

]28 Report on the District of Azimgurh. [Feb. 

with far more difficulty than elsewhere; it had previously been the 
custom to measure the village before the boundaries were fixed. This 
pernicious practice had given rise to endless intrigues and chicanery 
on the part of the native Ameens. The lands of one village had some- 
times been measured, or rather the measurement inserted in the 
papers of another village, and the settlement formed on this measure- 
ment. It hence became often necessary before the demarcation of a 
boundary, to examine many previous proceedings, and refer to volumi- 
nous documents. This, and the habit of intrigue andl itigation, which 
it had fostered amongst the people, rendered the work very tedious 
and difficult. I fear that in some cases knavery and corruption ob- 
tained their ends, and I know not how this could have been avoided. 
But in every case, a clear decision has been given, a good demarcation 
on the ground has been made, and a record of the boundary has been 
formed. The value of this can only be known to those who were ac- 
quainted with the previous state of things. It has already in many cases 
of itself altered the face of the country, and saved many persons fromruin. 
132nd. The imperfections of the boundary work in some degree affect 
the value of the survey, at least in the eastern and southern portions of 
the Pergunnah, which were surveyed in the first season. The profes- 
sional survey cannot be there taken as an infallible indication of the 
boundary, but references must also be had to other documents put up 
with the proceedings in each case. In the western and northern parts, 
which were surveyed in the second season, there is little or no fear 
of error. 

1 33rd. The same imperfections which adhered to the other parts of 
this settlement, exist also in the record of the fractional shares of pro- 
prietors, and in the adjustment of the rent rates. In the previous 
settlements it had been usual to express the hereditary rights of the 
proprietors in fractions of a rupee, without ascertaining whether their 
actual interests in the State did, or ought to correspond with them. 
Arbitrary rates were also frequently fixed, which never could be paid. 
Great progress was made by myself in correcting these irregularities, 
and amending the records. Mr. Montgomery has since been actively 
employed in the same way, and I trust that all material defects have 
already been remedied, or will be soon. 

134th. The circumstances of Cheriakote and Keriat Mittoo are so 
similar, that they may be considered together. These were surveyed 
by Captain Simmonds, and settled by Mr. Montgomery in the season 
of 1834-5. The culturable area has been often overstated. There is no 
reason, however, to think that the defects of this survey have produced 
any evil consequences. 

1839.] Report on the District of Azimgurh. 129 

135th. The assessment is light. It has been collected now for two 
years without any balance, or the smallest difficulty. In June of each 
year, the whole demand for the Fussly year, beginning on the 1st of 
October, has been collected. 

136th. There is no reason to believe that the boundary work has 
been otherwise than well done, and that thoroughly. A few cases 
about which doubts existed, have since been examined and put to 

137th. The rights of proprietors and rent rates have been generally 
recorded, but the complete form, subsequently introduced, was not 
then in use. Voluntary agreements were not then entered into by 
the proprietors, and the partition of the waste land in each village 
amongst the several co-parceners has not been so thoroughly done here 
as elsewhere. The rule of partition has always been fixed, but that 
rule has not yet been universally carried into effect. 

138th. The survey and settlement of Pergunnah Belhabans were 
completed in the same season of 1834-5. The survey was conducted 
under the immediate superintendence of Lieut. Fordyce, then an 
Assistant to Capt. Simmonds, and was executed in a superior manner. 
The Pergunnah is held by one large brotherhood of Bais Rajpoots, who 
agreed to their Jumma in the gross, and distributed it themselves 
equally on every beegah of cultivation throughout. This singular 
proceeding was prevented from falling unequally on the several 
members of the communities, from the circumstance of the property of 
each being scattered about different Mouzahs, and in the mode generally 
known as Met khut, so that every man had land of each sort. It 
must however be borne in mind, that this measure has produced a 
very unequal village assessment, as those which have poor lands are 
taxed equally with those that contain good lands. Each Mehal must 
always be held responsible for its Jumma, not each Mouzah. 

139th. The assessment is light, but some difficulty will always be 
experienced in collecting it, for the people are very unruly, and bear a 
bad reputation in the district. They are said, it is to be feared with 
reason, to harbour thieves and bad characters of all descriptions, and 
no doubt to participate in their gains. 

140th. Something is wanting in the Pergunnah in working out the 
principle laid down at the time of settlement regarding the division of 
the waste land in each village amongst the several Puttees. This has 
not been regularly enforced, and no doubt cases exist, where an actual 
partition is necessary, and ought to be immediately carried through. 

141st. Pergunnah Deogaon was surveyed by Mr. Terraneau in the 
season of 1834-5, and settled by myself in 1835-36. 

130 Report on the District of Azimgurh. [Feb. 

142nd. The boundaries were very well laid down by the Native 
Deputy Collector, Seyud Nawazish Ali, and the very respectable Tuh- 
sildar, Meer Muxood Ali. .The villages were so much broken and 
intermixed, that this was a work of no ordinary difficulty. It was 
done not only completely, but with the fewest possible complaints, 
either on the score of partiality or unnecessary expense. 

143rd. This Pergunnah was unfortunately chosen as the one in 
which a new survey party commenced its operations. The villages 
often consisted of broken fragments of land, some larger, some smaller, 
some mere fields, others tracts of cultivated and uncultivated land, 
scattered about at considerable distances from each other. The only 
way to survey those villages satisfactorily would have been to make 
certain defined circuits in different directions, of the ordinary size of vil- 
lages, and corresponding as nearly as convenient with existing bound- 
aries, to have surveyed the same circuits professionally, and by native 
Ameens, and after thus testing the accuracy of the latter, to have taken 
out from the native field maps the several fields or parcels of land 
constituting each village, and to have added these up as giving the 
total area. This however was seldom attempted, and where it was 
tried, was done so incorrectly as to be nugatory. The native measure- 
ments were frequently approved, and passed as agreeing with the 
professional, when the areas surveyed were totally different. The 
professional survey itself is often grossly incorrect, both in its repre- 
sentation of the cultivation, and its delineation of the boundaries. The 
native maps have received scarcely any check, several of them are scarce- 
ly intelligible, and in many fields belonging to different persons, 
different Puttees, and even different Mehals, have been grouped toge- 
ther in one number. 

144th. I have done what I could to remedy this state of things, by 
examining the boundaries, making additional native maps where ne- 
cessary, distributing the fields and holdings afresh. Such inaccuracies 
in the professional maps as I happened to meet with, were noted on 
their face, but I well know that there are many which must have 
escaped me. The total areas were taken from the professional survey, 
so that the total of the Pergunnah, according to the survey, and ac- 
cording to the settlement papers will agree, but the areas of the 
several villages will often differ considerably, owing to the adjust- 
ments which were found necessary. 

145th. This Pergunnah was the highest assessed in the district, and 
very little increase on the former settlement could be anticipated. 
Not only was the rate of the former Jumma on the land high, but 
the land itself is inferior in quality to that of other parts of the dis- 

1839.] Report on the District of Azimgurh. 131 

trict, yielding mostly very uncertain rice crops, and the Zemindars are 
numerous, each holding a small portion of Seer land on which he sub- 
sists, whilst from being Rajpoots of high caste, they are unthrifty 
cultivators. The main object in the settlement was to equalize the 
assessment, and much has been done towards this. The settlement 
has perhaps given more satisfaction than any other in the district, and 
this result was mainly attributable to the impartial, upright, and very 
conciliatory conduct of the Tuhsildar. 

146th. In estimating the character of the settlement by the averages, 
it must be borne in mind that the cultivated area has certainly been 
under-measured, and that no land has been put down by the profes- 
sional survey under the head of culturable. Whatever was not under 
the plough, or had not evidently been so within the two or three pre- 
ceding years, was classed as barren waste. 

147th. The record of proprietary rights has been carefully, and well 
done by the Tuhsildar. The Persian papers are very complete, though 
the English statements have not been as yet drawn out in the form 
best adapted to elucidate the peculiar tenures of the Pergunnah. These 
however are now in a course of preparation, on a plan prescribed by 
the S udder Board of Revenue subsequently to the conclusion of the 
proceedings. No difficulty will be experienced in giving the materials 
any form which may be thought most expedient. 

148th. Pergunnah Mahol was surveyed by Lieutenant Fordyce, in 
the seasons 1834-5 and 1835-6, and settled by Mr. Montgomery, in the 
latter year. 

149th. The boundaries were mostly laid down by the Native Deputy 
Collector, and by the Tuhsildar, Buksish Ally Khan. The work was 
not satisfactorily performed. The people are low, and litigious. The 
Tuhsildar had little experience in the Pergunnah. 

150th. The survey was very well conducted, and may be relied 

151st. The settlement though showing a high average, is very light, 
for the land is exceedingly valuable. The finest Sugar land, perhaps, 
in all India is to be found here. 

152. The tenures are simple, being mostly Zemindarry, where the 
co-parceners held jointly or severally according to their hereditary 
shares. The point of greatest importance was the formation of good 
rent rolls to show the rights, holding, and rates of all the non-proprie- 
tary cultivators. This has been carefully done by Mr. Montgomery, 
and these relations are now placed on the best footing. The rent rolls, 
or Jummabundee, were formed after the settlement, drawn up in the 
common Nagree character, published to those concerned in every possi- 

132 Report on the District of Azimgurh. [Feb. 

ble way, by personal explanation to as many as were present, and by 
suspension in the village before the eyes of all ; objections against any 
parts of these were afterwards heard, and orders passed as each case 

153rd. Pergunnahs Mahomedabad, Gohna, and Mhow were sur- 
veyed in the years 1834-5, and 1835-G, and settled by myself in the 
latter year. 

154th. The boundaries were decided and marked off by two Tuh- 
sildars, Ahmed-oolah Khan, and Zuheer-ool-huk, who were there suc- 
cessively under the personal superintendence, first of Mr. Montgomery 
and Mr. Chester, and latterly of myself. These proceedings were 
unnecessarily protracted, rendered very expensive to the people, and 
sometimes in the final result unfair. Great exertions have however 
been used to render them complete, and to correct any errors that may 
have been committed. The undertaking was of vital importance to 
the prosperity of the district, for there is much waste land, the title to 
which was greatly disputed, of great capability, and now covered with 
wood, which is in high demand at the Sugar factories scattered all 
over the district. 

155th. The boundaries were often erroneously laid down, and little 
pains taken to reconcile the professional and khusreh maps. The 
important point to be borne in mind is, that the professional map can- 
not always in itself, and alone, be held conclusive on the form of a 
boundary. Before a certain conclusion can be arrived at, the maps 
of the two continuous Mouzahs must be compared, the proceeding 
held on the adjudication of the boundaries examined, and reference 
had to the khusreh maps, and any other sketches of the boundary 
there may be. If the process be carefully conducted, on the occur- 
rence of any dispute it will be impossible to fall into any great 

156th. The assessment is light, more so than is shown by the 
averages, for there is good reason to believe that the cultivated land 
was much under-measured, and the culturable land was avowedly 
shown as barren waste. 

157th. Great exertions were used to make the records of proprietary 
rights and rent rates as perfect as could be, and sanguine hopes may be 
entertained, that these are placed on a satisfactory footing. 

158th. The Pergunnahs of Gopalpore, Kowreeah, and Atrowleeah 
Tilhenee were surveyed by Lieut. Fordyce in 1835-6, and settled by 
Mr. Montgomery in 1836-7- Three large Talookahs had however 
been previously settled by the late Mr. George Bird, in 1831-2, and 
the arrangement confirmed by the Government. These were incor- 

1839.] Report on the District of Azimgurh. 133 

porated into the present settlement, with no further change than the 
extension of the period of the lease. 

159th. The boundary work was done almost entirely by the Tuh- 
sildar, Sheikh Waheedooz-zuman, with constant supervision and 
occasional assistance from the Native Deputy Collector, or the Euro- 
pean functionaries. It appears to have been very well performed. 

160th. The survey was well conducted. These Pergunnahs are 
undoubtedly the best surveyed in the district. 

161st. The assessment is fair and equable. Adverting to the nature 
and capabilities of the soil, it is low ; but if the character of the people 
and the nature of the tenures is borne in mind, it is quite as high as it 
ought to be. In comparing the averages of this assessment with those 
in other Pergunnahs, it must be remembered that here the survey is a 
very faithful representation of the extent and character of the land, 
and that therefore the rate of assessment is not actually as much below 
that of the rest as it appears to be. The Zemindars are high caste, 
pugnacious Rajpoots, and their tenures bhyachara. There are also 
many Brahmins who hold lands at low rates as under-tenants, and 
exercise a powerful religious influence over their superstitious land- 
lords. The revenue administration of this district has always been 
most difficult. The late operations will materially facilitate the col- 
lections, but still difficulties must be anticipated. It is only some 
years of firm and consistent rule, which will suffice to bring the tur- 
bulent inhabitants to industrious and regular habits. 

162nd. The settlement of Pergunnah Suggree occupied a long 
period, and was not finally completed till the year 1836-7- Some few 
settlements were made by Mr. Barlow, under Regulation vn, 1822, 
but the greatest bulk by Mr. Montgomery, who also recast the prior 
settlements. The work was completed and reported in 1834, before the 
introduction of the new system, but the Commissioner judiciously 
declined forwarding the report then, and desired the whole to be 
reviewed under the new rule. This was admirably done by Mr. 

163rd. The Kishwaree survey was long ago completed by the 
revenue authorities, so that the Surveyor was relieved from this duty, 
and desired merely to survey the boundaries, sketching on the geo- 
graphical features of the country and omitting the interior survey, or 
that part of the operations which was designed to distinguish the cul- 
tivated from the uncultivated lands. 

164th. The adjustment of boundaries had formerly, as in Pergun- 
nah Nizamabad, been much mismanaged, but before the approach of 
the survey these were all definitely settled, and well marked off, so 

134 Report on the District of Azimgurh. [Feb. 

that no difficulty was experienced. Some of the decisions may, as in 
other cases, have been unfair, but the survey is now a faithful record of 
what the decision was. There can never be any doubt hereafter on 
that score. The professional operations afforded also a complete and 
very satisfactory proof of the correctness of the former Khusrey survey. 

165th. The assessment is light and equable, and has now for 
three years been collected without any balance. The record of proprie- 
tary rights, &c. has been completed on the plan prescribed, and the set- 
tlement is now as perfect as of any other of the district ; though it has 
only been brought to this state at a great expense to the people, and 
with much personal vexation to them. 

1 66th. Pergunnahs Ghosee and Nuthoopoor were surveyed by Mr. 
Terraneau in 1835-6, and settled in 1836-7 partly by myself and part- 
ly by Mr. Montgomery. The boundary work had been slowly ad- 
vancing for the preceding year or two, but it was completed by the 
Native Deputy Collector just previous to the survey. The work was 
ill done. The large quantity of rich land lying waste about different 
parts of the Pergunnahs rendered it certainly a task of some difficulty, 
whilst the wealth and intriguing character of some powerful men in 
the Pergunnahs added to the difficulty of executing the work with 
fairness to all parties. The evil, instead of being detected and exposed 
by the survey, was concealed and aggravated by its operations. Not 
only were the defects of the demarcation concealed, but where the de- 
marcation was plain and evident, and no dispute whatever existed, errors 
of the most fatal nature were committed in the survey. Had the pro- 
fessional maps been received and recorded without question, the greatest 
confusion would have ensued. As it was, the assistance of a pro- 
fessional surveyor was obtained. All the maps were carefully review- 
ed, compared with each other, with the record of the adjudication of 
the boundary, and with the Ameen's map. Whenever any doubt 
existed, a personal examination of the boundary and renewal of the 
demarcation took place. This was superintended either by myself or 
by Mr. Montgomery. We always found that adequate decisions had 
been passed, but that these decisions had not always been clearly 
marked off. The whole has been now carefully corrected, and no 
future doubts can well arise, as to the position and direction of the 
boundary. I am however bound to say, that owing to various causes, 
which it is needless to enumerate here, the decisions have been more 
influenced by corrupt motives, and are more unfair, than in any other 
part of the district. 

167th. The assessment is light, and will be easily paid, as the soil 
is very rich, and there is much fine culturable land, which will 

1839.] Report on the District of Azimgurh. 135 

rapidly be brought into cultivation. It must also be borne in mind that 
the cultivation has been under-measured. The rights, &c. of the pro- 
prietors have been well recorded, and the subsequent separation of shares 
generally completed. 

168th. The settlement of each Pergunnah has been thus reviewed. 
Under ordinary seasons, and with good management, I have little 
doubt of the stability of the whole, with the exception of a few vil- 
lages in Nizamabad. 

169th. If the present demand for the staples of the district, Sugar, 
Opium, and Indigo, continues undiminished for a few years, the ad- 
vance of the district in wealth and prosperity will be more than re- 
paid. Its welfare will however depend much for the few first years 
on the firmness of the civil administration. If the arrangements 
made at the settlement are disregarded, the boundaries violated, the 
rights of proprietors and cultivators neglected, and misrule allowed to 
prevail, great confusion will ensue, industry will be checked, and 
improvement stopped. The effect also will immediately be felt in 
the collections of the Government revenue. The number of persons 
from whom these collections are to be made are numerous, and their 
rights nicely balanced. Each man now knows what he has to 
pay, and it will be difficult to make the redundancy of one com- 
pensate for the deficiency of another. If rights are usurped, the injur- 
ed party will be deprived of the power of meeting the demand against 
him, and a balance will accrue. If hereafter balances should arise in 
the district, it must be remembered that this may be occasioned by 
mal-administration as well as by other causes, and is more likely 
perhaps to do so here than in many other parts of the country. 

170th. The Tuhsildaree establishment should not be diminished. 
It is now strong and well disposed, but this is necessary on account of 
the minute division of property, and the numerous persons from whom 
the collections have to be made. 

171st. Much increase must not be expected to the present demand. 
The Pergunnah of Deogaon is settled fully as high as it can ever bear. 
Much good would arise from its being declared perpetual. The same 
is the case in Gopalpoor, Kororeeah, and Atroleeah Tilhenee. In 
Mahol, Cheriakote, Belhabans, and Suggree, the assessment has 
reached its maximum, or so nearly, that further investigation would not 
be repaid. In Nizamabad there is still much valuable uncultivated 
land. The total demand from this Pergunnah will probably never be 
increased, but its readjustment and fresh distribution after the expira- 
tion of the present period of settlement would be a great advantage. 
In Mahomedabad, Mhow, Ghoosee, and Nuthopoor there is still much 

136 Report on the District of Azimgurh. [Feb. 

valuable waste land, which will probably be made productive in the 

course of the present lease. Fifty thousand rupees might thus very 

probably be added to the rent roll of Government on the renewal of the 


(Signed) J. THOMASON, 

Collector of Azimgurh. 

Offy. Secy, to the Lt. Govr., N. W. P. 

Agra, December 16th, 1837. 

Art. II. — Mr. Hodgson, on Cuculus. 
To the Editor of the Journal of the Asiatic Society. 

Sir, — Amongst the numerous new birds forwarded by me to London, 
some years back, when I was young enough to imagine that learned 
Societies existed solely for the disinterested promotion of science, was 
a very singular form combining all the essential internal and external 
characters of Cuculus with the entire aspect of Dicrurus. 

Unceremoniously as many others of my novelties have been appro- 
priated, this one still, I believe, remains undescribed, and I therefore 
beg to present to you a description and sketch of it. 

Genus Pseudornis nob, 
Generic character, essential characters of Cuculus with the entire aspect 
of Dicrurus. Tail 10, forked. Type Pseudornis Dicruroides nob. 
Habitat. The mountains exclusively. Specific character, Black, with 
a changeable blue or green gloss. Inner wing and tail coverts, and pair 
of extreme tail feathers, cross barred with white. An oblique white bar 
across the wings internally, and high up. Bill black. Iris hoary brown. 
Palate red. Legs and feet blue. 10 to 101 inches long, whereof the bill 
is l r( . and the tail 51 to 5§. Tarsus J|. Long anteal toe ~. Long 
posteal toe ^. Weight 11 oz. Sexes alike. General manners of 
Cuculus, but exclusively monticulous and a forester. 

Remark. — The bill, tongue, feet, and wings are precisely those of 
Cuculus canorus, with these trivial diversities — if such they can be 
reckoned— that the wing is hardly so elongated, and the bill is less 
rounded on the culmen. 

The tail consists of ten feathers, and is both in relative size and in 
form like that of the genus Dicrurus ; that is to say, it has ten 
feathers, and is divaricated and forked, though the fork be not deep. 









































1839.] Mr. Hodgson on Cuculus. 137 

There is this difference, however, as compared with the Dicrurine tail, 
that in our bird the two extreme feathers are much smaller than any 
of the rest ; whence the fork of the tail becomes lessened in depth, 
these plumes not contributing to it. 

The singular assumption of the entire aspect of so remote a genus 
as Dicrurus on the part of this strictly Cuculine bird will, I fancy, be 
generally considered extraordinary ; and has suggested the generic name 
of Pseudornis (iptvcoar falsus) The Cuculus lugubris, although des- 
cribed as having a wedged tail, will, I think, be found to have a fork- 
ed one, and to constitute a second species of our proposed new genus, 
which will be, in that event, placed on a firm basis. 

If it be remarked, that supposing Lugubris to have really a forked 
tail, it is, in fact, specifically identical with our bird, why then the 
specific name Dicuro'ides will merge in that of Lugubris, but the new 
type of form may still claim to be recognised, and surely will do so. 

The green glossed black plumage and the forked tail, are as univer- 
sally the marks of the Dicrurine sub-family as they are, I believe, 
universally excluded from the Cuculidce. 

I am, Sir, 
Your most obedient servant, 


Nepal, March, 1839. 

Art. III. — Reporl on the Coal and Iron Mines of Tdlcheer and 
Ungool, also remarks on the country through which it was necessary 
to travel in search of those minerals, the produce, inhabitants, 
nature of the soil, roads, $c. $c. By Mr. M. Kittoe, Curator 
and Librarian Asiatic Society's Museum. 

March 31st, 1838. 
All necessary preparations having been made, and assistance receiv- 
ed from the superintendent tributary Mehauls, I left Cuttack on 
the 14th March, in company with Mr. R. Beetson, (contractor for the 
transport of salt from the coast to Calcutta) and proceeded by regular 
marches through Dhenkennal, direct from Kuckur on the Mahanud- 
dee to the Brahmenee at Atturva, encamping first at Kuckur Govind- 
poor, and secondly at Deogaon, under the famous hill of Kuppilas, near 
to the summit of which, at an elevation of 1000 or 1200 feet, is a fine 
spring of fresh water, round which are several ancient temples built 
by Pertaub Rudr Deo, king of Kalinga, in the sixteenth century of 
the Christian era. 

138 On the Coal fy Iron Mines of Tdlcheer $ Ungool, fyc. [Feb. 

From Atturva we proceeded up the south bank of the Brahmenee 
to Talcheergurh, where we arrived on the seventh day, encamping at 
Nadurra. and Kumalung, the distance travelled being 30 Ooriya coss 
of 2£ miles to the coss on an average. , 

We halted one day at Talcheer, and interchanged visits with the 
Raja (who is a very intelligent man, and has travelled all over India) 
likewise his eldest son. I presented the old gentleman with a musical 
snuff-box, with which he was much delighted. 

After duly examining the coal beds I proceeded to Mungulpersad, 
a stockaded village on the borders of Ungool, the distance seven coss in a 
westerly direction, over an undulating country, with, generally speak- 
ing, indifferent soil and much shingle. 

We remained one day at this place, and having inspected the coal 
beds, &c. returned by a more direct (though crooked enough) route 
through the states of Talcheer and Ungool, to the bank of the river (at 
Mungulpoor) along which we proceeded, via Nadurra, Nagnath, Chund- 
pal, Kapeepoor, to Kewatbund, near to which place the river enters the 
plains, throwing off that branch called the Kursooa, which is the only 
navigable channel to the sea. We reached this place on the 26th, thir- 
teen days from the date of our leaving Cuttack. 

The country is neither so mountainous nor jungly as it is represent- 
ed to be, but for the most part, much neglected ; although the soil 
appears generally good, and productive. 

The lands in the immediate vicinity of the Brahmenee are very 
rich. Great quantities of cotton, sugar-cane, castor-oil plant, lin- 
seed, &c. &c. are grown for home consumption, as well as for expor- 
tation ; the chief profits of which are monopolized by the Mukhteears 
and Survurakars of the states, who farm the villages from the Raja, 
and make the most of their bargain by extorting the utmost fraction 
from the cultivators, who are in fact mere slaves ; indeed so are all 
the inhabitants of these hill provinces; they nevertheless seem happy 
in their poverty and degraded state. 

A great deal of very fine tobacco is grown along the banks and 
on the muddy deposits of the river, and such lands fetch an exceeding 
high rent ; notwithstanding which the profits on this article of com- 
merce are very great. 

Wheat and barley are cultivated in small quantities, and what 
little I saw appeared to grow most luxuriantly; maize, &c. is also 
grown on the high lands by the meaner classes, but rice is the chief 
article of food. 

The land in Talcheer and in Ungool is not so good as in Dher- 
kuomal ; and the trees are stunted in growth owing to the shingle, 

1839.] On the Coal $ Iron Mines of Tdlcheer $ Ungool, $c. 139 

laterite, and sandstone rocks which are near the surface. There is more 
jangle and waste land on the opposite side of the river. 

From the third march from Atturva to the plains (commencing at 
Kewatbund) the level lands vary much in extent, the hills in some 
places coming within 3 or 400 yards of the river, and in others, receding 
for two or three miles, forming no connected chain, but all more or less 
isolated (apparently of volcanic origin), the land between them being 
perfectly level, except where ravines or beds of laterite and kunker 
occur to interrupt it. At Atturva the hills recede gradually, till at 
Kurugpursad they branch off in a south-westerly direction, through 
the state of Hindole into Ungool, towards the Mahanudde ; the hills 
on the opposite side of the river also recede in a north westerly 
direction towards Keonjur and Bounnaragurh. 

Shortly before reaching Kurugpursad the country commences to be 
undulating, and extensive beds of shingle occur, with red marl. Sand- 
stone rocks are met with at Mungulpoor, protruding through the soil, 
which are very close grained and white ; granite also sometimes occurs 
in huge detached masses, which have a very singular appearance, parti- 
cularly at Kukurdung, in Ungool, where they rise in detached blocks 
of sixteen and eighteen feet in height, and of most fantastic shapes, 
somewhat resembling the Stonehenge. The land on the north bank of 
the river is likewise undulating, with rocks. No hills of any magnitude 
are to be found within twenty or thirty miles of Talcheer and the coal 
localities visited by me. 

From Talcheergurh to Mungulpersad, a distance of sixteen miles 
or more, I saw much shingle and rising ground, on which there is 
iron ore and laterite, also kunker (calcarious nodules) and sand- 
stone rocks. I observed near the different villages much scattered 
cultivation beneath the sal and other jungle trees, the underwood 
having been cleared away ; this is the consequence of overtaxing the 
arable and clear lands, and taking nothing for cultivation of this kind, 
which is little inferior to the best. 

There are no wells, and but few tanks throughout the country. 
Except in the low lands, in the vicinity of the river, water is very 
scarce, and what little there is, is of bad quality, particularly in 
Ungool, where some of the wells and tanks contain naphtha. 

There is much waste land overgrown with long grass, which affords 
excellent pasturage for buffaloes and cows ; there are consequently 
very fine herds of both descriptions of cattle, which are far superior to 
those of the Mogulbundee (or plains). There are but few goats and 

The people of these states are more artful than even the inhabi- 

140 On the Coal fy Iron Mines of Tdlcheer $ Ungool, $c. [Feb. 

tants of the plains of Oorissa, who are bad enough. Their craftiness 
is beyond any thing credible. I have travelled a great deal during my 
residence in India, and had much intercourse with the different 
classes of natives, but never did I meet with such provoking knaves 
as the people of the Gurhjat (hill states). It is next to impossible to 
obtain any correct information even on the most trivial subjects. 
Every question put by a stranger is considered and reconsider- 
ed, ere a reply is given, and that, too, is an interrogation as to the 
object you have in asking it. And should you ask the distance from 
one place to another, you will be answered at random, or told, 
" I don't know ; I have never been there ; I was born in this village ; 
so was my father," and such like; — this is to prevent your asking them 
to go with you and show the path, and if you take them, they will lead 
you by the most tortuous route. 

I was informed that it is more than any ryot's head is worth to 
give information regarding the internal economy of the state, or 
about its resources, or, indeed, on any subject. With such people to deal 
with, it is not surprising that very little information has been 
gained by me during such a hurried trip. What I have obtained 
regarding the Hingolae mines, was from an ascetic, to whom I made a 
suitable present. I also heard of coal and iron mines in Bumurra- 
gurh, from a merchant of Cuttack, and accordingly despatched an 
intelligent peon to examine them, and to bring specimens, &c. 

There is no road along the banks of the Brahmenee, but an ir- 
regular and narrow footpath ; indeed there are no hackery roads at 
all. The only road of any consequence is that leading from Cuttack 
through Dhenkennalgurh, past Kurugpursad and Mungulpoor, and on 
to Boad ; it is tolerably wide and smooth, and is much frequented by 
Bunjaruhs, who bring cotton, iron, and turmeric in return for salt 
and tobacco. From Mungulpoor, onwards, the road is nearly due east 
and west. 

Remarks on the Water Carriage for Coal, $c. fyc. 
The Brahmenee is navigable for good sized boats from the end of 
June to the middle of December, and sometimes later. Coal could be 
laden in small canoes and conveyed to Kurugpursad at most seasons 
of the year indeed. The Dhenkennal boatmen assert that small boats 
only can navigate the river above that place at any season owing to 
the numerous rocks ; this is however not to be relied upon, for there 
are but few, which could be removed at a trifling expense. 

1839.] On the Coal <$* Iron Mines of Tdlcheer % Ungool, $c. 141 

From Kewatbund (at the edge of the plains) boats and rafts are 
floated down that branch called the Kursooa. 

The furthest point towards the sea to which the coal could be taken is 
Hunsooagola, where large sloops anchor. It would be preferable to 
make this place a depot, Auligurh being many miles further up the 
river. It is to these places that Messrs. Beetson's sloops come for salt. 
There is a bankshall belonging to them at Aul, where sloops are built 
and repaired. The timber is cut and purchased in Dhenkennal, where 
it is very cheap, and may be had of any size and quality, viz. sal, sissoo, 
bijesal, kunimb, girahu, &c. A native contractor offered to carry 
the coal from Talcheer to Hunsooagola, at the rate of twenty-five 
rupees per 100 maunds, or four annas per maund ; the boats making 
three trips each season. The lading is included in this amount. Mr. 
Beetson however informs me that it could be done for one anna per 
maund, or, at the utmost, two annas. 

From Hunsooa Mr. Beetson would contract to carry the coal to 
Calcutta, or to any port lower down the coast ; and from his experience 
of the natives of Oorissa, and his industrious habits, I should venture 
to recommend any contract for the working of the mines, or transport 
of the mineral, to be offered to him. 

The iron mines are worked by the different traders, who give grain, 
tobacco, and salt, to the value of one rupee per maund of metal. Should 
the coal mines be worked eventually, it would be necessary to pay 
for the labour in like manner, for money is unknown to the lower 
orders ; cowries alone are current, and there is a great scarcity of them 
even. Although there are but few inhabitants, many poor people from 
the surrounding states would flock to earn food, if proper protection be 
afforded them. Some difficulty would be experienced at the outset, but 
that would soon subside. 

On the Tdlcheer Coal, 

That which I shall distinguish by the appellation of " Talcheer 
Coal/' is found near the town and gurh of that name ; the town gives 
name to the whole district, which is 14 Ooreya coss in circumference, 
or forty-two English miles, more or less. 

Talcheergurh (the Raja's stockaded palace) and town (called 
Patna) are situated on the south bank of the river Brahmenec, on 
a sandstone rock, rising to the height of 20 or 30 feet from the level 
of the water. The surrounding country is undulating, with a thin 
stratum of soil resting on shingle, composed of the debris of primitive 

142 On the Coal fy Iron Mines of Tdlcheer Sf Ungool, $c. [Feb. 

rocks, iron clay, jasper, &c. Half a mile or less above the gurh, 
is a small nulla called, " Billaijooree," about fifteen yards wide, 
with a sandy bed, and dry except in the rainy season after heavy 
falls in the interior, where it takes its rise, and winding considerably, 
joins ultimately with the Brahmenee at this place. 

About 400 yards from the mouth of the nulla, coal seams are expos- 
ed to view for some distance along the banks, alternately, on either 
side; these seams vary in quality and thickness, and are curved 
parallel with the undulations of the superstrata. In almost every 
place where the coal seams cease abruptly, they will be found to rest 
against the sandstone. 

The superstrata generally consist of alluvial soil, shingle, marl, 
blue clay passing into peat, mixing with shale and coal of inferior 
quality, beneath which the good coal is found ; this again rests on 
indurated blue clay containing particles of coal, mica, and fossil plants. 
The stratum is about 1J foot thick, beneath which a stiff grey clay 
mixed with sand and, mica, is found. 

I made a perpendicular cut in the north bank, at a spot where 
inferior specimens had been collected by workmen sent some years ago 
by Mr. G. Becher, executive officer of the division. Having dug down 
for two or three feet below the surface of the bed of the nulla, I met 
with a hard blue rock containing particles of coal and fossil plants, in 
this I bored a hole 1^ foot deep, and blasted it with one pound of 
country powder, which enabled me to ascertain the thickness, viz, 
lrj foot, as before said. 
The section thus afforded, gave 

Shingle and clay, averaging, 10 ft. 

Blue clay passing into peat, 1^ ft- 

Shale, or slaty coal and lignite, .... 1^ ft. 

Good glistening coal, 1 to 1^ ft. 

Grey rock with fossils and coal, .... 1 ft. 

Ditto ditto, with mica, 6 inches, 

Stiff grey clay with mica and sand (?) 
Digging a few feet apart from this spot, in the bed of the nulla, the 
coal was three feet below the surface, without the peat and clay, &c. and 
under the opposite bank the coal is several feet deeper still. 

I burnt a heap consisting of several maunds of the different kinds 
mixed together, the whole was consumed, leaving fine white ashes, but 
no cinder or coke. The glistening or good qualities emitted much gas, 
and burnt with a bright flame ; the remainder soon attained a red 
heat with less gas— the whole gave out an intense heat. 

The bed of coal thus examined is (as will have appeared) very thin, 

1839.] On the Coal % Iron Mines of Tdlcheer % Ungool, $c. 143 

but I should think that on mining, any quantity could be obtained, 
and at little cost, from its being so near the surface, and labor cheap 
in the extreme. It possesses, further, great advantages in being so near 
to a navigable river. 

I shall treat hereafter on the method of working the mines, and of 
transporting the coal, &c. in a separate paper at the close of my 

Coalfields of the Hingolai Tacooranee at Mungulpersdd. 

Of the two coal fields exposed to view, and which were visited by 
me, that which I have called the " Tacooranee" is the more extensive. 
It is laid bare by a broad nulla passing through it, called the "Sungur- 
ra," it comes from the hills in Ungool, in a south-westerly direction, 
and is about thirty yards wide, having a sandy bed. The coal appears 
on either side alternately, for a distance of upwards of a mile, the beds 
averaging from five to fifteen feet and more in height from the level of 
the sand. This coal (like that at Talcheer) rests against the sandstone, 
and in some places passes into it, apparently mixing with it. The 
quality of the mineral varies very considerably, as will be seen by the 
numerous specimens presented to the Committee. 

In one spot the coal has apparently been reduced to ash by volcanic 
action for a space of fifty yards, and upheaved above the common level 
of the contiguous beds ; it is bounded at each extremity by dykes 
of white rock. 

The superstrata vary in kind and thickness ; in some places there is 
blue clay, above which is marl and shingle ; in others, simply marl 
and iron ore, laterite, and shingle, and frequently but a thin stratum 
of clay. At the spot where the " Tacooranee" (goddess) called " Hin- 
golai" is supposed to preside, the coal is entirely bare for a space of 
1000 or 1200 yards (superficial) with an undulating surface. It is 
at this place that at the full of the moon of Chat-Byesk, the priest- 
hood set fire to a heap of coal, which they keep burning for three 
successive days, commencing the day preceding the full of the moon, 
when hundreds of deluded creatures flock from the surrounding coun- 
try to worship the goddess of destruction, who is supposed thus to 
shew her presence in the burning rock. I was unable to ascertain 
how far up the nulla the coal is exposed to view, as the inhabitants of 
one state will say nothing about their own country, and still less 
about that of another Raja ; and as the Ungool territory is only half a 
mile distant, without any alteration in the general appearance of 
the country, which is undulating, I did not deem it necessary 

144 On the Coal $ Iron Mines of Tdlcheer fy Ungool. [Feb. 

to proceed further. There was sufficient coal at this place to afford an 
ample supply for the next century. 

The cost here of working either the coal or iron mines would be the 
same as at Talcheer, it would, however, be necessary to construct a road 
(perhaps a rail road) to the river side, a distance of sixteen or eighteen 
miles, but perhaps less in a direct line. The nulla is not navigable at 
any season, however from the tolerably level nature of the country it 
might be rendered so for two or three months, by constructing dams 
and locks at convenient distances. At all seasons water is found from 
one to three feet below the surface of the sand ; this prevented my 
ascertaining the actual depth of the coal measures and the quality of 
the lower veins. 

Note on the Iron Mines. 

Iron ore is found in great abundance both in Talcheer and in the 
adjacent states of Ungool and Dhenkennal. There are iron works in 
each, and the Cuttack and Berhampoor markets are supplied by 
them. Some of the iron is of a superior and malleable quantity, but 
much of it is very coarse-grained and brittle, the prices vary accord- 

I saw the remains of several iron works on the road between Tal- 
cheer and Mungulpersad, the " Lohoras," or iron workers, having for- 
saken them last year in consequence of the famine, and subsequent 
pestilence (cholera) which almost depopulated the country. 

The process of smelting the ore is the same as that pursued in other 
parts of India, and which therefore it will be superfluous for me to 

Had I met with any iron workers I would have tried to smelt 
the ore with coal, as it is abundant on the surface at the coal mines, as I 
have before mentioned. 

A great quantity of iron is made in the Sumbulpoor state also. 

1839.] Objects of Research in Afghanistan. 145 

Art. IV .—Objects of Research in Afghanistan. By Professor 

Lassen, of Bonn. 

[We have the pleasure to insert the following article by Professor Lassen, and 
which in order that no time should be lost in its circulation, we have already caused to 
be published in the Newspapers of this Presidency. Such communications as Pro- 
fessor Lassen's queries may elicit we shall be happy to publish without delay. — Eds.] 

1. A country which has hitherto not been explored, is Kandahar 
and its neighbourhood ; the capital of Demetrius, called by his name 
Demetrias, was situated in Arachosia, and it seems probable, that 
coins of Demetrius will be found most numerously in that part of Af- 
ghanistan, if Mr. Masson should have means for sending some qualifi- 
ed person there* Another class of coins might also be chiefly expected 
from Kandahar. Arachosia belonged, at least generally, to the empire 
of the Arsacidse, who can only be supposed to have occasionally pos- 
sessed parts of Kabul ; Parthian coins bearing a Greek legend on one 
side and a Bactrian on the other, will probably have been struck only 
by such kings, as ruled in Kabul and its neighbourhood. Vonones 
(or by the native legend his son Vologases) is the only known Parthi- 
an king, from whom we have as yet coins of the above description : 
another name found on a coin published by Swinton is not legible ; a 
new coin was lately edited by Mr. Millingan, having no Greek, only a 
Bactrian legend, evidently an Arsacidan one, though not legible. It 
would be of great importance to complete this Parthian series, because 
the chronology of the Arsacidse might then be brought to bear on that 
of the Indo-Scythians, 

2. From the country to the westward of Kabul and the sources of 
the Kabul river, which the Chinese call by the name of Kissin, coins 
of the first dynasty of Indo-Scythians may be expected chiefly, if the 
researches could be extended to the neighbourhood of the Lake Yarah. 
Segistan still bears the names of the first Indo-Scythians, who were 
properly called Sacse, and their capital must have been somewhere in 
Drangiana. Also the Greek king Artimachus appears from one of his 
coins to have reigned near the Lake Yarah, and it would not be un- 
reasonable to expect coins of him and his successors, (perhaps even 
Greek monuments of other kinds,) from those tracts, if made accessible. 

3. The town Nagara, mentioned by Ptolemseus, with the Greek 
surname of Dionysopolis, must have been the capital of some Greek 
kingdom, probably of Agathocles and Pantalcon, who exhibit the 
symbols of Dionysos on their coins. The Chinese mention Nakoloho 
which is the same name, as the site of the flourishing Buddhist 
establishment, about 400 years of our era in the Chinese place 

146 Objects of Research in Afghanistan. [Feb. 

Nakoloho on the river Hilo, which must be the Hir found on 
D'Anville's maps. It would be of importance to determine the exact 
situation of Nagara, and to ascertain,, whether the name both of the 
river and the ancient town are not still traceable. I suppose the Hir 
to be Surshud. The ruin of Nagara may be expected to yield a new 
harvest of Greek coins, and its neighbourhood might perhaps furnish 
us with Greek inscriptions. 

4. Sultan Baber mentions a monument in Lawghan, which the 
Mahomedans supposed to be the grave of Lamech; the Chinese travellers 
passed through this country, called by them Larpho, on the road 
to Peshawer, from which it may be concluded, that they went to see 
some Buddhist monument there. Would it not be possible to get some 
further information of what remains still to be found in Lawghan? 

5. Pliny mentions a town Copissa, ' destroyed by Cyrus/ in the 
country of the Paropomasidse ; by the accounts of the Chinese travellers 
Kapisa is the valley of the Gurbad river. Are no remains to be found 
along that river ? and is the name at present quite unknown ? It 
would be of some interest, because it might be conjectured that 
the name of Kapisa has some relation to the name of the king 
Kadphises, who on his coins spells his name in the native legend 

6. The Chinese speak of a flourishing Buddhist kingdom Udjana, 
or Ujjana, which was situated on the western bank of the Indus and 
on the Sewad river, the capital was not far from the last mentioned 
one, and was called Mangala. As far as I know, this country has not 
been explored at all, and might be expected to yield coins of the 
dynasty ruling for several centuries there : topes might also be sought 
for in that neighbourhood. 

7- Jan Messon, as well as Sultan Baber, speaks often of a river, 
which he calls Baran, without giving any more definite description of 
its course. Is this river different from the lower part of the Penjhir ? 
or is it only the name for a part of that river ? 

8. A theory has lately been set forth respecting the topes, that they 
are to be regarded as dehgops, and contain relics of Buddhist saints ; 
moreover, that the coins found in them have been placed there at dif- 
ferent times as offerings, and consequently that the date of coins found 
in a tope, affords no clue to the period of its erection. Now, this theory 
supposes that the topes had entrances and openings, by which the coins 
might be inserted, and the relics taken out at certain festivals to be 
shown to the people, as is mentioned by the Chinese travellers of 
dehgops. Are there any traces of such entrances or openings in any of 
the topes of Kabulistan ? 

1839.] Objects of Research in Afghanistan. 147 

9. Is the dialect of the Kohistanis of Kabulistan a peculiar one, or 
related to the Lawghans, or that of the inhabitants of Kaferstan ? 

10. The Kirdhkis mentioned by Mr. Elphinstone as forming part of 
the population of Eastern Kabulistan, speak an Indian dialect ; is this 
dialect nearly related to Punjab ? and are the Kirdhkis to be regarded 
as emigrants from India in comparatively modern times, or remains 
of the ancient Hindu population ? As far down as to the times of 
Mahmud of Ghazna it may be shown, that the inhabitants of Kabul- 
istan were Indians, and most probably direct descendants of the Gur- 
ves, Ascadars and Gandars spoken of by the ancients. 

Art. V. — On the detection of Arsenical Poisons by Marsh's process — 
its inapplicability to the Sulphurets of Arsenic — and the mode of 
obviating the fallacy occasioned by Antimonial Compounds. By 
W. B. O'Shaughnessy, M. D. Acting Joint- Secretary to the Asiatic 

In December, 1836, I exhibited to a large party at Government 
House the very beautiful process invented by Mr. Marsh of Woolwich, 
for the detection of minute quantities of arsenical poisons. The me- 
thod consists in placing the suspected substance in very dilute sul- 
phuric acid, and introducing a slip of pure zinc. The hydrogen is 
evolved in combination with the metallic arsenic, and on examination 
presents most distinct and remarkable phenomena. If ignited, the 
flame is of a leaden blue color, and diffuses a powerful odour of garlic, 
and a dense white smoke. If the flame be reduced to the size of a 
pea, and applied to the interior of a thin glass tube, a crust of metallic 
arsenic is formed on the tube, surrounded by a white ring of arsenious 
acid. To this, by a little dexterous management, the several tests for 
arsenic may be applied, namely the ammoniacal-nitrates of silver and 
copper, and the sulphuretted hydrogen gas. 

A few months after the meeting referred to, I had occasion to apply 
the process to the examination of the contents of the stomach of the 
Munshi of the Coroner's Office, who had been poisoned by arsenic con- 
tained in a ball of sweetmeat. The results were quite conclusive, and 
Mere, moreover, checked by the performance of the common process on 
a portion of the large quantity of arsenic adherent to the mucous mem- 
brane of the stomach. 

Up to the time of this occurrence, and indeed for some months later, 
I participated in Marsh's opinion, that this admirable process was 
applicable to all the arsenical poisons — to those not dissolved by water 

148 On the detection of Arsenical Poisons, $c. [Feb. 

as well as those soluble in that liquid ; but on the occasion of a second 
death by one of these poisons, which came under investigation before 
the Police in 1838, I had proof that this opinion was erroneous. 

The deceased was a young female, to whom a large quantity of crys - 
tallized yellow orpiment (sulphuret of arsenic) had been administered 
in curry, and in consequence of which she died after a few hours' illness. 
On examination of the body a quantity of yellow powder was readily 
separated from the contents of the stomach, and the mucous membrane 
of that organ was observed to be sprinkled all over with shining gold- 
like crystals. 

On applying Maksh's process to a portion of the yellow matter, no in- 
dications whatever of arsenic were obtained. 

A quantity of the powder was then dissolved in liquid ammonia, and 
Marsh's process applied, still with negative results. 

I then tried the effect of converting the sulphuret into arsenious acid, 
which was done by boiling the yellow matter with a few drops of 
nitric acid. On diluting the solution with water, it was found that a 
single drop tested by Marsh's method gave a most distinct metallic 
crust, which was readily proved to be arsenic by the application of the 
silver, copper, and sulphuretted hydrogen gas. 

These facts are of much practical importance, especially in this coun- 
try, where orpiment is commonly used as a poison. They shew that 
in all cases where arsenic may have been employed, we must, in the 
event of Marsh's process proving negative, apply a modification of the 
experiment I have related, so as to bring the sulphuret of arsenic 
into the state of an oxide. For this purpose the insoluble parts of the 
contents of the stomach should be boiled in a capsule of glass or porcelain, 
with small quantities of nitric acid, until red fumes are no longer given 
off. The mass should then be diluted with water, neutralized with 
carbonate of potash or soda, and, lastly, examined by Marsh's method. 

To shew the delicacy of this process, I may state, that I have applied 
it to the one-tenth part of a grain of orpiment mixed with four ounces 
of solid and fluid animal matter. By boiling with nitric acid, diluting 
with water and neutralizing, ten ounces of a liquid mixture were obtain- 
ed, from half a fluid ounce of which the metal was reduced, although 
the quantity could not have been quite the 200th part of a grain. 

I have next to notice the only serious fallacy to which this most 
ingenious method is liable, and which was first pointed out by Mr. 
Thomson in the Philosophical Magazine for May, 1837. It consists 
in the indications given by the soluble antimonial compounds, several 
of which are employed in medicine, one especially as an emetic in the 
treatment of cases of suspected poisoning. 

1839.] On the detection of Arsenical Poisons, fyc. 149 

By repeating Marsh's process on a mixture containing tartarized an- 
timony, it will be seen that the gas evolved burns with nearly the same 
color, and deposits a similar crust on the glass tube. 

On examining closely the distinguishing characters of this crust, it is 
very possible for an experienced eye to distinguish it from one produced by 
arsenic. The eye however must be experienced indeed, and that to a 
degree which very few observers can be supposed to lay claim to. Again, 
the sulphuretted hydrogen produces with crusts of arsenic and antimony 
yellow stains so faintly differing in tint as to lend even a practised 
experimentalist but little assistance in his research. The sulphate of 
copper, again, gives only such indications as are too faint to be relied 
on individually, though of some value as corroborating evidence. 

Nevertheless the silver test can be readily applied so as to give unques- 
tionable evidence of the nature of the crust of metal and of oxide 
obtained by Marsh's process. This may be accomplished by a method 
which differs slightly from one pointed out by Mr. Thomson in the 
paper alluded to. The tube on cooling should be moistened with a 
solution of nitrate of silver in distilled water, and then held over the 
mouth of a bottle containing strong ammonia, so that the vapor may 
traverse the tube. If the crust be arsenical, it instantaneously assumes 
a vivid canary color, owing to the formation of the arsenite of silver. 
No approach to such an effect is produced by the antimonial com- 
pounds, so that this test affords a simple, but most conclusive check on 
Marsh's invaluable method 

It is right to repeat a precaution as to the zinc employed. That 
found in the bazar often contains traces of arsenic, and should always 
be tested itself by Marsh's process before being employed in pursuit of 
any legal investigation. Secondly, the zinc by which arsenic has been 
once detected should never be used again, as the surface often unites 
with and retains as much of that metal as may falsify a further 

150 Asiatic Society. [Feb. 

Art. VI. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 

Wednesday Evening, the 6th February, 1839. 

The Honorable Sir E. Ryan, President, in the chair. 

The Proceedings of the last Meeting were read and confirmed. 

Messrs A. Porteous and J. Cowie, proposed at the last Meeting, were ballotted 
for, and duly elected Members of the Society. 

Mr. Wm, Jameson proposed by the President, seconded by Mr. H. T. Prinsep. 

The Honoi-able Sir H. Seton proposed by the President, seconded by the Lord 
Bishop of Calcutta. ' 

The Rev. John Henry Pratt, of Caius College, Cambridge, M. A- proposed by 
the President, seconded by the Lord Bishop of Calcutta. 

Mr. Edw. Thomas proposed by Capt. Forbes, seconded by Dr. O'Shaughnessy. 

Mr. J. W. Laidly proposed by Mr. W. Storm, seconded by Dr. O'Shaugh- 

Mr. A. C. Dunlop proposed by Mr. Hare, seconded by Dr. Goodeve. 

Read a letter from C. G. Mansell, Esq. stating that in consequence of his pro- 
ceeding to England for a sort time he was obliged to withdraw from the Society, 
which he hoped to rejoin on his return to India. 

Read the following letter from Government sanctioning the purchase of 100 copies 
of the Latin and Anamitan part of the Cochin-Chinese Dictionary, prepared by 
the Right Rev. the Bishop of Isauropolis, for 1000 rupees, in addition to the payments 
already made for the first part of the work in question. 

< No. 16. 
'To W. B. O'Shaughnessy, Esq. M. D. Officiating Secretary Asiatic Society. 

' Genl. Dept. 

' Sir, — I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, dated the 22d ultimo, 
and in reply to state, that his Honor in Council has heretofore refused to incur the 
expense of 2000 rupees towards executing the revised Latin Anamitan Dictionary, ne- 
vertheless rather than the 100 copies subscribed for by Government should be mutilated, 
and imperfect, his Honor the President in Council consents to add 1000 rupees to 
the payments already made by Government, under the condition of obtaining 100 com- 
plete sets of the work, besides the separate vocabularies. 

' I have the honor to be, Sir, 

' Your most obedient servant, 
' Council Chamber, the 2d Jan. 1839.' ' H. T. PRINSEP, 

' Secy, to the Govt, of India.' 


The following books were presented : 
Transactions of the Society of Arts, &c. vol. 51, part 2nd — by the Society. 
Rapport sur les Poissons Fossiles decouverts en Angleterre par L. Agassiz, Neucha- 

tel, 1835—6?/ the Author. 
Actes de la Societe Helvetique des Sciences Naturelles — by the Society. 
Map of the Eastern Frontier of British India, with the adjacent countries extending 

to Yunan in China, by Capt, R. B. Pemberton— by the Government af India. 
The following books were received from the booksellers : 
Georgii Wilhelmi Freytagii Lexicon Arabico-Latinum, Tome 4th. 
Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia— Literary Men of France, vol. 1st. 

1839.] Asiatic Society. 151 

King and Queen of White Ants, presented by W. Storm, Esq. 

The Secretary read the following correspondence which took place with Govern- 
ment regarding Major Hay's collection of Natural History Specimens. 
Copy of the letter addressed to Government, pursuant to the recommendation of the 
Committee of Papers. 
To H. T. Prinsep, Esq. 
Secretary to the Government of India, General Department. 
• I am directed by the Asiatic Society to request that you will submit to his Honor 
the President the accompanying copies, 1st, of a letter from Major Hay, relative to his 
Museum of objects of Natural History ; 2d, of a report by a Special Committee of the 
Asiatic Society appointed to examine that collection. 

' In submitting these documents to the notice of his Honor in Council, the Asiatic 
Society direct me to add a statement of their views on the several subjects referred to 
by Major Hay and the Sub-Committee. 

' In the opinion of the Asiatic Society, the collection imported by Major Hay is of 
the highest value, in a scientific point of view. It not only affords to the naturalists 
of India standard specimens for reference in pursuit of their numerous researches, but it 
possesses the still greater value of being available for the introduction of the systematic 
study of Natural History among the Natives of Bengal, a study impracticable without 
the aid of such a collection, and indispensable as a preliminary measure to the full in- 
vestigation of the Zoology and Natural History of our Indian possessions. 

' The duplicates contained in Major Hay's collection would, moreover, serve the two- 
fold end of completing the Museum of the Court of Directors in London, and of procur- 
ing for India exchanges of valuable objects neither comprised in Major Hay's collec- 
tion, nor indigenous in this country. 

' The Society while thus fully aware of the valuable opportunity now afforded for the 
promotion of the study of Natural History in India, are not insensible to the difficulties 
which oppose themselves to the procural of Major Hay's Museum. The estimate of its 
pecuniary value, submitted by the proprietor, far exceeds the resources of the Society, 
or any subscriptions which might be collected among individuals anxious to promote 
the object in view. 

' It seems possible still that were the Government to extend its patronage and pecuni- 
ary aid to the Museum, that the current efforts of the Society and of individual sub- 
scribers might lead to the accomplishment of some arrangement which would secure the 
acquisition of this Museum for Bengal. 

' In the event of such measures being adopted, the Society will gladly apply their es- 
tablishment to the custody of the Museum, and they pledge themselves at all times to 
facilitate the application thereof to the furtherance of the chief end of its acquisition, 
namely, the instruction of the Natives of Bengal in the several subjects, such collec- 
tions are capable of illustrating. For this purpose the Museum might be held available 
for the illustration of lectures in Natural History, delivered at any Government Institu- 
tion in Calcutta, such precautions being taken as would secure it from injury or loss. 

' I am directed finally to refer to your letter of the 26th July, 1838, in which 
you state "that the Governor General of India in Council will be ready to receive 
from the Society recommendations for the purchase or other procurement of objects of 
more than common interest, of which the Society may receive information, and for 
the obtainmcnt of which it may want the necessary funds." 

'The Society most respectfully represent the present occasion as one eminently de- 
serving of the patronage of the Government, in the spirit of the views expressed in the 
preceding extract.' I have, &c. 

' 7th Jan. 1838.' W. B. O'SHAUGHNESSY. 

J.V2 Asiatic Society. [Feb, 

' To' the Secretary of the Asiatic Society, &;c. 8$c. Calcutta. 

'Sir, Agra, December 2nd, 1838. 

' I beg- to forward for the consideration of the President and members of the 
Asiatic Society some papers connected with a collection of natural curiosities lately 
accumulated by myself on a visit to the Cape of Good Hope, and Islands in the Eastern 

' In the first instance, I will briefly state my views in forming it ; and afterwards 
proceed, as far as I am able, to give details. Until the publication of Swainson's vo- 
lumes on the Classification of Animals, and afterwards of the Quadrupeds and Birds, I 
never prosecuted the science with that ardour which these books enticed me to. His 
distinctions, however, appearing so beautifully clear, it occurred to me that a Museum 
classified from these books, upon one uniform principle, could not fail to prove interest- 
ing ; and that such was much wanting in Calcutta, I had not a doubt. I was then at 
the Cape of Good Hope for the benefit of my health, and having much leisure time, I 
took the thing in hand. My first care was to get the specimens in the vicinity of the 
Cape, selecting chiefly those in illustration of genera. I then became acquainted 
Avith that unexceptionable, practical naturalist and taxidermist, Monsieur Verreaux, 
who had been extolled for his art by his master Cuvier ; had been the personal friend 
of Levaillant; the intimate associate of Ruppell and Lesson ; and well known to seve- 
ral other naturalists of note. In such a person how could I fail to be interested ? 
Through this individual I procured the only duplicate skins existing of the large col- 
lection formed by that zealous naturalist, Dr. A. Smith, who had just returned from 
the scientific expedition into the interior of Africa, and whose work of African Zoology 
is only now in course of publication. My original purchase was limited to one hundred 
pounds, adding for this sum only twenty genera, and a few new species. Finding 
however my little stock, by the addition of new discoveries, increase in interest, I deter- 
mined to endeavour to procure from South America those gorgeous specimens for 
which that country is so celebrated, to add to the beauty of the whole. With this view 
I made a list of the most interesting genera, and wrote to Rio Janeiro, where I knew 
Dr. Natterer, the German naturalist, had been collecting for the Emperor of Austria. 
From that country I procured many rare and interesting birds, and a vast collection of 
insects. Monsieur Verreaux hearing of the illness of his father in Paris, determined 
upon a hasty return to his own country, and wishing to go immediately, unincumbered, 
offered me the whole of his remaining specimens then at the Cape, mounted and in 
skin. I had now become the purchaser of animals, birds, &c. to the amount of fifteen 
hundred pounds. The remainder of my purchases at the Cape from different natu- 
ralists being about five hundred more. I shortly determined upon leaving the Cape and 
proceeding to Java, with the intention of returning to India via the Eastern Archipe- 
lago, for the purpose of adding largly to (what I shall now denominate) the Museum. 
On this tour I was obliged to content myself with skins, obtaining large numbers, and 
curing them myself. From the Buggeese I was fortunate enough to procure some rare 
and interesting specimens from the Moluccas and Borneo: in fact I left no part of the 
Eastern Archipelago untouched, and have now brought to Calcutta the whole of my 

' Here, however, my difficulties commence. Upon my arrival I find my circum- 
stances changed, and that independent of the whole of my private means expended in 
the forming this Museum, when my accounts are closed, I shall have a balance against 
me of about, twenty thousand rupees, to meet which I supposed I had resources, but 
sundry misfortunes have left me none. 

' My return to Calcutta had been so arranged that I should have had three months 
remaining of unexpired leave to devote to the arrangement of all I had gathered toge- 
ther ; instead of which I found myself hampered by the most unforeseen difficulties, 
with no immediate funds to defray the expenses Obliged to hurry to the Upper Pro- 

1839.] Asiatic Society. 153 

vinces to join my regiment, forming a portion of the army of the Indus, it now became 
a serious consideration what was to become of all I had with so much labour and anxi- 
ety amassed together. 

' With only ten days to remain in Calcutta, honor pointed out to me but one course, 
which was to expose the whole for inspection, and eventual sale in satisfaction of my 
creditors. This I have done, and the greater portion is now to be seen at the rooms of 
Moore, Hickey, and Co. Up to the time of my leaving, I had however found it impos- 
sible to unpack, and expose for view in a secure place, the valuable portion of skins ; 
but, although I have no list of the whole, I beg to forward a list of those now exposed for 
sale, the remainder are in various boxes in the godowns of Moore, Hickey, and Co. and 
at my own agent's, John Lowe and Co. 

1 My great desire is, that if this Museum is sold, it should be disposed of to some 
Public Society, or to any number of persons who would allow it to remain as a Museum 
for public reference. 

' I have estimated the expense of the whole at thirty thousand rupees : but my sole 
wish is to realise a suffice to pay my debt, and with this view I offer it to the Asiatic 

' My original intention was to have exhibited it, and have demanded one rupee for 
the entrance of each person to defray its expenses, after which I should have handed 
it over to one of the Public Societies gratis. 

' From the published proceedings of your Society, I glean that you are not in the habit 
of expending large sums of money on specimens, but nevertheless you might probably 
do me the honor at an early meeting of your Society to bring the matter forward ; and a 
discussion on your part might bring it to the notice of Government, or it might assist 
me in disposing of what may be on my return from Cabul a mere wreck, from want of 
a little care. 

' I beg also to notice, that just one year ago I despatched from Cape Town into the 
Namaqua country an intelligent man, furnished with a waggon and oxen, and every 
necessary for the purpose of collecting. Up to the latest accounts he had not returned. 
The expense incurred in fitting out the expedition amounted to nearly four hundred 
pounds, and upon his return I am entitled, without paying any thing more, to the half 
of every thing, which I will add free of expense to any Society or parties who may 
purchase the whole Museum; and as the man deputed was formerly with Captain Alex- 
ander on his travels, and at the same time an experienced person in preparing skins, &c. 
it is probable that he will return with many of great interest and value. 

• I shall now proceed to forward catalogues of the specimens in Calcutta, forming the 
Museum. ' I have the honor to be, Sir, 

' Your most obedient servant, 


' P.S. I have succeeded in getting lists of the mounted specimens printed, but not of 
the skins, which must be forwarded hereafter. I have added one sheet of the skins, but 
time will not admit of more.' 

Report of a Special Committee of the Asiatic Society on the Zoological Collection re- 
cently introduced to India by Major W. E. Hay. 

' In estimating the value of this collection, your Committee beg to state that they 
must be guided by different considerations from those by which they would be in- 
fluenced were the objects comprising it indigenous to India. 

' The collection has been made in Africa, South America, and the Straits composing 
the Molucca islands; many of the objects it contains are the result of Dr. A. Smith's 
mission to the interior of South Africa, other parts of it were collected under the 
direction of M. Verreaux, and the rest by Major Hay himself, aided by M. Ycrreaux in 

154 Asiatic Society. [Feb. 

determining most of the species ; so that the collection comprises many of the most 
remarkable forms from quarters of the world from which the Society have hitherto 
received no contributions, and with which persons residing in India could only be- 
come acquainted through the medium of books. 

1 The value of a collection that places it in our power here, to become acquainted 
with several hundred animals which otherwise we should only know by their published 
descriptions, must obviously be great ; for so long as this country remains without such 
collections in every department of Natural History, so long must we be deficient in one 
of the first requisites for advancement in the higher branches of natural science. 

' Major Hay's collection has yet another peculiar recommendation to us in this coun- 
try, which elsewhere, perhaps, would be of less importance ; namely, that most of its 
contents have been identified by Dr. Smith and M. Verreaux, so that the species it 
contains would be so many land-marks to which we could safely refer in the classifica- 
tion of the animals of this country — an object which still in a great measure remains to 
be accomplished. 

' Such being our views of the importance of Major Hay's Zoological Collection, we 
are of opinion that the pecuniary estimate of its value, referred to in Major Hay's 
letter to the Society, is not over-rated ; but we regret that in the present condition of 
the Society in regard to disposable funds, we cannot recommend so great an outlay. 

'As, however, the safety of this valuable collection is an object worthy of our solici- 
tude, we beg to recommend that the rooms of the Society be offered- for its reception, 
that it might be at once safely and economically exhibited on the part of Major Hay, 
or those into whose hands it may have fallen. 

' Were such an offer to be accepted, instead of being exposed to injury in a public 
sale room, without the necessary attention from persons accustomed to such a charge, 
the collection might be much augmented in value by the exchange of duplicates with 
the Society. In recommending this course, we are guided equally by all interests 
concerned, for while we form the very highest estimate of the value of the collection, in 
a scientific point of view, we cannot but regret to think that if it were put up for sale, it 
would barely realise the expenses which have been perhaps already incurred by its ex- 

' D. M'LEOD, 



No. 72. 

The Officiating Secretary to the Asiatic Society. 
' Genl. Dept. 

' Sir, — I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your letter dated the 7th instant, 
forwarding copies of a letter from Major Hay, relative to his Museum of objects of 
Natural History, and of a report by a Special Committee of the Asiatic Society, 
appointed to examine that collection. 

"2nd. In reply, I am directed to state, that the President in Council cannot regard 
a collection of prepared Birds, and other animals, as falling within the class of objects 
which the Government of India expressed its readiness to receive from the Society 
recommendations to purchase, or otherwise procure. Such preparations have always 
appeared to Government to be too perishable to be made objects of collection in a 
climate like that of Bengal, and fall within the exception referred to in the last para- 
graph of my letter, dated the 26th July, 1837. His Honor in Council cannot therefore 
entertain the proposition that the Government should purchase Major Hay's extensive 
collection of objects of Natural History, but would suggest that the specimens are better 
adapted for the Museums of Europe, where the climate is less destructive. 

' I am, Sir, your obedient servant, 

' Council Chamber, the 6th Jan. 1839.' ' Secy, to the Govt, of India.' 

1839.] Asiatic Society. 155 

Read a letter from Dr. Lord, dated Peshawar, 4th November 1838, forwarding two 
boxes of specimens of Natural History, collected by him while he was attached to 
Capt. Burnes's mission. 

Read a letter from J. G. Malcolmson, Esq. regarding M. Agassiz' opinions on 
the erratic blocks of the Jura, &c. &c. 

Read a letter from Mr. Prichard to Mr. J. W. Grant, on the microscopic exami- 
nation of lignite from Sandway. 

Notes on the dissection of the Arctonix Collaris, by Dr. Geo. Evans. 
A paper on Artificial Hatching in Egypt, by M. Demas. 

Notes on a new genus of the Fissirostres, Todidce, Vigors, by Mr. B. H. Hodgson. 

On the conclusion of the business, the Officiating Secretary read the following report 
from Col. D. M'Leod, Chief Engineer, on the best and most economical mode of ex- 
tending the accommodation of the Society's House, with the view of having carried into 
effect any additions and improvements that may be determined on, simultaneously 
with the general repah-s of the building, now become absolutely necessary for its pre- 

Col. D. M'Leod, also forwarded two plans, No. 1 and 2, with his report, and an 
estimate from Messrs. Sherriff and Co., the builders, amounting to rupees 10,664-15. 
' To the Officiating Secretary to the Asiatic Society. 

' Sir, — In compliance with the desire expressed at the last meeting of the Society, that 
I would examine and report on the best and most economical means of extending the 
accommodation of the Society's House, with the view of having carried into effect any 
additions and improvements that may be determined on, simultaneously with the 
general repairs of the building, now become absolutely necessary for its preservation, 
I beg leave to state to you, for communication to the next meeting of our Society, that I 
have repeatedly, and carefully examined the building in communication with Mr. 
Rowe, the builder, and with reference to the extent of additional accommodation which 
I am led to understand will soon be found desirable, if not indispensable, for the Society's 
rapidly increasing collections in all departments. I have the honor to report my opinion 
as follows : 

' 2nd. In addition to the ordinary repairs of cleaning up the interior and exterior of 
the building, and painting, it has been ascertained that the decayed state of the stair, 
case roof is such as to demand its immediate removal, and renewal; and it is, I believe, 
generally agreed that a skylight in that apartment, or in the passage between it and 
the Hall is indispensable, as the effect of the valuable collection of pictures placed there 
is quite lost, from the absence of a proper or sufficient light. The roof of the staircase, 
however, being about three feet higher than that of the passage, the light from the 
former would in a great measure be intercepted by the architrave over the colonnade, 
and would consequently be so far defective. I would therefore recommend its being 
placed on the roof of the passage, in its centre, on a design (a drawing of which accom- 
panies) now of general adoption in the Department of Public Works, and which I have 
always found to answer the purpose extremely well, and to continue water proof. The 
cost of such a skylight, measuring eight feet by six feet, as appears by Mr. Rowe's 
estimate, will only amount to Rs. 150. 

' 3rd. It was also I believe admitted, that a small staircase leading to the roof, such 
as is appended to almost every dwelling house here, is much needed, in lieu of the 
very inconvenient ladder, with trap door, now existing for that purpose ; this deficiency 
I propose to supply in connection with the extension of the building, which I have now 
to suggest. 

' 4th. Two different modes of effecting this object have occurred to me, in both of 
which, however, is included the erection of a large room, in two floors of thirty-six feet 
by twenty-four feet, on either side of the staircase room to the east and west. 

'5th. The first, as represented in both floors of plan No. 1, would leave the present 

156 Asiatic Society. [Feb. 

staircase (which is in substantial condition) precisely as it now stands, and the pro- 
posed new side rooms free and entire, with the exception of having the northern part 
of one side cut off for the purpose of adding- a small back stairs, and a retiring closet 
attached thereto. The cost of this arrangement, including the sky light, exclusive 
of the removal of the decayed roof, and of other repairs, is shewn in Mr. Rowe's esti- 
mate No. 1, to be rupees 8485-10, and if interior new doors are not judged requisite 
to the new rooms in the upper floor, this estimate will be reduced to rupees 7861-10, as 
there exist old ones which may be applied to the lower floor. 

4 6th. The second, as represented in plan No. 2, would remove entirely the present 
double staircase, and introduce it as a handsome single one into the curtailed new side 
room. The very thick walls now existing in the basement on each side of the flight, of 
stairs, as well as the colonnades over them, would in this case become quite unneces- 
sary, and ought to be removed, so as to leave the whole of that apartment from wall to 
wall, in the line of east and west, free, and uninterrupted both above and below. The 
extra accommodation thus to be obtained, would be about equal with that of the first 
proposal, and the effect produced on the general appearance of the rooms, on entering 
from the new staircase, would certainly be more grand and imposing ; but on proceed- 
ing to arrange all matters necessarily involved in carrying this measure into effect, 
I find, that as shewn in Mr. Rowe's estimate No. 2, it is unavoidably more expensive 
than the first by rupees 3178-3-6, and as the advantage is only in appearance, I fear it 
must, as matter of course, be rejected in favor of plan No. 1. 

4 7th. Should the latter also be found too expensive to be met by the available 
funds of the Society, the only alteration I have at present to propose, is to reduce 
the size of the new side rooms, so as that the walls shall be in a line with the other 
walls of the house— leaving them I believe about 26 X 18 feet, which would of course 
diminish the charge considerably. But the Plan No. 1, if practicable, I would recom- 
mend, as it would be the means, I think, of preventing all future patching of the build- 
ing—it provides at once two rooms of 36 X 24 feet and two rooms of 26 X 24 feet, with a 
suitable back stairs and closet in two floors, while it cannot be said to affect injuriously 
the light or the ventilation of the present apartments. 

' 8th, I would further beg leave to bring to the notice of the Meeting, that the dampness 
of the lower, or basement, floor is greatly complained of as a serious evil. I observe that 
this defect cannot conveniently be remedied by raising and new fluing, besides which 
that process would be attended with a heavy expenditure I would therefore recom- 
mend that an expedient now successfully adopted, of laying the floor in a composition 
of tar and sand, (a specimen of which maybe seen in the Society's House, executed I 
understand about two years ago by Mr. Rowe,) be resorted to in the lower apartments, to 
correct this evil. Its cost, as shewn, in Mr. Rowe's estimate No. 3 will be Rs. 1007. 

4 9th. It only remains to show in abstract the total expense in which the Society will 
be involved by the adoption of plan No. 1, for extending the accommodation, in addi- 
tion to the requisite general repairs. The following is the abstract: 

For the ordinary repairs, as per Mr. Rowe's estimate, .. Rs. 854 8 

For the new Roof to the Staircase, " 77113 

For new laying the floor of the Basement, " 1007 

For the proposed Skylight, .. " 150 

For the proposed 4 additional Rooms and all connected 
with them, « 786110 

Grand Total of Expenditure, " 10,644 15 

' 10th In conclusion, I have to observe in reference to Mr. Rowe's estimates, that 
the ratos nre very fair and moderate throughout. 

' I have the honor to be, Sir, 

4 Your most obedient servant, 
'Fort William, February 6, 1839.' ' D. M'LEOD.' 

1839.] Asiatic Society. 157 

No. 2. 

1 Estimate for building two additional Rooms, Back Stairs, and Closet; also remov- 
ing the Staircase, &c. and fixing a new Staircase in the Western Room, as per Plan 
No. 2. 
Building two Rooms, &c. as particularized in 

Estimate No. 1. .. .. .. .... .. 8485 10 

Alterations in the Staircase Room, 1 wall, 

One Architrave, 53§ X 2 X 3 
Fixing Beams, 103| X 1£ X 1§ 
Ditto ditto 2nd Story, 103* X 1| X % 
Roof and Floor, 53| X 23 X 2 

Balustrade, 53| X 1§ X 3| 
8 Pillars, each 20 feet, 
Inside Cornice, 153 feet, 
Outside ditto, 54 ditto, 


34 Beams, each 28 feet, 14 X 8 ® 1/8 
60 feet Architrave, . . . , 18 X 10 © 1/ 

2500 feet Rafter 3 X 2 @ /6 

Principal Staircase, including landing to be 
fixed in the New Western Room, . . 900 3949 3 6 

.. 2969| 

.. 321 

.. 232| 

.. 388 

.. 2461 

i 13/8 

6372 © 

860 3 6 

.. 300| 


40 8 

. . 



, . 


76 8 

• • 





, , 


, . 


Co's. Rs. 12,434 13 6 

Deduct the renewal of the decayed Roof, . . 771 4 

11,661 13 6 

N. B. The above includes changing the old roof of Staircase Room. 

Resolved, — That the Society approve of Col. M'Leod's Plan No. 1, and sanction the 
sum estimated for the construction of four additional rooms, and repairs of the pre- 
mises, and that the Secretary be requested to communicate the resolution of the 
meeting to the Builders, with orders to commence the work, with as little delay as 



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No. 87.— MARCH, 1839- 

Art. I. — Notice of an Inscription on a Slab discovered in February, 
1838, by Capt. T. S. Burt, Bengal Engineer s^ in Bundelkhund, 
near Chhatarpur. — By the Editors. 

Captain Burt will have imputed, to the right causes, (Mr. Prinsep's 
illness, and absence) the delay, with which we notice the impression 
of the above inscription, so obligingly forwarded by him. This com- 
munication, has added to the obligations which antiquarian science 
owes to him. The legend of the inscription is now presented to our 
readers with a translation — a relevant extract from Captain Burt's 
Journal* — some explanatory notes, — and a prosodial key to the in- 
scribed verses, or rather Poem. A facsimile of the inscription is not 
added, because the character resembles the specimen published in our 
number for April, 1837 ; and Captain Burt describes it as No. 3, 
Allahabad pillar. 

This slab, it will be seen, was found detached at one of several temples 
at Khajrao, nine coss from Chhatarpur, which is on the high road 
connecting Saugar and Hamirpur. Khajrao is described by Captain 
Burt as near Rajgarhy, which we assume to be the Rajgarh of the 
maps — a fortified town on the right bank of the Cane river S. E. from 
Chhatarpur. The place abounds with remains of temples, statuary, 
and monuments of ancient times. The slab was found in the temple 
dedicated to " Lalajee." This name, (unknown to the Sanscrit 
theogonies) is probably the appellation locally current of some divinity 
whose alias we cannot conjecture. It may however be assumed, that 

* Captain Burt's letter covering the inscription has been mislaid. We hope we 
have not taken a liberty in making an extract from a Journal of his Travels, in the 
hands of Thacker & Co., for the press.— Eds. 


160 Inscribed Slab found near Chhatarpur. [March, 

the slab does not belong to this edifice ; and that that, celebrated in 
the polished verses now presented, has yielded to the mouldering hand of 
time. We may also assume, that its site, was the consecrated spot, 
described by Captain Burt, and that it gives us the genealogy of Rajas 
who formerly ruled in that part of the country. 

We learn that Raja Banga erected a lofty temple for the reception 
of an emerald emblem of Siva, and a stone image of the god. On the 
death of this Raja, seemingly by voluntary immersion in the confluence 
of the Yamuna and Ganga, his territory was administered by the 
priest Yasonhara, — perhaps, during the minority of his heir Jaya 
Varma Deva. The original inscription, of sixty stanzas, was engraved 
and put up in 1019 Sarnbat, or 962 a. d. — that is about 877 years ago. 
From the two last, or supplementary, stanzas we learn, that it was 
engraved by order of Raja Jaya Varma Deva in " irregular" letters. 
He afterwards had it re-engraved in clear character : then because 
effaced, he again, at the distance of fifty-four years, had the poem re- 
engraved in the Kakuda character on the slab, from which Captain 
Burt has taken a faithful impression. It bears the date Friday, Vai- 
sakh 3d, Sudi Sambat 1 173, a. d. 1016. The poet was Sri Ram, who 
has not failed to give his own genealogy, and the caligraphist was 
"that Gaud'a' Kayastha." 

The pious Banga appears to have been of the Lunar race. The 
pedigree given by the slab is this 








Sriharsa 5 -j-Kunkati his wife of the Gangetic race. 


Yaso-Dharma Deva+Narma Deva his wife. 

Banga appears to have been succeeded by Jaya Varma Deva, who 
may have been his son. 

In the 12th vol. of the Asiatic Researches there is copy of an im- 
perfect inscription taken from a slab translated by Capt. Price, who 
found it near Mow, a town ten miles from Chhatarpur. A place of that 

1839.] Inscribed Slab found near Chhatat pur. 161 

name, in a North Westerly direction, appears on the map near the left- 
bank of the Dassaun river. The name of Jaya Varma Deva is in the 
royal genealogy recorded on this slab ; of which the date is effaced. 
This genealogy has also its Vijaya ; but it cannot be identified with that 
of Banga. It appears however that when Ananta, the Brahmin 
minister of his father and grandfather, drowned himself in the Yamuna, 
some other (probably a Brahmin) was appointed to the administration 
by Jaya Varma, — because, as Capt. Price infers from words used in 
the inscription, he had abandoned worldly concerns. 

In the Khajrao slab it is not stated that Jaya Varma Deva was the 
son of Banga, but we learn that the priest Yasondhara administered 
after the pious suicide of Banga.* These circumstances afford some 
grounds, though weak, to identity the Jaya Varma Deva of both slabs. 
In case of identity, we may suppose that the two genealogies exhibit 
distinct branches of one family, and that Jaya Varma Deva succeed- 
ed collaterally. No doubt local inquiry would fling light on the history 
of the Kings or Chieftains here recorded. 

The poet elevates Banga into a great monarch and conqueror. 
Kings of Oude and even Ceylon attend to do him homage, and his cap- 
tives are the wives of the kings of Andra, Rad'ha, and Anga. All 
this of course is the exaggeration and fancy of the poet. But the 19th 
stanza seems however to indicate the actual conquest by Vijaya of 
southern territory. 

Banga's piety was not limited to the erection of the shrine. He 
also built mansions for seven Brahmins who officiated at the temple, 
which he endowed with lands. " Two yavas at Sri Brahma kalpa; one 
in the vicinity. Kalpa gram, on the south of the snowy mountains, was 
another." This obscure sloka introduces a new land measure. The 
yava, or barley corn, is the lowest linear measure, — and suits, neither 
royal munificence, nor priestly expectation. We have Kalpi on the 
right bank of the Yamuna ; but unless to fill up the verse it would hardly 
be described as south of the snowy mountains. Is any Sri Brahma 
kalpa known in the vicinity ? 

We should be much gratified if this, and other points connected with 
this inscription receive the attention of Captain Burt, or any other 
intelligent correspondent who may have the opportunity of local inqui- 
ry. We will not dismiss the temple, without noticing Xicqha * the 
carpenter," the Christopher Wren who built the " cloud-capt" fabric. No 
Indian name approaching to this is now known. Was he foreigner ? 

* In the 9th verse of the Mow slab the name of Jaya Varma's father is incomplete. 
But Banga would not suit the metre, and would make an incongruous compound. 

1G2 Inscribed Slab found near Chhatarpur. [March, 

Of the character of the Poem a few words remain to be said. It is 
composed in an ambitious style by an accomplished scholar. His 
verses are polished and elaborate ; some however are obscure, and the 
quaint pedantry of Sanscrit Poetry here abounds. But in spite of 
these defects, many of the verses may be justly commended as contain- 
ing much of truly poetical imagery, conveyed in lofty and polished 
diction. But we must leave space for Captain Burt's narrative. 

Extract from the Journal. 

I reached Chatterpore at 9 o'clock at night, (which was an ear- 
lier hour than I had stipulated for by twelve or thirteen hours), 
but my reason for pushing on was in order to have time to pay a visit 
to Khajrao, a place situated about nine pukka (full) koss (eighteen 
English miles) from Chatterpore, to the right of my road, and lying 
not far from Rajpore, or Ragurhy, or I think it is more correctly call- 
ed Rajnuggur. The natives at a distance sometimes call Chatterpore 
Chatpore. It was whilst I was on my return trip from Eraw to 
Saugor that I heard, from a palky bearer, of the wonders of this 
place — Khajrao, near Chatpore, as he called it ; and which he stated 
to be situated from Saugor seven munzils, or daily stages, for native 
pedestrians, which, at fifteen miles per day, is about the thing, Chat- 
terpore being distant from Herrapore fifty miles, or one hundred from 
Saugor. I may as well now employ my twelve or thirteen hours spare 
time in taking a look at Khajrao along with the reader. 

Immediately on my arrival at Chatterpore, at 9 o'clock at night, I 
told the dawk moonshee, (baboo, or writer) to procure a double set 
of sixteen bearers, and two spare men for a bangie, containing my 
food and printing materials, to start as soon as possible for Khajrao. 
I wished to arrive there before sunrise in the morning, and it lay at 
a distance of eighteen or twenty miles thence by an indifferent road. 
I left a pair of trunks and a pair of patarahs (tin boxes) under the 
care of the baboo, as I should not require them until my return, and 
in about an hour started for Khajrao, via Rajnuggur, and reached the 
temples of the former at seven or eight o'clock in the morning. The 
ruins which I went to see lie at some distance from the village, which 
lies beyond them, and this place I did not see, as a quantity of jungle 
intercepts the view of it. I was much delighted at the venerable, and 
picturesque appearance these several old temples presented, as I got 
within view of them. They reared their sun-burnt tops above the 
huge trees by which they are surrounded, with all the pride of supe- 

1839.] Inscribed Slab found near Chhatar pur. 163 

rior height and age. But the chances are, the trees (or jungle rather) 
will eventually have the best of it. My first inquiry, after taking 
breakfast, was for ancient inscriptions, and a temple close by was im- 
mediately pointed out as the possessor of one. I went there, and sure 
enough there was an inscription in the No. 3 Sanscrit character of the 
Allahabad pillar, in the most perfect and beautiful state of preserva- 
tion, engraved on a stone slab which measured about five feet by four, 
and was completely covered on the upper side with writing ; the stone 
was laying at a slope against a step in the side wall of the temple. 
It was the largest, the finest, and the most legible inscription of any I 
had yet met with, and it was with absolute delight that I set to work 
to transfer its contents to paper. I took two copies, one on a plain 
white paper, without ink, by pressing it in a wet state with towels 
into the hollows formed by the letters, and another reversed with 
ink, which I spread upon the stone. The facsimile, or impression, ob- 
tained was the most beautiful specimen I have by me, and I regretted 
that the surface of the stone twenty square feet, was too large for me 
to spare time to make a duplicate with ink. The date of it is 1123,* 
Sunbat, or 771 years ago, as was distinctly pointed out in the lower- 
most line of the inscription ; having done this I took a look around, — 
" Si monumentum quseris, circumspice," — and could not help ex- 
pressing a feeling of wonder at these splendid monuments of antiquity 
having been erected by a people who have continued to live in such a 
state of barbarous ignorance. It is a proof that some of these men must 
then have been of a more superior caste of human beings than the rest. 
Khajrao is situated one koss distant from Rajnuggur, the Rajah 
of which sent to express a hope I would pay him a visit on my return : 
and as I was in his dominions, I thought it was as well to do so in the 
evening. I found in the ruins of Khajrao seven large Diwallas, or 
Hindoo temples, most beautifully and exquisitely carved as to work- 
manship, but the sculptor had at times allowed his subject to grow 
rather warmer than there was any absolute necessity for his doing ; in- 
deed, some of the sculptures here were extremely indecent and offensive; 
which I was at first much surprised to find in temples that are pro- 
fessed to be erected for good purposes, and on account of religion. But 
the religion of the ancient Hindoos could not have been very chaste if 
it induced people under the cloak of religion, to design the most dis- 
graceful representations to desecrate their ecclesiastical erections. The 
palky bearers, however, appeared to take great delight at the sight of 
those to them very agreeable novelties, which they took good care 
to point out to all present. I was much struck with the beauty of the 

* The impression gives 1173 Sambat. 

164 Inscribed Slab found near Chhatarpur. [March, 

inner roofs of the temples, which were circular, and carved in a most 
elaborate, style. 

I told one of the bearers to try and find out whether there were 
any passage or steps leading to the roof inside or outside the building : 
as if there were, I intended to pay a visit to it. After searching about 
for some time, he reported that there was a way ,• so I went to 
look at it, and found that the only means which presented itself of 
access to the upper story, existed on the inside, and from one of the 
side passages ( dark as Erebus), and that it was requisite to ascend 
by climbing up the sacred images. 

From the side wall, which was perpendicular, I first sent up one of 
the bearers, and then by laying hold of the leg of one god, and the 
arm of another, the head of a third, and so on, I was luckily enabled, 
not however without inconvenience, to attain the top of the wall ; 
where, on the roof, I found an aperture, just large enough forme to creep 
in at. On entering upon the roof, I found that my sole predecessors there 
for several years before had been evidently the bat and the monkey, 
and the place was not for that reason the most odoriferous of all 
places in the world. However, it was necessary that I should see and 
inspect the nature and formation of these upper stories. The circular 
roofs, before referred to, were formed by the overlapping of huge 
long blocks of stone, which stretched from the capital of one pillar to 
that of another, and upon both of which they are supported. The 
others are placed so as to fill up the corners of the square (or other an- 
gular figure of which the plan of the roof was formed) by other huge 
long blocks laid across these interstices diagonally, from the centre of 
one face to centre of another. The same occurred above them, smaller 
blocks being used as the circle contracted, and as the roof tended towards 
a point. Here a square stone was laid on, resting upon the superincum- 
bent ones. There was no masonry, I mean no plaster of any kind, used 
for the purpose of cementing these slabs to one another, their own weight 
and position alone being sufficient to give them permanence — a per- 
manence which has lasted forages, and which would, unless disturbed 
by the growing of trees or other disturbing cause, sempiternally exist. 
I saw nothing else worthy of notice, only here and there, immense 
parallelopipedons of stone, in some of which, the presence of holes ap- 
parently drilled for the intrusion of the lever for raising them was 
indicated. There appeared to be no way of returning excepting that 
by which I had effected my ascent, so I set about my descent as well 
as I could, for this was more difficult than the ascent ; but after 
resting first one foot, then another, upon any projection I could meet 
with, I managed to effect, without loss of limb my perilous descent. I 

1839.] Inscribed Slab found near Chhatar pur. 165 

noticed a vast quantity of beautiful sculptures of all kinds, to attempt 
to describe which would exceed the limits of this work, even if I 
possessed the means of doing so ; but as I do not, and have made no 
sketches there, I mustier force be excused from inserting any. Having 
visited several temples, in all seven, of which the names are as follow, I 
went to take a look at the rest of the wonders of the place. One temple 
was dedicated to Mahadeo; a second to Parwatti ; a third to Kun- 
dari ; a fourth to Lalaji;(±) in which I found the large inscription ; a 
fifth to Nandeo, or the Mahadeo bullock god; opposite to which and 
facing it, in an outer building, contemporaneously erected, is a 
splendid figure of the largest bail, (or ox) I have ever seen ; the 
animal was sitting upright upon the ground, and in this state mea- 
sures seven feet long, five feet high, and three and quarter feet 
broad, and weighs by my old way of calculating 68J tons, or 
1872^ maunds. I had not sufficient time to make a drawing of 
him, being obliged to notice more interesting matters. The sixth 
temple is consecrated (may I use this term ?) to Chatlerbhoj ; and the 
seventh (what think ye of that reader) to our fourth friend of the Hog 
species — to Barao,&) and in which there is, without exception, the 
finest, (and last) but not largest, specimen of this animal I have 
as yet seen ; and I don't think there are many others in India, except- 
ing one of which I know the locality, but have not visited it. The 
dimensions of this interesting object are as follow — His height is 
five and three quarter feet, his length eight feet, breadth three and quar- 
ter feet ; all these dimensions are approximations, made by means of 
my walking stick, which measures rather more than a yard in length : 
so that each of them may be perhaps increased by about one inch ; his 
weight will be, according to our method, ninety tons, or about 2461 
maunds. This is pretty well for the weight of the gentleman just 
after breakfast. What the deuce would it be after luncheon ? I am 
happy to say we have in this specimen unequivocal proof of the pre- 
sence of a complete and well formed snake which is lying under him,C 3 ) 
partly in an incurvated position, but evidently subdued ; the female 
figure, that should be here has been taken away (confound the 
rascally despoilers), and nothing remaining of her beautiful form (for 
I am sure it must have been beautiful, judging from the rest) but two 
feet, and her hand, which is posited upon the left throat or neck of the 

1. Divinities by the name ofKuNDARi and Lalaji are not found in the Sanscrit 
theogonies, they may be familiar designations locally current. 

2. The Far aha Avatar of Vishnu is well known. 

3. The snake Anantaoi- Sesha, which upholds the earth. The child is the infant 
Ha in described as reposing on this snake. 

166 Inscribed Slab found near Chhalarpur. [March, 

animal. One additional circumstance occurs too in this specimen^ 
which is the remains of a child resting upon the snake's neck. I should 
conceive that this figure of a child is meant to represent the child of 
Prithei, viz. mankind, born of earth (or Prithee), and of whom the 
fable represents Hiran, the snake, to have been the enemy or destroyer, 
but who has here triumphed, and is resting upon the serpent's neck — 
" Thou shalt bruise his head, and he shall bruise thy heel." Another 
very extraordinary fact is, that the tail of the Barao, though broken 
off, (as indeed is that of each of the other specimens) must evidently 
have joined on to the tail of the reptile ; this would seem to convey the 
idea that the tail was either part of the enemy, or the enemy itself ; 
but this discussion I must leave to the learned, being unable to grapple 
with it myself. The tusks of the Hog are curved in the finest and most 
determined manner. I do not recollect in what direction the woman's 
feet are turned in this specimen, whether towards the animal, or 
sideways from him. I would willingly have given a hundred rupees 
(10/.) to have had a good sight of the " Prithee" creature, (who has been 
taken away,) and that in a mutilated state too, as they have left her 
feet and one arm. The Barao stands on a fine thick slab raised on 
a high chabutra, which is accessible by steps formed of red granite, 
(mind that). The roof is well formed, strong, and likely to last for 
ages; as is also the Hog. I think he was covered with parallel rows of 
human figures, like unto the others, but upon this fact I beg to say I 
do not feel justified in speaking decidedly. 

Let us now look in at the little Mahadeo, or lingam, which is to 
be seen in another temple, situated not far from this one. In order to 
arrive at it, it is necessary to ascend a considerable number of steps, at 
the top of which is situated the representation of the vital principle. 
Let us now measure the height of the gentleman. The natives ob- 
jected to my going inside, without taking off my boots, which would 
have been inconvenient ; so standing at the door way, I saw a bearer 
measure the height with my walking stick, it amounted to 2| of its 
height, or eight feet, and its diameter about 1 J, or four feet. Its weight 
will be about 7J tons, or 207 maunds. It was erected in a receptacle, 
which was raised from the ground about four feet, and twenty- five 
feet in diameter. That of the room exceeded it by perhaps three or four 
feet on each side,— there being a passage all round it. I under- 
stand a light is regularly kept burning there during the night time, and 
it was considered by far the largest lingam in India, and is consequently 
much venerated. The dimensions of the stone slab from which I 
copied the inscriptions in the other temple, were 5| feet length, 
3 feet breadth, and \ foot thickness— its weight is therefore about 

1839.] Inscribed Slab found near Chhatarpur. 167 

12| hundred weight, or 17 maunds. This stone lies detached from 
some part of the building (from whence I cannot say) and rests inside 
one of the temples before mentioned. I must return to state a pecu- 
liarity I met with in this Barao. His two left legs were both placed 
foremost ; perhaps this was intended to add to his strength or durability, 
by giving him what they might have considered greater base ; but I 
should doubt whether the base would not have diminished instead of 
increased by this arrangement. In the other specimens, I think the legs 
of none were advanced, but as if the animal were standing still. A large 
tank exists within fifty yards of this Hog, but there was not much 
water in it at the time I was there. A great deal of jungle surrounds 
these ruins. Near the water entrance to one temple I found a lion or 
two (stone ones, not living animals) ; one of whom seemed to be seizing 
a wrestler by the left arm, with one paw up and mouth open ready to 
destroy him. Was this Narsing, again, and Heran kussup ?( 4 ) I had a 
desperate hunt here (not after a hare) but after my pencil, with which 
I intended to have " knocked off" the last named figure, but I was ob- 
liged to " knock of," altogether (as the sailors say) or leave work, be- 
cause I could not find it. After sending two or three men to two or 
three places to hunt for it, I was obliged to depart without making the 
intended drawing, and after I had progressed about a mile from the 
place, when it was too late to return, lo, and behold, I found the pencil 
upon my palanquin drawer. I soon after got to Rajnuggur, but before 
finally taking leave of the seven temples, I shall state my opinion, that 
they are most probably the finest aggregate number of temples congre- 
gated in one place to be met with in all India, and all are within a 
stone's throw of one another. 

4. Hiranya Kasipu, Gold-clad, or Daitya or Titan ; for whose destruction Vishnu 
took the form of the man-lion. 


168 Inscribed Slab found near Chhatm 'pur. [March ; 

*rr ^TT^ftf^ *nrJ5rt *TOf^ w^re ferf?r: 

fT^W^^T^t *hN f%^W fw I 

?T^^T^t K^rffT^^t 5PTT^T^"T5Tt *t^l 

1839.] Inscribed Slab found near Chhatar pur. 1G9 

^\tt^\ ferret f^ihnT-r: sn^wtro^rft 

TpTfTT OTncfassRT^sf ^TTlTfn1%1% fatfpmTf^: \\\m 

* ^rnr f%*nft ^rsTTsr 3j*r<ft *r% ?rrr^* *r?n i 
^st^TTTJra-; *rcf?P8?re writ *rf^ri fro: 

170 Inscribed Slab found near Chhatai pur. [March, 


W^iffa: ^^%^PTRT fTffTrnn ^f^F*^: I Roil 

wir ?nr amir totPhrfw i 

JTr^^^fSTfTRT^T: *3Tft f^f T^VV \R\\\ 

f^wm ^^ww^ptwt^: ^r^rt ^vTTf^ IRSII 


5. Sic in Orig. : but it seems an error of the engraver. 

6. Sic in Orig. There appears an error of the engraver, the words utsdhohadaydrdra- 
tnh give no intelligible sense, and arc omitted in the translation. 

1839.] Inscribed Slab found near Chhatarpur. 171 

fxjKW ^f% ftrcsn *rrc?f ^r<:*rfi: I 
fm f^Tr^wTOTHw ^fipT ftncfe ^f^?f t^t i 

172 Inscribed Slab found near Chhatarpur. [March, 

5T1TTTTT *|fPCT«S?n *^^fftl%ic^f rf \\\$)\ 

C\ \* 

1339.] Inscribed Slab found near Chhatar par. 173 

^T c^f 3?^ f%JT^*T^^-<ft 1TTTTT *C*npfa*TOT 

174 Inscribed Slab found near Chhatar pur. [March, 

fWt*ft ^ftfW^: W3HT?T^t TO 118*11 

^r *r^«ry3rfi[TO ^^^raft^n 

?fWT f^TOrf? ^HTT^ ^^fT ll^ll 

^Tf%*^ft: ^1%% ^^^rf^r^FTT^Tf^flTf 11^811 

1839.] Inscribed Slab found near Chhatarpnr 


5T *Mtnriw: wi%f^r *r wm™[*GW*ii 

fa^T^SjnraT *l**iWKU! ^Hf POT I 



a a 

170 Inscribed Slab found near Chhatarpur. [March, 

Translated by J. C. C. Sutherland. 

Salutation to Siva. 

1. With internal joy be there reverence, to the unborn God, the 
cause of those vast holy fig trees, which approach the moon : who 
himself devoid of action, is the preserver and destroyer. 

2. For your welfare isaiva) be the mystic dance of the god, which 
occurs at periods of annihilation ; in which rapidly whirl the summits 
of all the crested mountains, and in which, that mount (affixing as it 
were the earth shaken to the seventh sea), becoming like a headless 
but yet panting corse, falls a prostrate image, — trembling and whining 
by the voices of its elephants. 

3. " Who art thou on the threshold, naked and abject? How 
" unreasonably dost thou bear a trident in thy left hand. Fie on this 
"warlike shew. Truly those peacock's feathers become thee !" Thus 
gibed by his beloved, the god with a smile replies, " Know me to be 
Maiiksvara." " It is clear indeed, (she adds) and the confirmation 
is in your want of clothes." May that god Sambhu be for your 

4. This beautiful Bha'ratiC 7 ) too excels, resplendent as pearl; she 
who ever dwells in her lotus abode on the face of Pasu-pati.( 8 ) 

7. Sarasvati — eloquence personified. 

8. Name of Siva as lord of the animate world. 

1839.] Inscribed Slab found near Chhatarpur. 177 

5. Excellent is that young elephant, who in his immature age, 
eager to snatch the tender filaments of the lotus, thrusts his proboscis 
on the section of the moon, fixed on the brow of Siva, and who is 
struck by MridVni' (smiling in her anger) with the agitated lotus 
sprout on her head ( 9 ) 

6. Truly, in the beginning of the kalpa, the universe proceeded 
from Brahma wishing to create, when he had perceived the eternal 
void, enveloped in darkness and merely atmosphere. From him, when 
he had finished, proceeded the air. In that was produced fire; from 
fire proceeded water ; from that prolific cause proceeded Brahma's 
vast golden egg, streaked with rays of light. 

7- By his wisdom, from the two segments of that egg Brahma 
created his sons, the seven Munis (Marichi and the rest) the abode 
of holiness. 

8. Amongst these dark-dispelling, intelligent Munis, was the illus- 
trious Atri of celebrated greatness ; in the cavity of whose eye, was 
produced the orb of the moon, whose abundant light radiates like 
luxuriant hair. From him was born his pure son Chandratreya. 

9. Who can measure the glory and greatness of that holy man, the 
beloved image of the Omniscient, pure in soul ; of him, who hath assured 
heaven and beatitude to the whole world, illumined with light, sur- 
passed by his excessive splendor, dispelling all doubt and illusion ? 

. 10. From him sprung the wonderful Vayvaryama — faultless — na- 
turally upright— of excellent disposition — eminent — unprejudiced — 
symmetrical from his large upper extremities — not slightly observant 
of fasts— fruitful to the root, — and never wasted by the spontaneous 
fire of cruel foes, the votaries of misfortune.( lu ) 

11. As long as the moon (endures) the sovereigns of the race of 
Chandratreya illuminate the earth. \_ The rest of this sloka is wanting.~\ 

12. Reverence to those ancient monarchs through whom the surface 
of the earth was encompassed by kings, who were friendly to the faith 
which has descended down — unvexed even when their lives were 
begged — strictly adhering to truth — who robbed of vermilion tint, the 
coronal streaksC 11 ) of the wives of the powerful but rebellious chief- 

9. Durga' is described as fondling a young Elephant. One of Siva's names is 
Miuda', or delighted; whence his consort is called MridVni. 

10. A double meaning pervades this verse ; the epithets have a twofold sense, one 
applicable to the saint, and one to a tree. It would be impossible to preserve the 
double entendre in the translation. 

11. The Hindu wife stains the line on the head made by the partition of the hair 
with red lead. The widow abstains from this and other ornaments. 

178 Inscribed Slab found near Chhatar pur. [March, 

13. In process of time in this great race the illustrious Nannuka 
became sovereign ; exalted in panegeric, and radiant with splendor, — 
like a gem amongst pearls. 

14. The chariot-borne denizens of the sky were reminded of Arjuna, 
by that stalwart bowman, rushing on to destroy his foes and brandish- 
ing his strung bow. 

15. From him sprang an illustrious son, the sovereign Vag-yati, 
of excellent fame— celebrated by the happiness of mankind, and like 
VakpatiC 12 ) in the observance of courtesy. 

16. By that matchless warrior — whose eye was bright like the 
snake's — and who was kind to those eminent for learning — the shreds of 
anecdotes of Prithuka and Kunda were put to shame, when he had 
dispelled the keen fear of his poet subjects/ 13 ) 

17. Of him, (the ornament of the earth) was born a grateful son the 
illustrious Vijaya, renowned for victory ; on the birth of which 
magnanimous treasure of greatness, holy garlands with parched com, 
(laja) ( 14 ) were scattered down by the delighted wives of the im- 

18. By divine choristers, joined by their earthly companions, was 
melodiously warbled the bright and exalted glory of the sovereign 

19. Like that snake, who is bent in humility, when made to uphold 
[the earth] by the son of Sumitra' (I 5 )— rich in his extended verdant 
plains—conqueror throughout the world — that lord (skilled to reward 
his friends) about to subdue the southern quarters, once again in no 
mimic war, sounds his martial musick. 

20. From that monarch, resembling as it were the ocean, was born 
the amiable king Vahila, the moon of men ; by whom, darkness was 
dispelled, and who bade pour forth the stream of poet's praise. 

21. Innumerable houses became pervaded by brilliant light when 
the king was pleased ; so also the mansions of his enemies, when he was 
angered. ( 1G ) 

22. In regard to gems and the wealth of the people Kosa pdna in 
its sense of ordeal, was not known ; but in its sense of adhering to the 
scabbard, was familiar to their swords. Paxapdta, in the sense of 

12. A name of Vachaspati the Guru of the Gods. 

13. These are Pauranik Heroes, to whom various feats of valor and generosity are 

14. Laja, vulgarly called Khoi. 

15. Laxmana. 

16. A double entendre or pun (the rhetorical figure slesh) pervades this Sloka. 
Indeed an epithet is construed with each of the antithetic members. It is said to be 
a stalk with two flowers. 

1839.] Inscribed Slab found near Chhatar •pur. 179 

loss of plumage, did exist in his capital in respect to arrows ; but in the 
sense of partiality was not obtained by his friendly courtiers.U?) 

23. From him, by the blaze of whose intense glory, great kings were 
consumed like cotton— from him, graced with every eminent virtue, 
who robbed of their renown wide spreading trees — was born, for the 
delight of mankind, that Sri Harsha,— a gem dispelling (as it were a 
fever)( 18 ) the joy of his enemies, who (exempt from every sin) by his 
own right arm, subdued capricious glory. 

24. Unconquered in war — armed with a sword — with his face dilated 
by the frown above the petals of his lotus-like eyes inflamed with 
anger — whom, having seen, the glories of his enemies gradually receded 
from all quarters, with faces quailing as if under the palm of his hand, 
and with bodies now trembling with fear. 

25. The sea-girt world like a citadel was preserved by that mailed 
hero, by means of his unerring and terrific arm. 

26. Skilled to counteract his enemies, he soon reproached the sea ; for 
he was unaddicted to partiality (apaxa dharma), and was averse to 
association with the evil minded {dosha kara), and inimical to vile 
and cruel detractors (bhujangd).{^) 

27. Kings (who by their hands were able to push aside strong 
horses) cheerfully submitting to his dominion, would eat at the thres- 
hold of that hero— stained as it was by the mud caused by the exuda- 
tions from the heads of elephants. 

28. His most beloved wife was Kankuta, like a necklace, being 
bright as the lustre of the moon ; inestimable, and heart penetrating. 

29. She, who longed for his society, was the ornament of women — 
the sole grace of the world. For her colour shone like gold— her eyes were 
like the dark lotus, which expands before the moon — her hand was 
ruby-red — grace was in her steps-her lips were of coral— and her mind 
was pure like the pearl itself, just emancipated from its parent shell. 

30. Of him and her (the offspring of the celestial Gangai 20 ) of 
pure renown, the remembrance of whom destroys a multitude of sins 

17. This verse is in the true vein of Sanscrit pedantry. The words explanatory of 
the double sense of the words (on which the poet puns) are of course wanting in the 

18. There is a fabulous gem by contact with which fire loses its combustive virtue. 
It is here alluded to. 

19. The influence of the moon on the tides has been long known to the Indians, and 
is often alluded to in Sanscrit poetry. According to the paxa, or semi-lunation, the tides 
increase or decrease ; the sea is thus said to be affected by the paxa . It is likewise not 
indifferent to the Doshdkara, the moon, or night-maker. It abounds also with 
Bhujunga, serpents. It is probable that the pedantic author of these verses, some of 
winch are in the true poetic vein, considered the puns of this stanza as his chefd'oeuvre. 

20. It is indicated that Kan k ex a was of the Ganyetic race. 

180 Inscribed Slab found near Chhatar pur. [March, 

and abounds in holy shrines) the son was Yaso-Dharma Deva, 
the abode of virtue, naturally obedient to his father, of great prowess, 
and creating a doubt whether he was Bhishma or Upendra.C 21 ) 

31. Though shewing like premature grey hairs, still the brilliantly 
white dust on his head (received in prostration to the feet of Brahmins) 
obtained increased beauty. 

32. Sivi only gave a piece of his flesh (pal) to a single bird (dvija) ( 22 ) 
who begged it ; but that king bestowed millions on all who asked. 

33. Through awe of that victorious monarch, kings conceived these 
notions ;— when prostrating their foreheads on the ground, that he was 
an animated gem ; — when preceding his equipage, that to march on foot 
was an office distinguished by dignity ; — that to speak to him, was as 
if on every side there were life and triumph ;— and that to make every 
sort of obeisance, was a graceful attitude. 

34. His brilliant conduct covered with glory, as if overspread by a 
coat of white plaster, now placed him on a level with these miracles, — 
the mansion of the king of snakes, ever illuminated by the moon — 
and the expanse of the atmosphere strewed with jasmine flowers.C 23 ) 

35. Though in greatness rivalling the luminary borne by seven 
horses, and capable of seeing beyond the seven seas, no man in this 
world could scan the ocean of his mind. 

36. When his power was annihilated, dominion (Dhrita-rashtra) 
and prosperity were denied to the enemy — who poured forth those 
plaintive notes (Gandhari) grateful as the warbling of a bird (Sakuni); 
who fainted at hearing the mangling by terrific (bhishma) crows 
(Drona) of the ears (Kama) and faces (Asya) of men (Nara) 
— and who was now conscious of that hero's valor and prowess 
(Dharma prabhava). This was strange.( 2i ) 

21. Bhi'shma was the son of Gang a ; his father was Santanu: he was general of 
Duryodhana, the opponent of his consin Yudhisthara. Upendra is a name of 

22. A passage in the Mahabharat is alluded to. Sivi was celebrated for his generosi- 
ty ; a bird demanded surrender of his prey which had taken refuge with Sivi. His 
offer of other food is rejected, and the victim or a piece of Sivi's own flesh insisted 
on. The just and generous king complies with the latter alternative. Puns again are 
perpetrated on the words pal and dwija, which signify a weight and a Brahman 
respectively, besides the senses taken in the translation- The partakers of Yaso 
Dharma Deva's liberality were Brahmans. 

23. These are impossible events, something like Virgil's leaves inscribed with king's 

24. A play on the words runs through this Sloka— Dhrita-Rashtra was husband 
of Gandhari, the sister of Sakuni. Bhisma, Drona, Kurna, and Narasya, are 
generals of Dhrista-Rashtra and his son Duryodhana. Dharma-Prabha- 
va is a name of Yudhishtara, nephew of Dhrita-Rashtra. See Sri Bhagavat 
Purana. The ambiguity is lost in the translation. Bhisma and the rest might be 
taken as the Cloanthi and Gyaantes of the enemy's army with less outrage to com- 
mon sense. 

1839.] Inscribed Slab found near Chhatarpur. 181 

37. What boots it that a ditch was dug by the sixty thousand royal 
sons of Sagar who devoted their lives ; and that it was filled with 
water by his grandson and two other descendants in the first and second 
degree? Hearing the narrative of the origin of the sea {Sagar), he idly 
emulous made a vast undulating lake greater than the sea itself.C 25 ) 

38. Resplendent as the autumnal moon, as soon as that palace, 
which had bruised the horses' hoofs and shattered the chariot wheels, 
was seen by the charioteer of the sun, he swerved his car from its path, 
— that palace of which the golden ball, gave the idea of the solar disc 
kissing the summits of the snowy mountains, and constituted the 
delight of the household image of Vavkunta, the foe of demons. 

39. Of that great king the chaste queen was Narma Deva, high-born, 
happy, and beloved on earth. 

40. Even when injured she was alwa}^s unresenting ; but when 
benefited, lavish of her life ; forgiving the arrogant, but never addicted 
to pride herself. 

41. The queen bore to that god amongst men a virtuous and pure son, 
Banga ; — just as Sachi bore Jayanta to the Ruler of the Gods 

42. That best of men (Narottama) born in the race of Vrishni, 
the cleaver of the skulls of his foe, surnamed pure (Puta nama) 
imparted gladness to his encomiasts, ( Yasodd 'nandatd) and adhered 
to peaceful pursuits. ( 26 ) 

43. By that lion-like man, resistless in his anger, safety of life was 
never allowed to the robber of gold (Hiranya Kasipu).{^ 7 ) 

44. " May it please your Majesty from this place to listen to the 
" lord of Kosala (Oude) ?" " Lord of Kratha let the mandate be 
" quickly heard." " Oh Ruler of Sinhala (Ceylon) prostrate yourself, 
" and stand outside." " Speak chief of Kuntala, first putting up your 
" cloth to your mouth." Such were the words spoken by the door- 

25. Allusion to the Puranic origin of the Ocean is made. Sagur had determined 
to reap the fruit of an Aswa-Meddha. The first stage of this is the release of the vic- 
tim horse with a label. When fairly caught after battle with rivals he is slain, and the 
sacrificer obtains his vow. Indra alarmed for his throne had the labelled horse 
picketted in Patdla, in the centre of the earth, before the Muni Kapila. Sagar's 
sons baffled in their chase dug for the victim. Finding him, they abused the Muni, by 
whose curse they became ashes. By the successive austerities of Ansuman, Dilipa, 
and Bhagiratha, grandson, great grandson, and great great grandson of Sagar, 
the celestial Ganges was brought on earth, and filling the excavation, reanimated 
the ashes of their progenitors who- ascended to heaven. The poet indicates that 
Yasodhurma Deva dug a great Tank. 

26. A play on words pervades this stanza. It may refer to Krishna or Narot- 
tama, also called Putanama, who was the delight of Yasoda, his adoptive mother. 

27. The same Jeu de mots is kept up. 

182 Inscribed Slab found near Chhatarpur. [March, 

keepers to dismiss attending kings when he had retired into the female 

45. " Who art thou?" " The beloved of Ka'shi's lord ;" and thou? 
" The wife of the king of Andhra;" and thou ? " The spouse of the chief 
" of Radha ;" and thou ? Cf The bride of the prince of Anga"— Such 
were the colloquies with the wives of his enemies detained as cap- 
tives, while their lotus-like eyes were suffused with tears. 

46. " Who art thou? of whom? and for what object art thou 
" come; thou who art resplendent as the luminary whose emblem is 
" the hare?" " I am gleaming fame; and wandering over the universe, 
" I am come, fervently anxious to behold the glory of the monarch 
" Banga, the sole friend of the learned, which has reached the crest of 
" the vast mountain of Lokdlofc."C&) 

47. Placed by Banga, after prostration made, that divine symme- 
trical Linga made of emerald, is victorious in this world. Worshipped 
by Indra, it was obtained from him by Arjuna, who had pleased him 
and brought by him on earth, and adored by Yudiiisiitara. 

48. In the fane, a stone god put up by that king shews a second 
Hara, the remover of the bonds of pain. 

49. By that King Banga was erected this fane of the lord Sambhu, 
the chief of the gods, with its summit, bright like the autumnal clouds ; 
of which, by gliding near the golden cupola, (furrowing as it were the 
sky) Aruna, rendered radiant, abashed the crest of Meru.(29) 

50. For the nice construction of its spire the skill of no mortal could 
have availed ; Viswa KarmaC 30 ) himself must have turned this arch. 

51. How this vast Vata tree surpasses! — A hundred times were 
given by him crores of golden coins, in quantities equiponderous with 
his body, by which they were weighed. 

52. Enthusiastic in the true faith, and delighting to benefit others, 
seven high born Brahmins were located in palaces, reverenced by gifts 
of wealth, grain, and lands ; — perfectly pure, though their bodies were 
tinged by smoke from ever-enduring sacrifice. 

53. Two yavas at Sri-Brahma Kalpa; one in the vicinity. On 
the south of the snowy mountain, Kalpa gram was another. 

54. Having ruled this earth, girt with waters as if by a girdle, and 
unsubjected to any other ; when he had lived 109 autumns, with 
eyes closed, and (as ordained) fervently reciting the name of Rudra, 
the royal Banga obtained final beatitude by abandoning this mortal 
coil in the conflux of the Yamuna and Ganges. 

2K The Sun never reaches this mountain. 

29. Aruna is the Dawn, the charioteer of the Sun. 

3U. The celestial architect. 

1839.] Inscribed Slab found near Chhatarpur. 183 

55. Then did this glory of the world's lord attain perfection, when 
the wise priest Yasondhara, skilled in the vedas, and the friend of 
the gods, here administered — according to law — scattering light on 

56. Born in the tribe of Twaxara, and in the family of Savara, 
was a poet called Sri Nandana, the prince of bards. To him was 
born a son, the illustrious Bal Bhadra, who had read through revealed 
law, and was powerful by the observance of religious austerities. 

57. Of that Bal Bhadra, Sri Rama was the son ; great as it were 
like a vast mountain, — of pleasing speech, — whose feet earthly kings 
adored, — exempt from sin, — and celebrated as the ocean of literature, 
— and skilled in elegant composition. By him composed, this incom- 
parable panegyric was published in the temple. 

58. Who had learned the science of words, — by the sensible Kayas- 
tha Pasampala, distinguished by his race and disposition, the tran- 
script of this panegyric was arranged. Here are no confused letters 
nor any obscure from rivalry. (31) 

59. This temple of Pramatha Nath was constructed by the architect 
X199HA, virtuous, and a Viswa Karma in science. 

60. As long as this world with its mountains, cities, forests, its histo- 
ries, memorials, and seas [shall remain] ; as long as this sun shall 
shine ; as long as water shall ooze from the luminary whose rays are 
cool ; as long as the segment of the divine egg shall be fixed, that 
is expanded ; so long let this temple, dedicated by the monarch to 
Siva endure, — mocking as it does mount Kailasa. 

61. By the wise, and gifted Singha skilled in the science of writing, 
was this specimen of calligraphy engraved. Sambat 1019. 

In the reign of Raja Banga, lord of the earth, this panegyric of 
the Emerald Image was finished. — 

62. Afflicting even infuriated elephants, — by the abundant tears of 
the children and wives of his enemies (broken in the conflict of war) 
of that great king these lines became obliterated. 

63. The king Jayavarma Deva (like an elephant supporting the 
universe) rewrote in clear letters the above verses, which he had before 
written in irregular letters (kirna). These letters, in the Kakuda form 
that Gauda Kayastha, aided by the learned, inscribed by the hand of 
Jaya Pal, — that Kayastha of untarnished lustre, having a numerous 
progeny, the radiant moon of the king's race, who, the dispeller of 
gloom, had risen from the ocean of polished literature. 

Sambat 1173. Friday 3 Vaisakh ( Sudi) bright half. 

31. The distinction of nearlv uniform is preserved. 


184 Inscribed Slab found near Chhatarpur. [[March, 

Prosodial Key. 
A sloka, or stanza, consists of four padas, lines, or quarter slokas. 
They are generally, but not always, identical. Metre is Jati, or mea- 
sured by matras, or instants. In this, one long syllable and two short 
syllables are equivalent. Or it is Vritta, scanned by denned feet. 

The following slokas are Jati of the Arya species. First and third 
padas have 12 matras : second has 18 ; and fourth has 15 matras. 

1. 4. 15. 20. 35. 41. 50. 51. 59. 62. 
The other slokas are in the following metres, in which all four pada 
are identical. 


C 2. 3, 6- 9. 10. 12. 17. 
Sarddula Vikriditam |-..|uu I w-u I uo_ I — u I — w i _ i 3 24. 29. 33. 36. 37. 44. 


Malini | yu | www | — • | u— | u— | 5. 19. 

Mundacranta | [ -yy ( yy« | — y | -- u | — | 8. 27. 30. 45. 

Rathoddhuta | -u- | uuy | -o - | o- | 14. 18. 22. 31 

Vasantatilakam ...... | --« | _uu | o-u | u-w |"_ _ | 16. 55. 34. 56. 

Srugdhara .... | -— | -u- | -uo | uvu | o__ | u __ | 23. 38. 60. 

Vansasthavilam | y-u | — u | y_ w | -u- | 26. 40. 

Hurini ] ouu | yy_ I — j -y- | uu- | u - | 47. 

Sikhurini | u | | yv .,u | u«_ | _yj | u - I 58. 

Anush-tup. — This is a very common measure. Each Pada ~\ 
consists of four dissyllabic feet : the third foot must be an / y jg 21 25 28 32 
Iambic, and the first syllable of the last foot is alternately V35' 40 43' 48 53 61 
long and short. The syllables of the remaining feet may be V 
either long or short. .... .... .... . . . . J 

Art. II. — Account of a Journey to Beylah, and Memoir on the Pro- 
vince of Lus. By Lieut. Carloss, Indian Navy. 

On the 10th of January, having received an answer to a letter 
I had written to the chief of Lus, announcing my arrival at Soonmemy 
with a letter and some presents from the Bombay Government, I 
commenced my journey to Beylah. Two chiefs with a small party of 
followers had been sent to accompany me to the capital, but as they 
were not ready to proceed, and I did not wish to delay my journey, I 
started, accompanied by Dr. Hardy, without them. 

The road for some distance led over a confused mass of low hillocks 
covered with loose sand, or across the low swampy hollows between 
them, and the country had every where a most barren and desolate 
appearance, there not being a tree or a bush to be seen. About five 
miles from Soonmemy we arrived at a ridge of sand hills, about 150 
feet high, from the summit of which the Poorally river was visible to 
the W. N. W., with an extensive tract of thick mangrove jungle 
stretching along the left bank ; at this place we halted for a short time 

1839.] Account of a Journey to Beylah. 185 

until the chiefs who were to accompany us made their appearance, 
and then continued our journey across a low flat plain, covered with 
saline bushes. About an hour after sunset having reached a spot where 
the land was higher, and water procurable, halted for the night. 
In the course of the evening many travellers had collected at this spot, 
and by the time we arrived forty or fifty had encamped about the 
wells, which are merely small holes dug at the foot of a high bank, 
yielding a scanty supply of brackish water. There was a Syud 
amongst them, a noted story-teller, who continued to entertain a large 
audience with his tales until the night was far advanced, and as he 
possessed a deep and melodious voice, the effect of the kind of recitative 
style in which they were chaunted was extremelypleasing. 

On the following morning started for Layaree, a small town six 
miles distant, which we reached early in the afternoon. The level 
plain between the sand hills and Layaree is scored throughout with 
marks made by the passage of water, and overrun with saline bushes, 
intermixed here and there with patches of stunted tamarisk trees. Our 
attendants told us that the Poorally flows through this plain during 
the inundation, and pointed out the beds of two deep water courses 
through which the water escapes in the latter part of the season. The 
river, they said, had no decided bed from Layaree, where there is 
a bund thrown across it, to its mouth, a distance of about twelve 
miles, but discharges itself into the bay and harbour of Soonmemy 
by several outlets, through the low grounds near the sea coast. 

Layaree is a small town, containing about fifty mud built houses, 
prettily situated in a grove of large baubool trees; there is a large 
tank near it filled by a canal from the river, and half a mile to 
the N. E. is seen the small village of Charro, which is the residence of 
the darogah, or collector of taxes. At least a third of the population 
is composed of African slaves, who perform all the out-door labor. 
In my walks about the place I met several who complained bitterly 
of the treatment they received, and earnestly begged me to receive 
them on board the vessel, for they had determined to escape from their 
masters on the first opportunity. In the immediate vicinity of the 
town the country is open, and the ground laid out in fields, in which 
wheat, jowaree, cotton, and oil seed are cultivated. Farther off the 
land is overrun with high thick jungle, but in the small open spaces 
that occur here and there, is covered with grass, which although of a 
coarse kind, affords excellent pasturage for the flocks and herds. 

Shortly after our arrival at Layaree, and before the baggage camels 
had come up, word was brought that a chief had just arrived from 
Beylah with Teeruthdass, the Jam's dewan, and wished to see me. 
As soon as a place had been prepared to receive them, by spreading 

186 Account of a Journey to Beglah. [March, 

mats and carpets under the shade of a large tree, he came attended 
by a few armed followers, and delivered a complimentary message from 
the Jam, expressing his satisfaction at my visit. The chief was a 
little old man, with a strongly marked Arab countenance. 

In the course of the conversation that ensued, I found they wanted 
me to remain at Layaree until they received further instructions from 
Beylah respecting my journey; but as this would have delayed me 
many days, I told them decidedly I should take it ill, if any objec- 
tions were made to my proceeding immediately, and that on the fol- 
lowing morning I should either continue my journey, or return to the 
ship. This seemed to puzzle them extremely, and they at last begged 
I would stop only one day, when they would be ready to accompany 
me, to which I agreed. In the course of the evening one of their atten- 
dants brought a quantity of rice flour, ghee, &c. for the use of the party. 

13th. On sending to the chief to tell him I was ready to proceed, he 
said he should be detained a short time at Layaree to settle a dispute 
that had occurred there, and would join me at the next stage. At 10 
started. For about three miles passed through cultivated grounds in 
which nothing but the oil seed plant was apparent, and then turning to 
the N. E. pursued a track leading along the bank of a deep dry nullah, 
running through thick tamarisk jungle: it extended several miles, and 
the trees were every where leafless and withered, with the exception of 
the small patches of undergrowth springing from their roots. As soon 
as we had got clear of the jungle we came upon an extensive tract of 
cultivated ground, watered by canals from the river, and dotted here 
and there with huts ; at this place, where we halted for half an hour, 
the soil being good yields abundant crops of oil seed and cotton, and 
game is plentiful. 

On resuming our journey, crossed a level plain thinly overspread 
with withered saline bushes, and extending as far as the eye could 
reach, apparently to the foot of the mountains on either side, We tra- 
versed it for a distance of eight miles, and after passing through an 
open jungle of tamarisk and mimosa trees, about five miles beyond it 
reached the Poorally river, and halted for the night. The distance 
from Layaree to this place is about eighteen miles. Here the Poorally 
is about 400 yards broad, and flows from east to west, which is a 
proof that we must have crossed its course before we arrived at Layaree, 
as our attendants asserted ; the banks on both sides rise perpendicular- 
ly to a height of fourteen or fifteen feet, and a stream of water twenty 
yards broad and two feet deep pursues a winding course through the 
centre of its bed. 

The morning of the fourteenth was extremely cold, the thermo- 
meter having fallen to 35° at day light. During the night the camels 

1839.] Account of a Journey to Beylah. 187 

had strayed some distance into the jungle, and the drivers being" un- 
willing to go after them in the cold, became sulky and intractable when 
ordered to do so. This brought on a quarrel between them and one of 
the chiefs who attended us, which did not terminate until he drew his 
sword, and threatened to slay them on the spot if they did not imme- 
diately bring them in ; frightened at his meances, they departed in 
haste to look for their beasts, but so much time elapsed before they 
could be found, that we were not ready to start until near noon. 

Having proceeded four or five miles across a level plain, thickly 
covered with low salt bushes, we came again upon the river, which at 
this place is joined by the Rah to, a stream of some magnitude, flowing 
from the mountains to the eastward ; at the point of junction the bed of 
the Poorally is nearly a mile wide, and when full must form a fine 
sheet of water. The greater part of it is overrun with jungle, and the 
water meanders through it in two streams, about fifteen yards wide 
and as many inches deep. The soil is covered in many places with 
a thin saline incrustation, which from the taste appears to be natron. 
Two alligators were lying asleep on the bank a short distance from the 
place where we crossed. 

On the opposite side of the river we met a fine-looking young man, 
mounted on a camel and attended by a few soldiers, who civilly stop- 
ped to salute us. He was a son of Arab Oosmanany, the chief of the 
Arab Gudoor tribe, and when he had been told that we did not under- 
stand the language, endeavoured to find out from the interpreter 
the object of my visit to Lus. 

Late in the afternoon we reached Oot, two small villages about five 
miles from Beylah. During this day's journey the road gradually inclin- 
ed toward the western range of mountains, and we had passed through 
a level country, alternately overrun with saline bushes or thick jungle. 
We were now not far from the head of the valley, which is encircled 
by high mountains, and numerous thin columns of sand were visible 
in every direction, caused by the eddying currents of wind sweeping 
out of their recesses. They moved over the plain with great rapidity, 
and whenever one came near us, I could hear the chief who guided 
my camel mutter to himself, " Pass away from the road good demon, 
and do us no harm ; I am only going to Beylah with the English gen- 
tlemen who have brought presents for the Jam." Amused with this 
odd request, I asked him the meaning of it, when he told me with 
great gravity that we were now in the territory belonging to the an- 
cient city Shuhr Roghun, once the favorite residence of the fairy Bad- 
dul Jamaut, and that these columns were demons who had since taken 
possession of it, to whom it was necessary to speak sweetly to prevent 
them from playing us any tricks. 

188 Account of a Journey to Beylah. [March, 

Oot consists of two small villages belonging to Arab Oosmanany, 
the chief of the Arab Gudoor tribe, one containing about 50 and the 
other 25 houses. The baggage not having come up, the carpets were 
spread under the shade of a large tree, and we were quickly surrounded 
by the whole population, to whom our dress and appearance seemed to 
afford considerable amusement. Arab Oosmanany, the chief, was at the 
village waiting to conduct us to Beylah ; and being informed of our 
arrival came to pay us a visit, the whole of the villagers having been 
previously summoned to compose his retinue. In the course of conver- 
sation, I told him that amongst the presents there was one for him, 
which he begged might be delivered in the presence of the Jam. In 
the evening he sent us a sheep, with a quantity of flour, rice, ghee, &c, 
and requested we would let him know if we wanted any thing else. 

At noon next day the Kossid who had been dispatched to Beylah 
the night before, to announce our approach, having returned, we left 
Oot accompanied by Arab Oosmanany and a small party of military 
followers. For the whole distance the road passed through a succes- 
sion of cultivated ground, interspersed with small thickets composed of 
a high bushy tree which appears something like the willow. As we left 
Oot we met ten or twelve hideous looking beings dressed as women, and 
mounted on donkeys, who saluted us as they passed ; from their pecu- 
liarly disgusting appearance and bold manners, I was induced to 
inquire of my companion who they were : he laughed, and said they 
were eunuchs. Descending by a deep irregular water course into the dry 
bed of a river flowing from the N. E. and about 700 yards broad, we 
crossed it and entered Beylah. On approaching the town the housetops 
were seen literally covered, and the streets thronged with people : as 
we entered it the crowd set up a wild shout, shrieking and hallooing 
with all their might, and created such a dust that I was almost suf- 
focated. The ladies also favoured us with a shrill scream, but whether 
of welcome, admiration, or disgust, I cpuld not exactly make out. The 
young Jam, we were told, was amongst the spectators. Arab Oosma- 
nany turned off to the palace to report our arrival, and we were con- 
ducted to a house which had been prepared for our reception ; it was a 
most wretched dwelling, but with the exception of the palace, as good 
as any other in the town. The people crowded into the outer room 
without ceremony, and although the Jam had sent six soldiers to keep 
them out, they found it impossible to do so, and I was at last obliged to 
turn every one out myself and fasten the door: whenever it was opened 
a general rush was made, and some hard lighting took place between 
the guard and the mob before the latter could be driven back. Some 
of the principal inhabitants confiding in their rank, rudely walked into 

1839.] Account of a Journey to Beylah. 189 

the inner apartment where we were sitting, but they were soon made 
sensible of their mistake by being immediately turned out of the 
house, and told that whoever wished to see us, must first ask and 
obtain permission. 

About two hours after our arrival one of the chiefs brought a com- 
plimentary message from the Jam, but the real object of his visit it, 
appeared was to ascertain precisely my rank, which having done, he 
departed ; shortly after Arab Oosmanany came alone, and informed 
me that the Jam would give me a public audience next day. 

Late in the afternoon a chief came to conduct us to the house where 
the Jam was waiting to receive us, but no horses having been sent I 
requested him to go back and get three, which in a few minutes made 
their appearance. Preceded by the presents, and attended by a party 
of soldiers, we proceeded through the town, and after having passed 
with some difficulty through several narrow streets, filled with a 
crowd of people, shouting as if they were mad, alighted at the door 
of the Kutchery, which, from the dense mass collected round it, was 
hardly approachable ; on entering the court-yard we were received by 
one of the chiefs, who taking me by the hand led me towards a 
covered veranda, or room open in front, where the Jam was seated in 
state ; although the hall of audience was merely a rude mud building, 
without ornament or furniture of any kind, the coup d' oel was rather 
imposing, the group drawn up inside being arranged so as to produce 
the best possible effect. In the centre sat the young chief, on a square 
platform raised about a foot high, and covered with a carpet and 
cushions of silk richly embroidered. His relations and chiefs were 
disposed on either side according to their rank, Ularacky, his chief 
confidential adviser being seated on his right hand a little in advance, 
and his tutor, the Hadgi Hafiz, on his left, and the back ground was 
filled up by a body of well dressed, fine looking military retainers. My 
conductor having led me up to the musnud, the Jam desired me to 
sit down on a carpet laid in front of it, and the usual complimentary 
speeches and inquiries were made by the minister Ularacky, who 
conducted the whole business. During the time the interview lasted, 
the young chief, who I imagine had been well tutored for the occasion, 
sat without uttering a word, with a vacant incurious expression of 
countenance which was no doubt assumed. He is a handsome lad, of 
thirteen or fourteen years of age, with fine expressive eyes, rather fair 
complexion, and a profusion of long jet black ringlets falling on each 
side his face. At present his countenance is rather feminine, and 
when we saw him in his state robes, which from their peculiar fashion 
aided the resemblance, he appeared more like a young Indian queen 

190 Account of a Journey to Beylah. [March, 

than the chief of a wild tribe of Noomrees. He wore an under dress 
of crimson and gold kincaub, with trowsers of striped silk, and over 
this a mantle of pale blue satin richly embroidered with gold and 
silver thread, colored silk, &c, in the pattern peculiar to the Cashmere 
shawls. His turban formed of splendid kincaub was extremely large, 
and adorned with a feather of open gold work, set with emeralds, 
sapphires, rubies, &c. and another ornament richly set with jewels* 
similar to what I believe is called in Europe a sevigni, from which 
hung several strings of large pearls. A gold-hilted sword, with a 
shield ornamented wHh chased gold knobs lay before him, and com- 
pleted his equipment. After the presents had been exhibited, which 
appeared to excite the admiration of all present, I took leave, and 
attended as before by a party of soldiers, amongst whom I distributed 
a few rupees, as is customary on these occasions, returned to the house. 

During the week I remained at Beylah I had several long conversa- 
tions with Ularacky, the Jam's minister. Ularacky is the second chief of 
the Jamootry, the particular tribe to which the Jam belongs, and 
has been chosen by the Jam's mother in consequence to conduct 
the government of the province under her superintendence ; he is 
a fine intelligent old man, without any of the prejudices against 
Europeans which generally exist in the minds of those natives of 
India who have had no intercourse with them ; but being surrounded 
by chiefs belonging to the other tribes, who are jealous of his influence 
with the reigning family, he is obliged to act with the greatest caution. 

Beylah contains about 800 houses constructed of sticks and mud, 
and between four and five thousand inhabitants ; it covers a small piece 
of elevated ground rising above the banks of a river of some size, 
flowing from the N. E. which joins the Poorally about a mile farther 
to the westward, and with the exception of the N. E. quarter, which 
is surrounded by a ruinous mud wall, is entirely undefended. The 
palace of the Jam is within the walls, and is the only brick building in 
the place. About Beylah a large portion of the land is under cultivation ; 
and the face of the country presents a pleasing succession of grassy 
plains and small woods, which with the advantage of being placed 
nearly at the junction of two rivers, and at an equal distance from the 
mountains on either side, renders it the best spot in the province that 
could have been selected for the site of the capital. The Poorally passes 
about a mile to the westward of it, and spreading over a large extent 
of surface forms several swamps, which are fed by numerous springs ; 
in some of them rice is cultivated, and the ground about their banks 
is every where much broken by deep gullies worn by the water 
flowing into them in the rainy season. 

1839.] Account of a Journey to Beylah. 191 

Ularacky having communicated to me the decision of the durbar 
respecting the survey of Soonmemy, and finding the Jam's answer to 
the Government letter would not be ready for two days, I determined 
to employ the interval in visiting Shuhr Roghan, an ancient excavated 
city, situated amongst the mountains to the northward ; on stating my 
wish to Ularacky, he at last obtained the requisite permission from the 
Jam's mother ; who as a compliment, sent one of her confidential at- 
tendants with her son's state-matchlock to accompany me. 

Beyond the town the road for some distance wound through a thick 
wood occupying the bed of a deserted river; here and there it opened 
out into small but picturesque glades, but in general the underwood 
was so dense, that we had some difficulty in making our way through 
it : the bushes were full of birds, amongst which I noticed several 
parrots, and a very pretty little bird with green and golden plumage : 
it was decidedly the most beautiful spot I had seen in the pro- 
vince. On ascending from the bed of the river we came upon an open 
plain thickly covered with large rounded stones, and cut up in every 
direction by deep water courses, and about four miles from the town 
crossed the dry bed of a river about 500 yards wide; a short distance 
beyond it is situated the small village of Momadary surrounded by 
fields, and to the eastward a grove of lofty trees was visible, where my 
attendants said the Jam had a large garden. From Momadary to the 
head of the valley the stony plain is thinly dotted with bushes, and 
every where deeply furrowed by channels ; this part of tjie valley rises 
slightly to the foot of the hills, and from its appearance, must have 
water flowing over its surface in the rainy season, towards the Poorally, 
from one range of mountains to the other. 

About nine miles to the northward of Beylah, a range of low hills 
sweeps in a semicircle from one side of the valley to the other, and 
forms its head. The Poorally river issues from a deep ravine on the 
western side, and is about 200 yards broad ; it is bounded on one side 
by steep cliffs, forty or fifty feet high, on the summit of which there is 
an ancient burying ground, and the* water runs bubbling along it in 
two or three small rivulets, amongst heaps of stones and patches of 
tamarisk jungle. Having crossed the stream we pursued our way up its 
bed amongst the bushes, until we gained the narrow ravine through 
which it flows, and then turning into one of the lateral branches 
entered Shuhr Roghan. The scene was singular; on either side of a 
wild broken ravine the rocks rise perpendicularly to the height of four 
or five hundred feet, and are excavated as far as can be seen ; in some 
places where there is footing to ascend, up to the summit ; these ex- 
cavations are most numerous along the lower part of the hills, and 

c c 

H'2 Account of a Journey to Beylah. QMarch, 

form distinct liouses, most of which are uninjured by time; they con- 
sist in general of a room fifteen feet square, forming a kind of open 
veranda, with an interior chamber of the same dimensions, to which 
you gain admittance by a door; there are niches for lamps in many, 
and a place built up and covered in, apparently intended to hold 
grain. Most of them had once been plastered with clay, and in 
a few, when the form of the rock allowed of its being done, the 
interior apartment is lighted by small windows. The houses at 
the summit of the cliffs are now inaccessible, from the narrow pre- 
cipitous paths by which they were approached having been worn 
away ; and those at the base appear to have been occupied by the 
poorer class of inhabitants, for many of them are merely irregular 
shaped holes, with a rudely constructed door. The rock in which these 
excavations have been made, is what I believe is called by geologists 
Conglomerate, being composed of a mass of rounded stones of almost 
every variety of rock, embedded in hard clay ; it contains a large quan- 
tity of salt (I think natron), which is seen in a thin film on the walls 
of all the chambers, and at two or three spots in the upper part of the 
ravine, where water drops from the overhanging crags. 

It would be singular if such a place as Shuhr Roghan existed 
amongst a people so superstitious as the Noomrees without a legend of 
some kind being attached to it, and they accordingly relate the follow- 
ing story : In the reign of Solomon the excavated city was governed 
by a king celebrated all over the East for his wisdom, and the great 
beauty of his only daughter Buddul Tumaul ; she was beloved by 
seven young men, who from the great friendship existing among 
them, were called by way of distinction " the seven friends," but they 
perished one after the other in defending the object of their adoration 
from the designs of half a dozen demons, who, attracted by her surpass- 
ing beauty, made repeated attempts to carry her off. At this interesting 
period of her history Syful Mullik, son of the king of Egypt, arrived at 
Shuhr Roghan, who being the handsomest man of his time, and 
as brave as he was handsome, had been dispatched by his father on 
his travels, in the hope that by the way he might conquer a few king- 
doms for himself. The princess, as a matter of course, fell in love 
with him ; the demon lovers were in despair, and made a desperate 
effort to carry her off when at her devotions, but were all slain 
in the attempt by the prince. The father of the fair princess 
rewarded him for his gallantry with the hand of his daughter, and the 
happy couple lived to reign for many years in peace and security over 
the excavated city. Such was the tale related to me by my attend- 
ants, which forms the groundwork of a story written in the Persian 

1839.] Account of a Journey to Beylah. 193 

language, entitled, '<The Adventures of Syful Mullik with the Fairy 
Buddul Tumaul." I obtained a copy of the work at Kurachee. 

A short distance above the entrance of the city, the broken precipi- 
tous ravine in which it is situated decreases in width to ten or twelve 
yards, and forms a deep natural channel in the rock. For about half a 
mile the cliffs are excavated on both sides to a considerable height, and 
taking the remains of houses into account, I think there cannot be less 
altogether than 1500. In one place a row of seven, in very good preserva- 
tion, was pointed out by theguides as the residence of" the seven friends," 
and further on we came to the grandest of all, the palace of Buddul 
Tumaul. At this part, the hill, by the abrupt turning of the ravine, juts 
out in a narrow point, and towards the extremity forms a natural wall 
of rock about 300 feet high, and twenty feet thick ; half way up it had 
been cut through, and a chamber constructed, about twenty feet 
square, with the two opposite sides open ; it is entered by a passage 
leading through a mass of rock partly overhanging the ravine, and on 
the other side of the apartment two doors give admittance to two 
spacious rooms ; the whole had once been plastered over, and from its 
situation must have formed a safe, commodious retreat. At the summit 
of the hill near it there is another building, which my attendants said 
was the mosque where the princess was rescued by Syfal Mullik, when 
the demons attempted to carry her off. Having seen every thing 
worthy of notice in this troglodytic city, we quitted it, and returned to 

On the 21st the letter and presents for Government having been 
delivered to me by Ularacky, I left Beylah late in the afternoon, 
and on the evening of the 24th arrived at Soonmemy. On the road we 
met a party of fakeers proceeding to Hinglaj : they presented a 
most grotesque appearance, their faces besmeared with paint, and their 
ragged garments decorated with tufts of feathers, and a variety of 
irregular ornaments. Their agwa, or chief, who was a portly, well- 
dressed personage, marched at their head, and carried a long white 
wand as the badge of his office. These poor wretches had collected 
from all parts of India, and as we approached them they set up 
a loud shout, exclaiming " Hurrah for the holy saint of Hinglaj — we 
are going to visit our good grandmother — praises to Kalee, the holy 
goddess ! hurrah, hurrah." 

Hinglaj, the shrine to which they were proceeding, is situated 
about a day's journey from the sea-coast, at the extremity of the 
range of mountains dividing Lus from Mukran, and is said to be 
of great antiquity. The temple is merely a small building erected on 
one of the mountain peaks, and is held in great veneration by both 

194 Account of a Journey to Beylah. [March, 

Hindoos and Mussulmen. It is dedicated to Kalee, the goddess 
of fate, and there is a large circular tank or well near it, which 
the natives say has been sounded to a very great depth, without 
bottom having been obtained-; they relate that one of the priests 
employed himself for a whole year in twisting a rope for the purpose, 
but it was not long enough. Those who can swim, jump into the tank 
from an overhanging rock, and proceed through a subterranean 
passage to another part of the mountain, which is believed to purify 
them from their sins. There is also a species of divination practised 
by throwing a cocoanut forcibly into the water, and according as the 
bubbles rise in a larger or less quantity, the individual will be happy 
or miserable. This account of the place, whieh is celebrated all 
over India, was furnished by people who had been there several 

Memoir on the Province of Lus. 

The small province of Lus is about 100 miles long by 80 broad, and 
is bounded to the south by the sea, to the north by the Jahlawan 
hills, and to the east and west by ranges of high mountains, which 
descend from the great mass occupying Beloochistan, and separate it 
from Sinde and Mukran. Besides these, which terminate on the sea- 
coast (one at Rus Mooaree, and the other 100 miles further to the 
westward, near Rus Arubah) there is another spur sent off from the 
Jahlawan hills, called Jebbal Hahro, which runs down the centre of 
the province nearly to the coast, and divides it into two unequal por- 
tions. These three ranges are all of the same formation, principally 
coarse sandstone, and of the same average altitude, each being about 
3000 feet high. 

The climate of Lus is subject to considerable variation ; in the winter 
season it is delightful, the atmosphere being clear, dry, and cool, but in 
the summer months it is as disagreeable from the excessive heat. During 
my journey to Beylah, in the month of January, the thermometer 
stood at 35° for three mornings running, and it did not rise higher 
than G7° even in the hottest part of the day. Situated just without 
the limits of the south west monsoon, and nearly encircled by high 
mountains, which not only reflect the sun's rays, but exclude the wind, 
the heat in the summer season is intense ; and although the atmosphere 
is occasionally cooled by refreshing showers, it is severely felt by the 

The western division of the province, lying between the Hahro and 
Hinglaj mountains, is the smallest and least productive of the two. 

1839.] Memoir on the Province of Las. 195 

The greater part is occupied by a mass of barren hills,, with small 
valleys between them ; and the remainder forms a level sandy district 
near the sea, which in most places is barren and almost destitute of 

The eastern division of the province is watered by the Poorally and 
its numerous tributaries, and the only productive part of it is the 
valley or plain through which that river takes its course. From the 
sea to the Jahlawan hills it measures about sixty-five miles in length, 
and in width decreases gradually from thirty-five miles ; its breadth on 
the coast as you approach its upper extremity, where it terminates in a 
semicircle of hills, is eight or nine miles across. With the exception 
of a belt of low broken hillocks on the sea coast, about eight miles 
broad, the whole face of the valley is perfectly flat, and it is to this 
circumstance the province owes its name of Lus, and which in the 
language of the country signifies a level plain. On looking down it 
from the upper extremity, where the ground rises slightly at the foot 
of the hills, the horizon appears of a misty blue color, and is as level 
and well defined as it is at sea : the only elevated spot I saw, was the 
rising ground on which Beylah is built, and that is not more than ten 
or twelve feet high. There is a tradition amongst the natives, that at a 
remote period the valley was an inlet of the sea, and from its extreme 
flatness, alluvial formation, and small elevation above the level of the 
ocean, there is reason for believing it was once the case. 

The soil is every where alluvial, and is composed of a light loose 
clay mixed in a greater or less proportion with fine sand; in some 
places it preserves a hard smooth surface, and contains a portion of 
saline ingredients, but in others crumbles into fine dust, which is blown 
in clouds by the lightest breeze, and renders travelling very disagreeable; 
it is also in many parts encumbered with large rounded stones, and at 
the head of the valley above Beylah, where there are numerous streams 
and water courses, they are so thickly strewed over the surface, that 
the whole plain, from one range of hills to the other, appears like the 
bed of a large river. Near the coast there is scarcely a tree or a bush to 
be seen, and the country has a most barren and desolate aspect. A 
confused mass of undulating hillocks, 80 or 100 feet high, covered to 
some depth with loose sand and thinly overrun with creeping plants, 
extends about eight miles inland, and in the small hollows and plains 
between them, which are so low as to become saturated at high tide by 
the sea, the land produces nothing but saline shrubs or coarse reeds. 
Beyond the sand hills the level plains commence, and small patches of 
stunted tamarisk trees appear here and there ; but as you approach Lay- 
aree they attain a greater height, and the jungle becomes dense. 

19G Memoir on the Province of Lus. [March, 

From that village to Beylah the face of the country every where pre- 
sents the same appearance in its general features, and in the vicinity of 
the different streams a large portion of the land is under cultivation ; 
but beyond these spots it is either covered with saline bushes or thick 
tamarisk jungle, and from the poverty of the soil would not yield 
sufficient to repay the cultivator for his toil in clearing it. In some of 
the jungles the baubool (mimosa) is abundant, and in others the trees 
are withered and leafless for miles, and there is no sign of vegetation, 
save in the undergrowth beneath them. About and above Beylah the 
tamarisk and baubool almost entirely disappear, and are succeeded by 
a tree which from a short distance appears like a species of willow, and 
is so high and bushy, that at those places where it abounds it forms 
thick and extensive woods ; game is every where plentiful, but particu- 
larly so on the eastern side of the valley ; herds of antelopes and 
spotted deer are frequently seen in the open country, and the wild hog 
is sometimes found in the thickets; the jungles are full of hares and 
partridges, and the lakes and swamps swarm with water fowl of every 

On the banks of the Poorally and its tributary streams a large 
portion of the land is under cultivation ; and this is also the case along 
the eastern side of the valley, where there are several small lakes left 
by the waters of the inundation : at these spots the soil is a rich 
mould, and yields abundant crops of wheat, jowaree, oil seed, cotton, 
and esculent vegetables. In the dry season most of the fields are 
irrigated by cuts from the rivers, but some depend entirely upon 
the rains for a supply of water; — on the former a tax is levied of 
one-third, and on the latter of one-fifth of the produce. 

The principal river of Lus is the Poorally, which rises to the 
northward amongst the Jahlawan mountains, and issues upon the 
valley through a deep ravine about nine miles to the N. W. of Beylah ; 
on leaving the hills it flows in several rivulets along a bed 300 
yards wide, but near Beylah it increases to nearly a mile in breadth, 
and the water spreading over a large extent of ground forms a succes- 
sion of swamps ; amongst these there are many small springs, and 
jait of the land is turned to account in the cultivation of rice. Above 
Beylah the plain up to the foot of the hills is every where deeply 
scored with the beds of rivulets and water courses, but they are 
only filled during the inundation months, and then empty themselves 
into the Poorally. The first tributary stream of any size flows 
from the mountains to the N. E., and passing close along the elevated 
ground on which the capital is built, joins the river below the 
swarnps; opposite the town it is 700 yards broad, and when I crossed 

1839] Memoir on the Province of Lus. 197 

it in the month of January its bed was perfectly dry. From the 
junction of this stream the river pursues a winding course to the 
southward, and has an average breadth of 400 yards; at some 
places however it is much wider, especially at the confluence of the 
Khato, a large stream descending from the eastern range of mountains, 
where it is nearly a mile across, and when full, must form a fine sheet 
of water: here its bed is overrun with jungle, and the stream winds 
through the centre in two small rivulets, 15 yards broad, and 15 inches 
deep. The Khato is from three to five hundred yards broad, and 
is only filled in the rains. Four miles to the N. E. of Layaree the 
Poorally receives the water of the Hubbe, a river of some size flowing 
from the eastward, and below the point of junction is confined by 
a dam or bund, to retain its waters in the dry season for agricultural 
purposes. From this spot to its mouth it has no bed; as the river 
fills during the rains the bund is swept away, and the water escapes 
through a level plain covered with bushes, about five miles broad, 
which it inundates to a depth of two or three feet. This plain is 
bounded by the sand hills on the coast, and extends in a winding 
direction to the mouth of the river, which is situated at the head 
of the harbour of Soonmemy, and only runs four or five miles into the 
land. The water also finds another outlet through a line of lakes and 
swamps on the eastern side of the valley, where the ground is very 
low, and reaches the sea at a large lagoon on the shores of the bay, 
a few miles below the harbor. Serundo, the largest of the swamps, is 
several miles in length and very irregular in shape ; its width in some 
places exceeding a mile, and at others contracting to four or five 
hundred yards. In the dry season, when it has a depth of four or five 
feet, the water is salt and charged with vegetable matter from the 
thick mangrove jungle growing along its banks, but during the 
inundation it is perfectly fresh, and the swamp then assumes the 
appearance of an extensive lake. Water fowl of all kinds resort to it 
in incredible numbers, and alligators are almost equally abundant. 

The water of the Poorally holds in solution a large quantity of sa- 
line ingredients, and every stone in its bed that is at all exposed to the 
influence of the sun *is covered with a thin incrustation. As far as 
I could judge from the taste it is natron, and the flavor of the water is 
scarcely affected by it. In the swampy parts of the river near Beylah 
alligators are numerous, and they are met with here and there 
throughout its course. 

In the whole province there are not more than ten or twelve towns 
or villages, and the largest of these, Beylah, does not contain more 
than 5.000 inhabitants; Soonmemy has not half that number, and 

198 Memoir on the Province of Lus. [March, 

Ootul, a town situated on the eastern side of the valley, which ranks 
next in importance, scarcely a fourth ; Layaree, Oot, Momadary, and 
the others, are small villages of thirty or forty houses each, part built 
of mud, and the rest of mats, and none have more than 150 or 200 
inhabitants. The people generally are scattered over the face of the 
country, and have no fixed habitations ; their huts are erected where- 
ever there is pasturage for their cattle, and being constructed of stakes 
and reed mats, are easily removed to other spots when the supply of 
fodder is exhausted. Beylah, the capital, is built upon a rising ground, 
on the north bank of a small river flowing from the mountains to the 
north-east, which joins the Poorally about a mile to the westward of 
the city. It contains about 800 houses built of mud, and a population of 
about 5000 souls. The palace of the Jam is situated in the north- 
east quarter, and this part of it is surrounded by a mud wall of no 
great strength, which is the only defence of the place. 

The productions of Lus, are grain, (chiefly wheat, and jowaree) oil 
seed, a kind of gram called gogur, and cotton ; ghee is made in large 
quantities, and sent to Kurachee or Soonmemy for exportation, and 
the flocks furnish a small supply of wool: — cotton cloth, with the 
coarse woollen dresses worn by the peasantry, and coarse carpets made 
at Beylah, are the only articles manufactured in the country. 

It is difficult to form an estimate of the amount of the population, 
from the people being so much scattered over the face of the country, 
but I do not think it exceeds 25,000 souls. It is composed principally 
of Noomrees, descendants from the ancient Summa and Soonvia Raj- 
poots, whose chiefs formerly ruled in Sinde, and who are divided into 
seven tribes — the Jamootry, Arab Gudoor, Shooroo, Boorah, Shukh, 
Warah, and Mungayah. The Arab Gudoor is said to be a branch 
from the celebrated Arab tribe the Koreish, and to have settled in 
Lus in the reign of the third caliph Omar. That the family of Arab 
Oosmanany, the chief, is from an Arab stock is evident, for in him and 
all his relatives the Arab form and features are strongly marked, but 
the resemblance is not visible in the tribe generally, and it is no doubt 
of Noomree origin. The Jokeeas, and Jukreeas, who are also Noom- 
rees, and inhabit the mountainous country to the eastward, were also 
formerly subject to the chief of Lus ; but when Kurachee was taken by 
the Scindians they threw off their allegiance, and have ever since 
acknowledged the authority of the Ameers. Besides Noomrees there are 
also many Hindoos, and a large number of African slaves : the latter 
perform all the work. The chiefs and a few of their military followers 
an- robust, and good looking men, but the Noomrees generally possess few 
of those qualities, either physical or moral, which would entitle them to 

1839.] Memoir on the Province of Lns. 199 

be considered a fine race. Amongst the lower orders mixture of the 
different castes and tribes is observable, and a large number exhibit 
marks in their features of their African descent. In appearance and 
bodily strength the men are inferior to the inhabitants of most Asiatic 
countries, and they are ignorant, indolent, and superstitious. The 
women possess few personal charms even when young, and are remark- 
able for their bold and licentious manners. The dress of both sexes is 
much the same as it is in Sinde, and there is in fact a marked resem- 
blance, both in character and appearance, between the people of the 
two countries. 

Jam Meer Mahomed, the chief of Lus, is about fourteen years of 
age, and does not at present take any part in the government of the 
province, which is conducted by Ularacky, the chief of the Jamootry, 
under the direction of his mother. Jam Deenah, his cousin, is the only 
male relative he has; he is about forty years of age, and much liked 
by the people for the kindness and generosity of his disposition. The 
Jam's sister was married some years ago to Meer Sobdar, one of the 
Sinde Ameers, and it is settled that when he is of age he is to espouse 
one of that prince's sisters in return. He has also a half sister in the 
harem of Meerab Khan, the Kelat prince, and another married to the 
chief of the Jokeeas. The mother of these two girls resides at 
Soonmemy and is in such a destitute condition that she has lately 
been obliged to sell her clothes and jewels to obtain the necessaries 
of life. 

The Jam is not independent, but like all the Brahooey chiefs, holds 
his dominions under the feudatory tenure of furnishing a certain 
number of troops when required for the service of his lord paramount, 
the sovereign of Kelat. The Jam's father was formerly obliged to send 
him a portion of the duties collected in his territories as a yearly 
tribute, but after his marriage with one of the prince's daughters, this 
was no longer demanded. At present the Jam is kept in complete sub- 
jection, for his small state is every where exposed to the attacks of the 
Brahooey tribes, who if commanded by the Kelat chief would quickly 
overrun it ; and he would not in consequence dare to disobey any order 
from that prince, or act in any business of importance without his 
sanction. The number of troops he is expected to bring into the field 
in time of war was fixed at 4500 ; but at present the whole military 
force of the province does not exceed 2700 men, which are furnished 
by the different tribes in the following proportion : 



Memoir on the Province of Lus. 

[March ; 

Jamootry, . . 
Arab Gudoor, 
Warah, . . 
Mungayah,. . 
Brahooeys, . . 


Total, . . 2,700 

Since the death of the Jam's father, who expired about eight years 
ago, the revenues of the province have decreased considerably, and 
do not now amount to more than 35,000 Rupees annually. They are 
derived from a duty of three per cent, levied on all imports and 
exports, and a bazar toll of one per cent, collected at the towns they 
have to pass through on the road to Beylah. There is also a land tax of 
one-third the produce on all grounds irrigated from the rivers, and one- 
fifth on those which depend solely upon the rain for a supply of water. 

Last year the revenue collected at the diffe 
At Soonmemy, 
At Layaree, 
At Ootul, 
At Beylah, 
At Oomarah, 
Land tax, 

ent towns was as follows : 
Rupees, 12,000 

Total, . . 35,000 
Soonmemy is the principal sea-port of Lus, and for such a miserable 
looking place possesses considerable trade. The town generally called 
Meany by the natives is mean and dirty, and does not contain more 
than 500 houses ; they tire built of sticks and mud, and have a small 
turret rising above the roof open to the sea breeze, without which they 
would scarcely be habitable in the summer months, on account of the 
excessive heat ; formerly the town was surrounded by a mud wall, 
but as no pains were taken to keep it in repair it gradually fell to 
decay, and now scarcely a vestige of it remains. It contains a popu- 
lation of about 2,000 souls, most of whom are employed in fishing, and 
are extremely poor, and there are besides a few Hindoos who have the 
whole trade of the place in their hands. At Meany the water is ex- 
tremely bad. I examined all the wells in the neighbourhood, and 
caused others to be dug in the most promising spots, but it was so 
brackish that it was not drinkable, and I was obliged to send to 

1839.] Memoir on the Province of Lus. 201 

Kurachee for a supply for the vessels. The harbour, which has been 
formed by the Poorally river, is a large irregular inlet spreading out 
like that at Kurachee in extensive swamps, and choked with shoals ; 
the channel leading into it is extremely narrow, and has a depth of 
sixteen or seventeen feet at high water in the shallowest part, but it 
shifts its position every year, and vessels of any size could not navigate 
it without great difficulty, until it had been buoyed off inside. There is 
six or seven and even ten fathoms in some places, but towards the town 
the channels become shallow, and the trading boats cannot approach 
it nearer than a mile ; at the spot where they anchor they are always 
aground at low water. During the south-west monsoon the harbour 
cannot be entered, for the bar at the entrance is exposed to the whole 
force of the swell, and the breakers on it are heavy. There is another 
small sea-port belonging to Lus, situated on the western side of the 
Hinglaj mountains, at Ras Ambah, it is called Ournarah, and is the 
place to which the productions of the western division of the province 
are sent for exportation. 

The total value of the trade of Lus does not exceed five lacs of 
rupees ; the imports are — from Bombay, cloths, silks, iron, tin, steel, 
copper, pepper, sugar, and spices; the Persian Gulf, dates and slaves; and 
from Sinde, a small quantity of coarse cotton cloth. The greater part 
of the articles brought from Bombay are sent to Kelat, for although 
highly prized in Lus the people are too poor to purchase them, and 
they receive in return wool, of which 800 candys arrived in the 
course of last year, and different kinds of dried fruits. The exports, 
are — grain (principally wheat and jowaree) ghee, wool, oil seed, and a 
quantity of gum ; a duty of three per cent, is levied on all imports 
and exports, which may be paid either at Soonmemy or Beylah, and 
a bazar toll of one per cent, at Layaree and Ootul, two towns on the 

Most of the articles imported from Bombay are sent to Kelat, and 
from that city distributed throughout Beloochistan ; the quantity is 
very small for the supply of such an extensive kingdom, and is not 
likely to become greater until the Kelat prince takes measures 
to prevent the caravans from being plundered in their route from 
Beylah to his capital. The intermediate districts are inhabited by 
various Brahooey tribes, such as the Mingulls, Bezinyas, &c. and to 
each of the chiefs, the merchant has to pay from one to four rupees 
for the camel load, as may be determined at the time ; their followers 
also frequently pillage the caravans. Meerab Khan, the Kelat prince, 
has no doubt the power to repress these outrages, and he would certainly 
interfere to prevent them, if the advantages that would accrue to 

202 Account of a Journey to Beylah. [March, 

himself from the increase of the trade, were pointed out in a favorable 
manner. All the merchants of Lus are of opinion, that the commerce 
would be considerably enlarged if security were afforded to the trader, 
and of this there can be little doubt, for cloth and other articles of 
European manufacture are in great request throughout Beloochistan, 
and the supply is not at present adequate to the demand. 

Formerly the commerce of Lus was much more valuable than it is 
at present, and a large portion was sent by the Kelat route to the 
northern provinces of Hindoostan ; within the last forty years it has 
from various causes gradually declined. In 1808 Soonmemy was 
taken, and plundered by the Joasmy pirates, and for some years the 
merchants were afraid to send goods there; the port was just beginning 
to recover from this blow, when the Ameers of Sinde issued strict 
orders to the merchants of Kurachee to discontinue their practice of 
importing goods to any of the ports of Lus under the severest penalties, 
and this measure, which at once took away half the trade of the 
place, completed what the pirates had begun. In the meantime the 
trade with the northern provinces had ceased entirely, for they had 
become so unsettled that thePatan merchants, who are the great carriers 
in that part of the world, ceased to come to Kelat for goods, and as 
they afterwards found the route from Upper Sinde much the safest, 
they resorted to it in preference, and have since obtained the small 
supply of goods they require from the merchants of that kingdom. 
Before the trade of Lus had suffered from the causes above mentioned, 
its value is said to have been five times greater than it is at present, 
and it was also much more lucrative to the merchant, for at that 
period goods of European manufacture sold for double the price that is 
now obtained for them. 

1^ February, 1838. Lieutenant, Indian Navy, 

Art. III. — On three new species of Musk (Moschus) inhabiting the 
Hemalayan districts. 

To the Editor of the Journal, Asiatic Society. 
Sir, — Several years ago I called the attention of Dr. Abel to some 
remarkable, and apparently permanent distinctions of colour character- 
ising the Musks, or Musk Deer of the Cis and Trans Hemalayan regi- 
ons. These I subsequently inserted in my amended catalogue of 
Mammalia, under the specific names of Leucogaster, Chrysogaster, and 
Saturates, but without giving specific characters, owing to my conti- 

1839.] On three new species of Musk. 203 

nued inability to establish the species upon a more solid basis than that 
of distinction of colour. The partial investigations which I have been 
enabled to make, strongly favour, however, the supposition that the 
superficial diagnostics are supported by others of more importance in the 
form of the crania, and in the structure and position of the musk pod. 
And, though I am still unable distinctly to expound these latter differ- 
ences, I think it may stimulate curiosity to indicate summarily the 
three presumed species as marked by their diversities of colour, in the 
hope that attention may be thence drawn to the structural peculiarities 
which I believe to exist in the sculls, and in the musk bags. 

1st. Species, Mosehus chrysogaster, nobis. Bright sepia brown 
sprinkled with golden red ; orbitar region, lining, and base of ears, 
whole body below, and insides of the limbs, rich golden red or orange ; 
a black-brown patch on the buttocks posteally ; limbs below their 
central flexures fulvescent. 

2nd. Species, Leucogaster, nobis. Body above, and the limbs deep- 
er brown sprinkled with fulvous : below the head, neck, and belly, 
together with the insides of the ears, and the orbits, hoary white. 

3rd. Species, Saturates, nobis. Throughout saturate dusky brown, 
somewhat paler below : chin only, and lining of the ears pale and 

Drawings of the above animals were transmitted to London, through 

the Society, in May 1836. 

I am Sir, your obedient servant, 

Nepal, April 15, 1839. 

Art. IV. — On Isinglass in Polynemus sele, Buck., a species which is 
very common in the Estuaries of the Ganges. By J. McClelland, 
Assistant Surgeon. 

There are nine species of Polynemi, or Paradise fishes, enumerated 
by authors, and although they are all pretty well described, I am not 
aware of any more valuable property being known regarding them than 
their excellence as an article of food, of which we have a familiar in- 
stance at this season in the Pol. paradiseus, or Mango-fish, TupsiMuchi 
of the Bengalese. 

Buchanan has five species in his work on Gangetic Fishes, but three 
of these are small, and probably varieties only of the Tupsi; two of them 
however, are of great size, and so common in the estuary of the Hoog- 
ly that I have seen numerous hackeries, or bullock carts, conveying 
them to the Calcutta bazar, during the cold season. They are not 

204 On Isinglass in Polynemus sele, Buck. [March, 

confined to the estuary of the Hoogly, but probably extend to all the 
estuaries of the Ganges, as Buchanan says they do ; and we know that 
Dr. Russell also describes two large species in his work, long since pub- 
lished, on the fishes of the Madras Coast. 

The very valuable production, Isinglass, having been recently found 
to be yielded by one of the fishes of the Hoogly by a writer in Par- 
bury 's Oriental Herald, it became an interesting object to determine the 
systematic name of the fish affording an article so valuable, and to learn 
as much as possible regarding its habits. Having procured a specimen 
of this fish from the bazar, I was surprised to find it to be a Polyne- 
mus, or Paradise fish, although the writer alluded to described it as 
resembling a Shark. My surprise was not that a person unacquainted 
with fishes should compare it to a Shark, or to any thing else, but that 
a nearly allied species to the Mango-fish should contain a natatory 
vessel of such size and value, while that organ is quite absent in the 
Mango-fish itself, though a general character of nearly all others. 

I had come to the determination never to describe single or detached 
species of fish, but as the object of this paper is to elucidate the com- 
mercial side of a question already before the public, I shall not pretend 
to offer any remarks on the scientific part of the subject, which is in- 
deed beyond my province, as my observations have hitherto been con- 
fined to the fresh water species of India. 

The species affording the Isinglass is the Polynemus sele, Buch. ; 
Sele, or Sulea, of the Bengalese, described, but not figured, in the Gan- 
getic Fishes ; but if Buchanan's drawings had not been placed under a 
bushel since 1815, probably this useful discovery would have been 
sooner made, and better understood by the writer in Parbury's Oriental 
Herald, to whom we are indebted for it. 

The annexed figure from Buchanan's unpublished collection at the 
Botanic Garden, conveys an excellent representation, about half size, of 
a specimen from which I obtained 66 grains of Isinglass : but as the 
writer in Parbury's Oriental Herald states that from half a pound to 
three quarters of a pound is obtained from each fish, we may suppose 
either that P.sele attains a much greater size than 24 pounds, the 
limit given to it by Buchanan, or, that the Isinglass is also afforded by a 
far larger species, namely Polynemus teria, Buch. or Teria bhangan of the 
Bengalese, Magajellee of Russell, which Buchanan was informed some- 
times equals three hundred and twenty pounds avoirdupois, and which I 
frequently have seen of an uniform size, that must have been from fifty 
to an hundred pounds at least, loading whole cavalcades of hackeries at 
once on their way to the Calcutta bazar, as I have already stated, during 
the cold season, when they would consequently seem to be very common. 

1839.] On Isinglass in Polynemus sele, Buck. 205 

Although the sound, or natatory vessel is the part of the fish that 
would afford the principal inducement to form fisheries, one of the 
obligations that speculators should be obliged to enter into with the 
Government is, to cure all parts of such fishes as might be taken for 
their sound. Considering the scarcity of fish in many parts of India, 
and the great, I may say unlimited demand for it in some parts of the 
country even when badly preserved, as well as the excellence of the flesh 
of all the Polynemi, the curing of these fishes might prove no less pro- 
fitable to the parties themselves, than it would unquestionably be to the 
country. I was happy to find the attention of the Royal Asiatic Society 
directed to the subject of curing fishes in India by Dr. Cantor, (vide Pro- 
ceedings, 2 1 st April, 1838) but a something was then wanting to be known 
in order to give a direct inducement to the undertaking.* I therefore 
regard the discovery of the Ichthyocolla of commerce in one of the larger 
Polynemi of India as a circumstance eminently calculated to direct at- 
tention to a promising and almost unlooked for source of enterprise. We 
first of all require to know whether more Polynemi than one afford it, 
and to be fully acquainted with the habits and the methods already em- 
ployed for taking such as do. Polynemus sele, Buch. is the species I exa- 
mined and found to contain it ; but this species is supposed to be a variety 
only of Polynemus lineatus, which is very common on all the shores to 
the eastward ; it therefore becomes a question of some importance to 
determine whether P. lineatus yields the same valuable article, and if it 

* Should Dr. Cantor still be in London, I would recommend those who 
may be interested in the important question of Isinglass to consult him, as 
no one is so competent to afford information regarding the fish by which that article 
is yielded in India. He will, I am confident, on a re-examination of his notes 
regarding the Polynemi, readily distinguish those with large sounds, and be able 
to afford more valuable information regarding their habits, and the quantities in which 
they are procurable, than could be expected from any one who had not devoted his 
thoughts to the subject, during a survey of the place in which these fishes occur, I am 
not sure that the species of Polynemus Dr. Cantor particularly refers to in his paper 
as the Salliah, or Saccolih, is not the very fish that affords Isinglass ; if so, it appears to 
be considered by Dr. Cantor as a new species, and his notes will probably afford all that 
it is essential to know regarding its habits. Thus, as Sir J. E. Smith somewhere obser- 
ved, " the naturalist who describes a new species, however trifling it may seem, knows not 
what benefit that species may yet confer on mankind." 

In an interesting account of Kurachee by Lieut. Carloss, read at the last anniver- 
sary Meeting of the Bombay Geographical Society, cod sounds and shark's fins are 
mentioned among the exports from that place, and fishing is said to be carried on to a 
considerable extent along the coast of Sinde. As however the Cod, Morrhua 
vulgaris, Cuv., is quite unknown in the Indian Seas, the species from which the 
sounds alluded to by Lieut. Carloss are taken are no doubt Polynemi, the larger 
species of which are sometimes called by the English, Rock-Cod. It will be curious to 
learn if the Chinese have monopolised this trade on the coast of Sinde as well as 
in the Hoogly. 

206 On Isinglass in Polynemus sele, Buck. [March, 

be really common to the eastward ; if so, it seems strange that the Chinese 
should send for it to the Hoogly. Next, do the Pol. Emoi and Pol. 
plebeius, supposed by Buchanan to correspond with his Sele, contain the 
same valuable substance ? and do either of Russell's species, namely, the 
Maga booshee and Magajellee, (Indian Fishes, 183, 184,) yield it ? These 
are questions easily determined along our coasts by merely opening such 
fish as correspond with the one here figured, and ascertaining whether 
they contain an air vessel or not, and whether that vessel if present be 
large or small. Mergui, Batavia, Singapore, Tranquebar, Madras, and 
Bombay are points a-t which observations might be made. This question 
may be so easily ascertained, that it is hardly worth forming a conjecture 
about it ; but if any of the species common to the coasts of the Eastern 
seas possessed so valuable a property, the chances are that it would 
have been long since discovered. It is therefore probable that the 
large gelatine sound will be found to be peculiar to Pol. sele, and per- 
haps Pol. teria* Buch. both of which seem to resort chiefly to the 
Gangetic estuaries at certain seasons, particularly during the North- 
east monsoon, when it is easy to imagine that the shelter afforded in 
those estuaries at that season, might account for many peculiarities 
which their ichthyology appears to present, compared with that of open] 
coasts. It is during the cold season that the two gigantic fishes above! 
mentioned appear to be caught in most abundance, a circumstance the; 
more favourable to any improved operations that might be resorted 
to with a view to convert them to useful purposes. Whether both con-' 
tain- the same valuable substance, I am unable to say, having as yet 
only examined P. sele. 

Two fins on the back, with long filaments attached to the sides in front 
of the pectoral fins. Opercula covered with scales ; preoperculum 
serrated behind. Example. The common Mango-fish of Bengal. 
Yielding Isinglass. 
P. Sele, Buch. Plate — 
Sele, or Sulea of the Bengalese. 
Five filaments, the first reaching from the front of the pectorals to 
midway between those fins and the anal,, the other filaments progres- 
sively shorter ; no streaks on the sides, lateral line deflected on the lower 
lobe of the caudal fin. The fin rays are as follows ; — first dorsal seven, 
second dorsal fourteen, pectorals thirteen in each, ventrals each six, 
anal twelve or thirteen, caudal twenty (?) The teeth are very fine, con- 
tinuous below round the edes of the jaws, but interrupted at the 

P. 2Mdrifilis t t'uY. P. iQiradQCiylus, &c. and probably refer to the same 

1839.] On Isinglass in Polynemus sele, Buck. 207 

anterior part of the upper jaw, behind which a small detached group of 
palatine teeth are placed on the vomer. 

The liver consists of an elongated left lobe and a short right one, un- 
der which the gall bladder is situated. The stomach is a short mus- 
cular cul-de-sac, both orifices of which being placed at the anterior 
extremity, from which numerous small cecce are given off, the intestine 
extends straight to the vent ; in all these respects it corresponds 
nearly with P. paradiseus. The air vessel, which is quite absent in 
the latter, and on which the peculiar value of this species seems to 
depend, is a large spindle-shaped organ about half the length of the 
fish, thick in the middle and tapering toward the extremities, where it 
ends in front by two, and behind by a single tendenous cord ; similar 
small tendenous attachments, about twenty-two in number, connect it on 
either side to the upper and lateral parts of the abdominal cavity. 
This organ, which is called the sound, is to be removed, opened, and stript 
of a thin vascular membrane which covers it both within and without, 
washed perhaps with lime water and exposed to the sun, when it 
will soon become dry and hard ; it may require some further preparation 
to deprive it of its fishy smell, after which it may be drawn into shreds 
for the purpose of rendering it the more easily soluble. The fish which I 
examined weighed about two pounds and yielded about sixty-five grains 
of Isinglass, not quite pure, but containing about 10 per cent, of 
albumenous matter, owing perhaps to the individual from which it was 
taken being young and out of season, and not above a tenth part of the 
ordinary size of the species. But the solution after having been 
strained appeared to be equal to that of the best Isinglass, which costs in 
Calcutta from twelve to sixteen rupees a pound. As the subject thus 
seemed to be of consequence, I gave a portion of the substance in 
question to Dr. O'Shaughnessy for its chemical examination. 

a. Breadth of the back, 

b. Scale magnified, 

c. Scale from lateral line magnified, 

d. Air vessel or sound natural size. 

Calcutta, 2>rd May, 1839. 

E t 

208 Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [March, 

Art. V. — Journal of the Mission which visited Bootan, in 1837-38, 
under Captain R. Boileau Pemberton. By W. Griffith, Esq. 
Madras Medical Establishment* 

The Mission left Gowahatti on the 21st December, and proceeded a 
few miles down the Burrumpootur to Ameengoung, where it halted. 

On the following day it proceeded to Hayoo, a distance of thirteen 
miles. The road, for the most part, passed through extensive grassy 
plains, diversified here and there with low rather barren hills, and 
varied in many places by cultivation, especially of sursoo. One river 
was forded, and several villages passed. 

Hayoo is a picturesque place, and one of considerable local note ; 
it boasts of a large establishment of priests, with their usual companions, 
dancing girls, whose qualifications are celebrated throughout all 
Lower Assam. These rather paradoxical ministers are attached to 
a temple, which is by the Booteas and Kampas considered very 
sacred, and to which both these tribes, but especially the latter, resort 
annually in large numbers. This pilgrimage, however, is more connect- 
ed with trading than religion, for a fair is held at the same time. 
Coarse woollen cloths and rock salt form the bulk of the loads which 
each pilgrim carries, no doubt as much for the sake of profit as of 
penance. The village is a large one, and situated close to some- low 
hills ; it has the usual Bengal appearance the houses being sur- 
rounded by trees, such as betel palms, peepul, banyan, and caoutchouc. 
To Nolbharee we found the distance to be nearly seventeen miles. The 
country throughout the first part of the march was uncultivated, and 
entirely occupied by the usual coarse grasses ; the remainder was one 
sheet of paddy cultivation, interrupted only by topes of bamboos, in 
which the villages are entirely concealed ; we found these very abun- 
dant, but small: betel palms continued very frequent, and each garden 
or enclosure was surrounded by a small species of screw pine, well 
adapted for making fences. 

Four or five streams were crossed, of which two were not fordable : 
j heels were very abundant, and well stocked with water fowl and 
waders. At this place there is a small bungalow for the accommoda- 
tion of the civil officer during his annual visit ; it is situated close 
to a rather broad but shallow river. There is likewise a bund road. 

We proceeded from this place to Dum-Dumma, which is on the 
Bootan boundary, and is distant ten miles from Nolbharee. We con- 
tinued through a very open country, but generally less cultivated than 

* Presented by the Government. 

1839.] Capt. P ember ton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 209 

that about Nolbharee ; villages continued numerous as far as Dum- 
Dumma. This is a small straggling place on the banks of a small 
stream, the Noa Nuddee ; we were detained in it for several days, and 
had the Booteas alone been consulted, we should never have left 
it to enter Bootan in this direction. The place I found to be very 

December 3\st. We left for Hazareegoung, an Assamese village 
within the Bootan boundary. 

We passed through a much less cultivated country, the face of which 
was overrun with coarse grassy vegetation. No attempts appeared to 
be made to keep the paths clean, and the farther we penetrated within 
the boundary, the more marked were the effects of bad government. 
We crossed a small and rapid stream, with a pebbly bed, the first 
indication of approaching the Hills we had as yet met with. The 
village is of small extent, and provided with a Nam-ghur in which we 
were accommodated : it is situated on comparatively high ground, 
the plain rising near it, and continuing to do so very gradually until 
the base of the Hills is reached. There is scarcely any cultivation 
about the place. 

We left on January 2d for Ghoorgoung, a small village eight miles 
from Hazareegoung ; similar high plains and grassy tracts, almost un- 
varied by any cultivation, were crossed ; a short distance from the village 
we crossed the Mutanga, a river of some size and great violence during 
the rains, but in January reduced to a dry bouldery bed. There is no 
cultivation about Ghoorgoung, which is close to the Hills, between 
which and the village there is a gentle slope covered with fine sward. 

We entered the Hills on the 3d, and marched to Dewangari, a 
distance of eight miles. On starting we proceeded to the Durunga 
Nuddee, which makes its exit from the Hills about one mile to the 
west of Ghoorgoung, and then entered the Hills by ascending its bed, 
and we continued doing so for some time, until in fact we came to the 
foot of the steep ascent that led us to Dewangari. The road was a 
good deal obstructed by boulders, but the torrent contains at this season 
very little water. 

The mountains forming the sides of the ravine are very steep, in 
many cases precipitous, but not of any great height. They are 
generally well wooded, but never to such a degree as occurs on most 
other portions of the mountainous barriers of Assam. At the height 
of about 1000 feet we passed a choky, occupied by a few Booteas, and 
this was the only sign of habitation that occurred. 

We were lodged in a temporary hut of large size, some 200 feet 
below the ridge on which Dewangari is situated ,- our access to that 

210 Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [March, 

place being prohibited, as the Booteas, although long before informed 
of our approach and intentions, were not quite certain of our designs. 

On the following day, after some fuss, we were allowed to ascend to 
the village, in which a pucka house had been appropriated for our ac- 

Dewangari, the temples of which are visible from the plains of 
Assam, is situated on a ridge, elevated about 2100 feet above the 
level of the sea, and 1950 above that of the plains. The village 
extends some distance along the ridge, as well as a little way down 
its northern face. The houses, which are in most cases mere huts, 
amount to about 100; they are distributed in three or four scattered 
groups ; amongst these a few pucka or stone-built houses of the ordinary 
size and construction occur ; the only decent one being that occupied 
by the Soobah, who is of inferior rank. 

Along the ridge three or four temples of the ordinary Boodhistical 
form occur; they are surrounded with banners bearing inscriptions, 
fixed longitudinally to bamboos. Attached to some of these temples 
are monumental walls of poor construction, the faces of which bear slabs 
of slate, on which sacred sentences are well carved.* 

The village abounds in filth. The centre of the ridge is kept as a 
sort of arena for manly exercises ; about this space there occur some 
picturesque simool trees, and a few fig trees, among which is the 

There is no water course or spring near the village ; the supply is 
brought from a considerable distance by aqueducts formed of the 
hollowed-out trunks of small trees. In one place this aqueduct is 
carried across a slip, but otherwise there is nothing tending to shew 
that difficulties existed, or that much skill would have been exerted 
had such really occurred. 

During our long stay at this place we had many opportunities of 
forming acquaintance with the Soobah, as well as with the immediate- 
ly adjoining part of his district. We found this almost uncultivated, 
and overran with jungle. No large paths were seen to point out that 
there are many villages near Dewangari ; in fact the only two which 
bear marks of frequent communication, are that by which we ascended, 
and one which runs eastward to a picturesque village about half a 
mile distant, and which also leads to the plains. 

The Soobah we found to be a gentlemanly unassuming man; he 
received us in a very friendly manner and with some state ; the room 

* Both to the east and west of Dewangari there is a picturesque religious edifice, 
with ornamented windows. Their effect is much heightened by the presence of the 
wnoping Cypress, which situated as it was here, gave me an idea of extreme beauty. 

1839.] Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 211 

was decently ornamented, and set off in particular by some well 
executed Chinese religious figures, the chief of which we were told 
represented the Dhurma Rajah, whose presence even as a carved block 
was supposed to give infallibility. We were besides regaled with 
blasts of music. His house was the most picturesque one that I saw, 
and had some resemblance, particularly at a distance, to the represen- 
tations of some Swiss cottages. It was comparatively small, but as he 
was of inferior rank, his house was of inferior size. 

The Soobah soon returned our visit, and in all his actions evin- 
ced friendship, and gentlemanly feeling; and we soon had reason to 
find that among his superiors at least we were not likely to meet 
with his like again. His followers were not numerous, nor, with the 
exception of one or two who had dresses of scarlet broad-cloth, were 
they clothed better than ordinarily. 

The population of the place must be considerable ; it was during 
our stay much increased by the Kampa people, who were assembling 
here prior to proceeding to Hazoo. Most of the inhabitants are pure 
Booteas ; many of them were fine specimens of human build, certainly 
the finest I saw in Bootan : they were, strange to say, in all cases 
civil and obliging. 

Cattle were tolerably abundant, and principally of that species 
known in Assam by the name of Mithans ; they were taken tolerable 
care of, and picketed in the village at night : some, and particularly 
the bulls, were very fine, and very gentle. Ponies and mules were not 
uncommon, but not of extraordinary merits. Pigs and fowls were 

The chief communication with the plains is carried on by their 
Assamese subjects, who are almost entirely Kucharees: they bring 
up rice and putrid dried fish, and return with bundles of manjistha. 

On the 23rd, after taking a farewell of the Soobah, who gave us the 
Dhurma's blessing, and as usual decorated us with scarfs, we left 
for Rydang, the halting house between Dewangari and Kegumpa, 
and distant eight miles from the former place. We reached it late in 
the evening, as we did not start until after noon. We first descended 
to the Deo-Nuddee, which is 800 or 900 feet below the village, and 
which runs at the bottom of the ravine, of which the Dewangari ridge 
forms the southern side, and we continued ascending its bed, almost 
entirely throughout the march. 

The river is of moderate size, scarcely fordable however in the rains ; 
it abounds with the fish known to the Assamese by the name of 
Bookhar, and which are found throughout the mountain streams of 
the boundaries of the province. They, like all others, are considered 

212 Capt. Pembertoiis Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [March, 

sacred, although after the first distrust had worn off, the Soobah did 
not object to my fishing. We passed a Sam Gooroo* engaged in 
building a wooden bridge ; he was the only instance I met with of a 
Bootea priest making himself useful. He inquired of Capt. Pemberton, 
with much condescension, of the welfare of the ' Goombhanee' and his 
lordship the Governor General. 

24th. Left for Khegumpa. The march was almost entirely an 
uninterrupted ascent, at least until we had reached 7000 feet, so that 
the actual height ascended amounted nearly to 5000 feet. It com- 
menced at first over sparingly wooded grassy hills, until an elevation 
of about 4000 feet was attained, when the vegetation commenced to 
change; rhododendrons, and some other plants of the same natural 
family making their appearance. Having reached the elevation of 
7000 feet by steep and rugged paths, we continued along ridges well 
clothed with trees, literally covered with pendulous mosses and 
lichens, the whole vegetation being extra tropical. At one time we 
wound round a huge eminence, the bluff and bare head of which towered 
several hundred feet above us, by a narrow rocky path or ledge over- 
hanging deep precipices; and thence we proceeded nearly at the 
same level along beautiful paths, through fine oak woods, until we 
reached Khegumpa. The distance to which, although only eleven 
miles, took us the whole day to perform. 

This march was a beautiful, as well as an interesting one, owing 
to the changes that occurred in the vegetation. It was likewise 
so varied, that although at a most unfavourable season of the year, I 
gathered no fewer than 130 species in flower or fruit. Rhododendrons 
of other species than that previously mentioned, oaks, chesnuts, maples, 
violets, primroses, &c, &c. occurred. We did not pass any villages, nor 
did we meet with any signs of habitation, excepting a few pilgrims 
proceeding to Hazoo. 

Khegumpa itself is a small village on an exposed site ; it does not 
contain more than twelve houses, and the only large one, which as 
usual belonged to a Sam Gooroo, appeared to be in a ruinous state. 
The elevation is nearly 7000 feet. The whole place bore a wintery 
aspect, the vegetation being entirely northern, and almost all the trees 
having lost their leaves. The cold was considerable, although the ther- 
mometer did not fall below 46°. The scarlet tree rhododendron was 
common, and the first fir tree occurred in the form of a solitary spe- 
cimen of Pinus excelsa. In the small gardens attached to some of the 

* So are they called from their peculiar sanctity. Sam is a priest, and Gooroo also 
a priest: each priest is therefore twice a priest. | 

1839.] Capt. VembertorCs Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 213 

houses I remarked vestiges of the cultivation of tobacco and Probosa.* 
In the vallies however surrounding this place there seemed to be a good 
deal of cultivation, of what nature distance prevented me from ascer- 

25th. Left for Sasee. We commenced by descending gradually 
until we had passed through a forest of oaks, resembling much our well 
known English oak; then the descent became steep, and continued 
so for sometime; we then commenced winding round spurs cloth- 
ed with humid and sub-tropical vegetation; continuing at the 
same elevation we subsequently came on dry open ridges, covered 
with rhododendrons. The descent recommenced on our reaching a 
small temple, about which the long leaved fir was plentiful, and 
continued without interruption until we reached a small torrent. 
Crossing this, we again ascended slightly to descend to the Dimree 
river, one of considerable size, but fordable. The ascent recom- 
menced immediately, and continued uninterruptedly at first through 
tropical vegetation, then through open rhododendron and fir woods, 
until we came close upon Sasee, to which place we descended very 
slightly. This march occupied us the whole day. After leaving the 
neighbourhood of Khegumpa we saw no signs of cultivation ; the 
country, except in some places, was arid ; coarse grasses, long leaved 
firs, and rhododendrons forming the predominating vegetation. We 
halted at Sasee, which is a ruined village, until the 28th. The little 
cultivation that exists about it is of barley, buckwheat, and hemp. 

28th. We commenced our march by descending steeply and unin- 
terruptedly to the bed of the Geeri, a small torrent, along which we 
found the vegetation to be tropical ; ascending thence about 500 feet, 
we descended again to the torrent, up the bed of which we proceeded 
for perhaps a mile ; the ascent then again commenced, and continued 
until we reached Bulphai. The path was generally narrow, running 
over the flank of a mountain whose surface was much decomposed ; 
it was of such a nature that a slip of any sort would in many places 
have precipitated one several hundred feet. The face of the country 
was very barren, the trees consisting chiefly of firs and rhododen- 
drons, both generally in a stunted state. We reached Bulphai late in 
the evening ; and the latter part of the march was very uncomfortable 
owing to the cutting severity of the wind. The vegetation was not 
interesting until we came on a level with Bulphai, when we came on 
oaks and some other very northern plants. We were well accommodated 
in this village, which is a very small one, situated in a somewhat 

* Ekusine coracana. 

214 Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [March, 

sheltered place, and elevated to 6800 feet above the sea. The sur- 
rounding mountains are very barren on their southern faces, while on 
the northern, or sheltered side, very fine oak woods occur. The houses 
were of a better order than those at Sasee, and altogether superior to 
those of Khegumpa. They are covered in with split bamboos, which 
are secured by rattans, a precaution rendered necessary by the great 
violence of the winds, which at this season blow from the south or 
south-east. Bulphai is a bitterly cold place in the winter, and there 
is scarcely any mode of escaping from its searching winds. The vege- 
tation is altogether northern, the woods consisting principally of a 
picturesque oak, scarcely ever found under an elevation of 6000 feet. 
There is one small patch of cultivation, thinly occupied by abortive 
turnips or radishes, and miserable barley. It was at this place that 
we first heard the very peculiar crow of true Bootan cocks, most of 
which are afflicted with enormous corns. 

On the 31st we resumed our journey, ascending at first a ridge 
to the N. E. of Bulphai, until we reached a pagoda, the elevation 
of which proved to be nearly 8000 feet ; and still above this rose to 
the height of about 10,000 feet a bold rounded summit, covered with 
brown and low grass. Skirting this at about the same level as the 
pagoda, we came on open downs, on which small dells, tenanted 
by well defined oak woods were scattered. After crossing these downs, 
which were of inconsiderable extent, we commenced to descend, and 
continued doing so until we came to Roongdoong. About a third of 
the way down we passed a village containing about twenty houses, 
with the usual appendage of Sam Gooroo's residence ; and still lower 
we came upon a picturesque temple, over which a beautiful weeping 
cypress hung its branches. We likewise passed below this a large 
temple raised on a square terraced basement. From this the descent 
is very steep, until a small stream is reached, from which we ascended 
very slightly to the castle of Roongdoong, in the loftiest part of which we 
took up our quarters. From the time that we descended after crossing 
the downs, the country had rather an improved aspect, some cul- 
tivation being visible here and there. We met a good many Kampas, 
pilgrims, and one chowry tailed cow, laden with rock salt, which 
appears to be the most frequent burden. 

There was more cultivation about Roongdoong than any other place 
we had yet seen, although even here it was scanty enough. It would 
appear that they grow rice in the summer, and barley or wheat during 
the winter ; and this would seem to be the case in all those places of 
sufficient altitude where the fields were terraced. The elevation of 
the place is 5175 feet, yet a few orange trees appeared to flourish ; 

1839.] Capt. P ember ton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 215 

this was the highest elevation at which we saw these trees living. 
There is a species of Atripleig, the Mooreesa of the Assamese, likewise 
cultivated about Roongdoong : the seeds are eaten as well as the 
leaves, which form a sort of turkaree. The ingenuity of the Booteas 
was well shewn here by the novel expedient of placing stones under 
the ponies' feet to enable them to get at the contents of the mangers ! 
The ponies appeared tolerably well fed, at least I saw them enjoy one 
good meal, consisting of wild tares and the heads of Indian corn, 
which had been previously soaked ; besides these luxuries, they were 
supplied with a slab of rock as a rolling stone or scratch-back. Our 
host, the Dhoompa, who is appointed by the Deb himself, was an im- 
pudent drunken fellow, and presumed amazingly on*his low rank. 
He was one of the most disagreeable and saucy persons we met with 
in Bootan. 

Feb. 1st. Our march commenced by descending, gradually at 
first and then very rapidly, to the Dumree Nuddee ; crossing this, 
which is of small size, at the junction of another torrent, we wound 
along the face of the mountain forming the right wall of the ravine, 
ascending very gradually at the same time. We continued thus 
until we came on the ravine of the Monass, which we followed 
upwards, the path running about 1000 feet above its bed for about 
two miles, when we reached Benka. We passed two or three small 
villages on the right side of the Dumree, and a few others were 
seen on its left. The country throughout was of a most barren ap- 
pearance, the vegetation consisting of coarse grasses, stunted shrubs, 
and an occasional long leaved pine. Benka, or as it is better known 
Tassgong, is a small place situated on a precipitous spur, 1200 feet 
below which, on one side, the Monass roars along, and on the other 
a much smaller torrent. From either side of the village one might 
leap into eternity : it is elevated 3100 feet above the sea. 

We were lodged in a summer house of the Soobah, about half 
a mile up the torrent, and in which, as it was an open house, 
and as they kept the best room locked up on the score of its being 
sacred, we were much incommoded by the furious gusts of wind 
sweeping as usual up the ravine. 

The place itself is the Gibraltar of Bootan, consisting of a large 
square residence for the Soobah, decorated in the usual manner, 
of a few poor houses much crowded together, and the defences. 
These consist of round towers of some height, and a wall which con- 
nects the village with the tower ; and on the opposite side of the 
torrent there are other defences of towers and outhouses. All seemed 
to be in a somewhat ruinous state. 

f f 

216 Capt. Pembertoris Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [March, 

A few days after our arrival we had an interview with the Soobah, 
on the open spot in front of our residence. On this he had caused to 
be pitched a small silken pavilion, about half the size of a sipahis' paul. 
He came in all possible state, with about thirty armed followers, pre- 
ceded by his state band, which consisted of a shrill clarionet and a 
guitar, (guiltless of sound) a gong and a bell, ponies, a Tartar* dog, 
gentlemen of the household, priests, all assisted in forming a long string 
which advanced in single file. 

He was polite and obliging, and maintained his rank better than 
any other of the Soobahs we saw. After the interview, at the end of 
which presents of decayed plantains, papers of salt, scarfs, and strips 
of coarse blaifket were returned, we were treated with music and 
dancing women, who only differed from their compeers of India in 
being elderly, ugly, very dirty, and poorly dressed. The spectators 
were then seated on the ground and regaled with rice and chong. 

On his departure the noise far exceeded that attending on his 
advent. Shrieks and outcries rent the air, the musketoons made 
fearful report, and, in fact, every one of the followers, of sufficiently 
low rank, made as much noise as he could. The most curious parts 
of the ceremony were, — the manner in which they shuffled the Soobah 
off and on his pony ; the mode in which the ponies' tails were tied up ; 
and the petition of the head of the priests for at least one rupee. 

It was here that we first heard of the deposition of the old Deb, 
and the consequent disturbances. 

Feb. bth. Punctually on the day appointed by the Soobah 
did we leave this place, and descended by a precipitous path to the 
Monass, which we crossed by a suspension bridge, the best and largest, 
I suspect, in Bootan. The bed of this river, which is of large size 
(the banks which are mostly precipitous being sixty or seventy yards 
asunder) and of great violence is 1300 feet below Benka. We then 
commenced ascending very gradually, following up the north side of 
the ravine, until we reached Nulka: the march was a very short 
one. The country was perhaps still more barren than any we had 
hitherto seen, scarcely any vegetation but coarse grasses occurring. 
Near Nulka the long leaved pine recommenced. We passed two 
miserable villages scarcely exceeded by Nulka, in which we took up 
our abode. No cultivation was to be seen, with the exception of a 
small field of rice below Nulka. 

Feb. 0th. We descended to the Monass, above which Nulka is situ- 
ated 6 or 700 feet, and continued along its right bank for a consider- 
able time, passing here and there some very romantic spots, and one or 
two very precipitous places. On reaching a large torrent, the Koollong, 

1839.] Capt. Pembertoris Mission to Bootan, 1837-33. 217 

we left the Monass, and ascended the former for a short distance, 
when we crossed it by a wooden bridge. The remainder of the march 
consisted of an uninterrupted ascent up a most barren mountain, 
until we reached Kumna, a small and half-ruined village, 4300 feet 
above the sea. 

Little of interest occurred : we passed a small village consisting of 
two or three houses and a religious building, and two decent patches 
of rice cultivation. The vegetation throughout was almost tropical, 
with the exception of the long leaved fir, which descends frequently 
as low as 1800 or 2000 feet. I observed two wretched bits of cotton 
cultivation along the Monass, and some of an edible Labiata, one 
of the numerous makeshifts ordinarily met with among Hill people. 

Feb. *Jth. Left for Phullung. We ascended at first a few hundred 
feet, and then continued winding along at a great height above the 
Koollong torrent, whose course we followed, ascending gradually 
at the same time, until we reached our halting place. As high as 5000 
feet the Kumna mountain retained its very barren appearance ; at 
that elevation stunted oaks and rhododendrons commenced, and at 
5300 feet the country was well covered with these trees, and the 
vegetation became entirely northern. 

Throughout the march many detached houses were visible on the 
opposite bank of the Koollong, and there appeared to be about them a 
good deal of terrace cultivation. On the left side of the torrent two 
villages were seen, both as usual in a ruinous state. 

8th, and 9t/i. — We were detained partly by snow, partly by the 
non-arrival of our baggage. On the 9th I ascended to a wood of 
Pinus excelsa, the first one I had noticed, and which occurred about 
1000 feet above Phullung. The whole country at similar elevations 
was covered with snow, particularly the downs which we passed after 
leaving Bulphei. Tassgong was distinctly visible. The woods were 
otherwise composed of oaks and rhododendrons. At Phullung they 
were endeavouring to keep alive the wild indigo of Assam ; a species of 
Ruellia, but its appearance shewed that it was unsuited to the climate. 

Feb. 10th. To Tassangsee. We continued through a similar coun- 
try, and at a like elevation, with the exception of a trifling de- 
scent to a small nullah, and an inconsiderable one to the Koollong, 
on the right bank of which, and about 500 feet above its bed, 
Tassangsee is situated. We crossed this torrent, which even here is of 
considerable size and not fordable, by means of an ordinary wooden 
bridge, and then ascended to the village. This is constituted almost 
entirely by the Soobah's house, which is a large quadrangular build- 
ing ; on the same side, but several hundred feet above the house, 

218 C apt. Vembertoiis Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [March, 

there is a large tower ; also a small one on the same level, and some re- 
ligious edifices. We were lodged over the stable. 

The country about Tassangsee is picturesque, with large woods 
of Finns excelsa, which here has much the habit of a larch, a few vil- 
lages are visible on the same side of the Koollong, and a little cul- 
tivation. The Soobah was absent at Tongsa, to which place he 
had been summoned owing to the disturbances, so that we were 
relieved from undergoing the usual importunities and disagremens 
between his followers and ours. The place is said to be famous for its 
copper manufactures, such for instance as copper cauldrons of large 
dimensions ; but I saw nothing indicating the existence of manufac- 
turers, unless it were a small village below the castle, and on the same 
side of the Koollong, which looked for all the world like the habitation 
of charcoal burners. A little further up this stream a few small flour 
mills occur. 

Snow was visible on the heights around, and especially on a lofty 
ridge to the north. We found Tassangsee to be very cold owing to 
the violent south or south-east winds; the thermometer however 
did not fall below 34°. Its elevation is 5270 feet, the vegetation 
entirely northern, consisting of primroses, violets, willows, oaks, rhodo- 
dendrons, and pines ; very fine specimens of weeping cypress occur near 
this place. 

Feb. Wth. Resumed our journey, interrupted as usual by the non- 
arrival of our baggage, and scarcity of coolies— and proceeded to 
Sanah. We descended at first to the torrent, which bounds one side of 
the spur on which the castle is built, and which here falls into the 
Koollong; the march subsequently became a gradual and continued 
ascent, chiefly along its bed. We crossed two small torrents by means 
of rude flat wooden bridges, and passed two or three deserted villages. 
Snow became plentiful as we approached Sanah. This we found 
to be a ruined village, only containing one habitable house. It is 
situated on an open sward, surrounded with rich woods of oaks 
and rhododendrons, yews, bamboos, &c. Its elevation is very nearly 
8000 feet. 

Feb. 1 5th. We started at the break of day, as we had been told 
that the march was a long and difficult one. We proceeded at first 
over undulating ground, either with swardy spots, or through romantic 
Janes ; we then ascended an open grassy knoll, after passing which 
we came on rather deep snow. The ascent continued steep and 
uninterrupted until we reached the summit of a ridge 11,000 feet 
high. Although we had been told that each ascent was the last, 
we found that another ridge was still before us, still steeper than the 

1839.] Capt. Pembertoiis Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 219 

preceding one, and it was late in the day before we reached its summit, 
which was found to be nearly 12,500 feet. Above 9500 feet, the height 
of the summit of the grassy knoll before alluded to, the snow was deep ; 
above 10,000 feet all the trees were covered with hoar-frost, and icicles 
were by no means uncommon. The appearance of the black pines, 
which we always met with at great elevations, was rendered very 
striking by the hoar-frost. Every thing looked desolate, scarce a 
flower was to be seen, and the occasional fall of hail and sleet added 
to the universal gloom. 

The descent from the ridge was for the first 1500 feet, or thereabout, 
most steep, chiefly down zigzag paths, that had been built up the faces 
of precipices ; and the ground was so slippery, the surface snow being 
frozen into- ice, that falls were very frequent, but happily not attended 
with injury. It then became less steep, the path running along swardy 
ridges, or through woods. In the evening I came on the coolies, who 
had halted at a place evidently often used for that purpose, and who 
positively refused to proceed a single step further. But as Captain 
Pemberton and Lieut. Blake had proceeded on, I determined on follow- 
ing them, hoping that my departure would stimulate the coolies to 
further exertions. After passing over about a mile of open swardy 
ground I found myself benighted on the borders of a wood, into which 
I plunged in the hopes of meeting my companions ; after proceeding for 
about half an hour slipping, sliding, and falling in all imaginable 
directions, and obtaining no answers to my repeated halloos; after 
having been plainly informed that I was a blockhead by a hurkarah, 
who as long as it was light professed 'to follow me to the death — 
" Master go on, and I will follow thee to the last gasp with love and 
loyalty" — I thought it best to attempt returning, and after con- 
siderable difficulty succeeded in reaching the coolies at 8J p. m. 
when I spread my bedding under a tree, too glad to find one source of 

I resumed the march early next morning, and overtook my com- 
panions about a mile beyond the furthest point I had reached ; and as 
I expected, found that they had passed the night in great discomfort. 
We soon found how impossible it would have been for the coolies 
to have proceeded at night, as the ground was so excessively slippery 
from the half melted snow, and from its clayey nature, that it was as 
much as they could do to keep their legs in open day-light. 

We continued descending uninterruptedly, and almost entirely 
through the same wood, until we reached Singe at 9J a. m. The total 
distance of the march was fifteen miles — the greatest amount of 
ascent was about 4500 feet, of descent 6100 feet. We remained at 

220 Copt. Tembertoris Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [March, 

Singe up to the 18th, at which time some coolies still remained behind, 
Tli is village, which is 0330 feet above the sea, is of moderate size, 
containing about twelve houses; in the best of these we were lodged, 
and it really was a good house, and the best by far we were ac- 
commodated with while in Bootan. 

On the night of the 17th snow fell all around, though not within 
1000 feet of Singe. The comparative mildness of the climate here 
was otherwise indicated by the abundance of rice cultivation about and 
below it. It stands on the border of the wooded and grassy tracts 
so well marked in the interior of Bootan, at least in this direction, and 
about midway on the left side of a very deep ravine, drained by the 
river Koosee. On both sides of this, villages were plentiful ; on the 
opposite or western side alone I counted about twenty; about all there 
is much cultivation of rice and wheat ; the surface of the earth 
where untilled, being covered with grassy vegetation and low shrubs. 

Feb. I8//5. We commenced a steep descent, and continued it until 
we came in sight of the river Koosee, which is not visible from Singe. 
We then turned to the north, following the course of the river upwards, 
the path running about 800 feet above its bed. Thence, after 
descending another ravine, drained by a tributary to the Koosee, we 
again ascended slightly, to re-descend to the Koosee, up the bed of 
which we then kept until we came to the Khoomar, a considerable 
torrent, which we crossed about 100 yards from its mouth by a 
wooden bridge ; within a quarter of a mile of this we crossed the Koosee 
itself by a similar bridge, and then ascended gradually along its right 
bank until we reached Singlang, which place became visible after pass- 
ing the Khoomar. 

After arriving at the Koosee the country became barren, resem- 
bling much that about Tassgong ; and the only cultivation we passed 
in this portion of the march was some rice along the bed of that river. 

The usual delays took place at Singlang, and as it was the resi- 
dence of a Soobah, we suffered the usual inconveniences. We were 
miserably lodged in a small open summer house, up a small ravine, 
and at a short distance from the castle, which is a large and rather 
irregular building. 

The village itself is a poor one, most of the inhabitants being quar- 
tered in the castle. We had an interview with the Soobah in an 
open place close to the village : it was conducted with much less 
state than that at Tassgong. We found the Soobah to be very young, 
in fact almost a boy ; he behaved civilly, and without any pretension. 
None of his armed men were present, and the whole number of 
Booteas collected to see the show could not have exceeded 100. We 

1839.] Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 221 

sat in the open air, while the Soobah was sheltered by a paltry silken 
canopy. Nachnees more than ordinarily hideous were in attendance. 
There is but little cultivation about this place, which is 4520 feet 
above the sea, and the surrounding mountains are very barren. 
About the village I noticed a few stunted sugar canes, some peach 
and orange trees, the castor-oil plant, and a betel vine or two. The 
only fine trees near the place were weeping cypresses ; the simul also 

Feb. 23rd. After the usual annoyances about coolies and ponies, we 
left Singlang without regret, for it was a most uninteresting place. We 
commenced by an ascent of about 1000 feet, and then continued 
following the course of the Koosee downwards. We continued re- 
tracing our steps until we reached Tumashoo, to which place we 
scarcely descended, and on arriving found ourselves opposite Singe, 
and not more, as the crow flies, than three miles from it. We were 
told subsequently that there was a direct road from Singe to this, 
which is about the centre of the populous parts of the country I have 
mentioned as being visible from Singe ; so that it was quite plain 
that we had been taken so much out of our way in order to gratify 
the Soobah by enabling him to return us some decayed plantains, 
balls of ghee, and dirty salt. The road throughout was good, and 
evidently well frequented. At an elevation of about GOOD feet we 
came on open woods of somewhat stunted oaks and rhododendrons ; 
the only well wooded parts we met with being such ravines as 
afforded exit to water courses. We passed several villages in the 
latter part of the march, some containing 20 and 30 houses, and met 
with a good deal of cultivation as we traversed that tract, the im- 
proved appearance of which struck us so much from Singe. 

Tumashoo is an ordinary sized village, about 5000 feet in elevation. 
We were lodged in the Dhoompa's house. I observed that the cattle 
here, which were Mithans, were kept in farm yards, better supplied 
with straw than the poor beasts themselves. A few sheep were like- 
wise seen. 

Feb. 24th. Left for Oonjar, ascending at first over sward or through 
a fir wood for about 800 feet, when we crossed a ridge, and thence 
descended until we came to a small torrent which we crossed ; 
thence we ascended gradually, until we surmounted a ridge 7300 
feet high ; descending thence very gradually until we came over 
Oonjar, to which place we descended by a steep by-path for a few 
hundred feet. The road was generally good, winding along at a 
considerable height above the Koosee, until we finally left it on its 
turning to the south. Singe was in sight nearly the whole day. The 

-222 Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [March, 

features of the country were precisely the same. At the elevation of 
7300 feet the woods became finer, consisting of oaks and rhododen- 
drons, rendered more picturesque from being covered with mosses, 
and a grey pendulous lichen, a sure indication of considerable eleva- 
tion. Various temples and monumental walls were passed, and 
several average sized villages seen in various directions. A fine field 
of peas in full blossom was noticed at 5500 feet, but otherwise little 
cultivation occurred. Oonjar is a small village at an elevation of 
6370 feet. 

Feb. 25th. Leaving this place, we continued winding along nearly at 
the same altitude until we descended to the river Oonjar, which drains 
the ravine, on the right flank of which the village is situated. This 
river, which is of moderate size, is crossed twice within 200 yards. 
From the second bridge one of the greatest ascents we had yet en- 
countered commenced ; it was excessively steep at first, but subsequent- 
ly became more gradual. It only terminated with our arrival at the 
halting place, which we denominated " St. Gothard," but which is 
known by the name Peemee. Its elevation is about 9700 feet, and 
we had ascended from the bridge as much as 4350 feet. Snow 
commenced at 7500 feet, and became heavy at 8500 feet ; Peemee 
was half buried in it, and ornamented with large icicles : it consists of 
one miserable hut. This hut would not have withstood the attacks of 
another such party as ours, for the men made use of its bamboos for 
firewood, and the horses and mules eat very large portions of it. Our 
people were put considerably out from not considering it proper to use 
snow water, the only fluid to be procured, as there is no spring near. 

Feb. 26th. We continued the ascent through heavy snow. For the 
first 1000 feet it was easy enough, but after that increased much in dif- 
ficulty. Great part of the path was built up faces of sheer precipices. 
About noon we passed through the pass of Rodoola, which consists of 
a gap between two rocks, barely wide enough to admit a loaded pony. 
One of the rocks bore the usual slab with the mystic sentence " Ooni 
mainee pa??iee 00m." There is nothing striking in the place, which 
besides is not the highest part of the mountain traversed. The eleva- 
tion was found to be 12,300 feet. 

The remainder of the ascent was very gradual, but continued for 
about 1 \ miles ; and I consider the actual pass from which we com- 
menced descending to be at least 12,600 feet. The descent was at first 
very rapid, passing down the bold face of the mountain, which was 
covered entirely with stout shrubby rhododendrons. We then descend- 
ed gradually through a fine wood of the black fir. On recommen- 
cing the steep descent we passed over swardy patches surrounded 

1839.] Capt. Pembertoris Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 223 

by fir woods, and we continued through similar tracts until within 
1000 feet of our halting place, to which we descended over bare 

The march, which was one of thirteen miles, lasted nine hours ; 
the greatest ascent was nearly 4000 feet, the greatest descent nearly 
5000 feet. It was with great difficulty that many of our followers 
succeeded in effecting it : with the usual apathy of natives, they 
wanted to remain in a ruined log hut, at an elevation of 12,500 feet, 
without food, instead of pushing on. Capt. Pemberton very properly eject- 
ed them all, and when once they had passed the snow, they regained a 
good deal of their miserable spirit. The road throughout the ascent 
was buried in snow, the depth of which alone enabled us to cross one 
very bad place where the constructed road appeared to have given 
way, and at which most of our ponies had narrow escapes. On the 
descent the snow became scanty at 9500 feet, and at 9000 feet dis- 
appeared almost entirely, lingering only in those places which through- 
out the day remain obscured in shade. 

From the summit of Rodoola a brief gleam of sunshine gave us a 
bird's-eye view of equally lofty ridges running in every direction, all 
covered with heavy snow. 

The vegetation of the ascent was very varied, the woods consisting 
of oaks, rhododendrons, and bamboos, up to nearly 11,000 feet. 
Beyond this the chief tree was the black fir; junipers, alpine poly- 
gonums, a species of rhubarb, and many other alpine forms presented 
themselves in the shape of the withered remains of the previous season 
of active vegetation. That on the descent was less varied, the trees 
being nearly limited to three species of pines, of which the black fir 
scarcely descended below 11,600 feet, when it was succeeded by a more 
elegant larchlike species, which I believe is Pinus Smithiana ; this 
again ceased toward an altitude of 9500 feet, when its place was occu- 
pied by Pinus excelsa, now a familiar form. 

We found Bhoomlungtung to occupy a portion of rather a fine val- 
ley. The village is of moderate size, but of immoderate filth, only 
exceeded in this respect by its tenants, to whom no other Booteas could 
come near in this, as it would seem, necessary qualification of an in- 
habitant of a cold, bleak, mountainous country ; it is situated on the 
left bank of a good sized stream. We were lodged in the chief house, 
but were annoyed beyond measure by the smoke arising from a con- 
tiguous cook room, in which operations were going on day and night. 
The valley is not broad, but is two or three miles in length : it is 
surrounded on all sides, but especially to the south and east by lofty 
mountains. The elevation of Bhoomlungtung is nearly 870*0 feet, 

22 1 Capt. Pembertoris Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [March, 

and we considered it to be the most desirable spot we had yet met 

The valley is for the most part occupied by wheat fields, but the 
prospect of a crop appeared to me very faint. Two or three villages 
occur close to Bhoomlungtung. The tillage was better than any 
we had seen, the fields being kept clean, and actually treated with 
manure, albeit not of the best quality; in a few instances they were 
surrounded with stone walls, as were the court yards of all the houses, 
but more commonly the inroads of cattle were considered sufficiently 
prevented by strewing thorny branches here and there. The houses 
were of ordinary structure, but unspeakably filthy. 

With the exception of a sombre looking oak near Bhoomlungtung, 
and some weeping willows, the arboreous vegetation consists entirely 
of firs. The shrubby vegetation is northern, and so is the herba- 
ceous, but the season for this had not yet arrived. It was here that I 
first met with the plant called after Mr. James Prinsep ; the compli- 
ment is not, in Bootan at least, enhanced by any utility possessed by 
the shrub, which is otherwise a thorny, dangerous looking species. 
Here too we first saw English looking magpies, larks, and red- 
legged crows. 

March 1st. Proceeded to Byagur or Juggur. We were told that 
the march was a short one, and that we should continue throughout 
down the bed of the Tung-Tchien, the river of Bhoomlungtung; 
we found, however, that we soon had to leave this, and commence 
ascending. After a second descent to a small nullah, we encountered 
a most tedious ascent, which continued until we surmounted a ridge 
overlooking Byagur, to which place we descended very rapidly. The 
height of this ridge was 9950 feet, yet we did not meet with a vestige 
of snow. The distance was fourteen miles. We passed two or three 
small villages, but saw scarcely any vegetation after leaving the valley. 
The vegetation continued the same, the road traversing either sward or 
fir woods, consisting entirely of Pinus excelsa. 

The valley in which Byagur is situated is still larger than that of 
Bhoomlungtung: it is drained by a large river which is crossed by a 
somewhat dilapidated wooden bridge; the elevation is about 8150 feet. 
The village so called is a moderately sized one ; but there are several 
others in the valley, which is one of the very few decently inhabited 
places we met with. The inhabitants are much cleaner than those 
of Bhoomlungtung. The Soobah was absent at Tongsa; his castle, 
which is a very large, irregular, straggling building, is situated on a 
hill 500 feet above the plain, some of its defences, or outworks, 
reaching nearly to the level of the valley. During the hot weather 

1839.] Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 225 

it is occupied by Tongsa Pillo, on which occasion the Soobah retires 
to Bhoomlungtung. 

The cultivation is similar to that of the other valley, but the crops 
looked very unpromising. The soil is by no means rich, and the 
wind excessively bleak ; wheat or barley are the only grains cultivated. 
The mountains which hem in this valley are not very lofty ; to the 
north, in the back ground, perpetual snow was visible. To our west 
was the ridge which we were told we should have to cross, and which 
in its higher parts could not be less than 12,000 feet. 

March 4th. We commenced ascending the above ridge almost im- 
mediately on starting ; surmounting this, which is of an elevation at 
the part we crossed of 11,035 feet, we continued for sometime at the 
same level, through fine open woods of Pinus Smithiana : having des- 
cended rapidly afterwards to a small nullah, 9642 feet in elevation, we 
then reascended slightly to descend into the Jaisa valley. On the 
east side of the ridge, i. e. that which overlooks Byagur, we soon 
came on snow, but none was seen on its western face, notwith- 
standing the great elevation. The country was very beautiful, 
particularly in the higher elevations. I may here advert to the bad 
taste exhibited in naming such objects after persons, with whom they 
have no association whatever. As it is not possible for all travellers 
to be consecrated by genera, although this practice is daily becoming 
more common, we should connect their names with such trees as are 
familiar to every European. As we have a Pinus Gerardiana and 
Webbiana, so we ought to have had Pinus Herbertiana and Moorcrof- 
tiana, &c. By so doing, on meeting with fir trees among the snow-clad 
Himalayas, we should not only have beautiful objects before us, but 
beautiful and exciting associations of able and enduring travellers. Of 
Capt. Herbert, the most accomplished historian of these magnificent 
mountains, there is nothing living to give him a " local habitation and 
a name." It will be a duty to me to remedy this neglect ; and if I 
have not a sufficiently fine fir tree hitherto undescribed in the Bootan 
collection, I shall change the name of the very finest hitherto found, 
and dignify it by the name Herbertiana. The prevailing tree was the 
Smithian pine. We saw scarcely any villages, and but very little cul- 
tivation. Jaisa is a good sized village; it was comparatively clean, and 
the houses were, I think, better than most we had hitherto seen. We 
were lodged in a sort of castle, consisting of a large building, with a 
spacious flagged court yard, surrounded by rows of offices. The part 
we occupied fronted the entrance, and its superior pretensions were 
attested by its having an upper story. 

226 Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [March. 

There is a good deal of wheat cultivation around the village, which 
is not the only occupant of the valley : this is the highest we had 
yet seen, and is perhaps one of the highest inhabited vallies known, as 
it is 9410 feet above the sea ; it is drained by a small stream, and is of 
less extent than either that of Byagur or Bhoomlungtung. The 
surrounding hills are covered with open fir woods, and are of no con- 
siderable height. Larks, magpies, and red-legged crows, continued 
plentiful, but on leaving this valley we lost them. 

March 5th. We proceeded up the valley, keeping along the banks of 
the stream for sometime ; we then commenced ascending a ridge, the top 
of which we reached about noon ; its elevation was 10,930 feet. The 
descent from this was for about 2500 feet very steep and uninterrupted, 
until we reached a small torrent at an elevation of 8473 feet ; from 
this we ascended slightly through thick woods of oak, &c. until we came 
on open grassy tracts, through which we now gradually descended at 
a great height above the stream, which we had left a short time 
before. We continued descending rather more rapidly until we 
came to a point almost immediately above Tongsa, by about 1000 
feet; from this the descent was excessively steep. The distance was 
13 miles. On the ascent snow was common from a height of 9000 feet 
upwards. The vegetation oil this, or the eastern side, was in some 
places similar to that above Byagur. Beautiful fir woods formed 
the chief vegetation, until we came close to the summit, when it 
changed completely. Rhododendrons, Bogh puttah, and a species of 
birch, and bamboos, were common, mixed with a few black pines. 
The woods through which we descended, were in the higher eleva- 
tions almost entirely of rhododendrons; and lower down chiefly of 
various species of oak and maple — the former being dry and very 
open, the latter humid and choked up with underwood. After coming 
on the open grassy country we did not revert to well wooded tracts. 

No villages occurred, nor did we see any signs of cultivation after 
leaving the valley of Jaisa until we came near Tongsa, above which 
barley fields were not uncommon. Tongsa, although the second, or at 
any rate the third place in Bootan, is as miserable a place as any 
body would wish to see. It is wretchedly situated in a very narrow 
ravine, drained by a petty stream, on the tongue of land formed by 
its entrance into the large torrent Mateesum, which flows 1200 feet 
below where the castle stands. The village is 6250 feet in altitude : it 
consists of a few miserable houses, one of the worst of which was 
considerately lent to us. The castle is a large and rather imposing 
building, sufficiently straggling to be relieved from heaviness of ap- 
pearance : it is so overlooked, and indeed almost overhung by some 


1839.] Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 227 

of the nearest mountains, that it might be knocked down by rolling 
rocks upon it. It is defended by an outwork about 400 feet above. 

The surrounding country is uninteresting, the vegetation consisting 
of a few low shrubs and some grasses : of the former the most common 
are a species of barberry, and a hitherto undescribed genus of llama- 
melidce. No woods can be reached without ascending 12 or 1500 feet. 
Barley was the chief cultivation we saw, but the crops alternated 
with rice, which is here cultivated, as high as 6800 feet. In the 
gardens attached to the cottages, or rather huts, we observed the 
almond and pear in full blossom : the only other trees were two or 
three weeping cypresses and willows, and a solitary poplar. 

Our reception was by no means agreeable. I was roared to most 
insolently to dismount while descending to the castle; our followers 
were constantly annoyed by the great man's retainers ; and, in fact, 
we got no peace until we had an interview with the Pillo on the 15th. 
Before the arrival of this personage, who had just succeeded to office, 
great efforts were made to bring about an interview with the ex-Pillo, 
and a stoppage of supplies was actually threatened in case of refusal. 
The firmness of Capt. Pemberton was however proof against all this. 

It had been previously arranged that the former Pillo, the uncle of 
the present one, should be admitted at this interview on terms of 
equality ; this kindness on the part of the nephew being prompted 
probably by the hopes of securing his uncle's presents afterwards. We 
were received with a good deal of state, but the apartment in which 
the meeting took place was by no means imposing, or even well orna- 
mented. The attendants were very numerous, and mostly well- 
dressed, but the effect of this was lessened by the admission of an in- 
discriminate mob. We were not admitted however into the presence 
without undergoing the ordeals which many orientals impose on those 
who wish for access to them. 

We were most struck with the difference in appearance between the 
old and new Pillos : the former was certainly the most aristocratic 
personage we saw in Bootan ; the latter, a mean looking, bull-necked 
individual. A novel part of the ceremony consisted in the stirring 
up of a large can of tea, and the general recital of prayers over it, 
after which a ladleful was handed to the Pillos, who dipped their fore- 
finger in it, and so tasted it. 

The meeting passed off well ; and afterwards several less cere- 
monious and more friendly meetings took place. We took leave 
on the 22nd. This interview was chiefly occupied in considering 
the list of presents, which the Pillo requested the British Government 
would do themselves the favour of sending him. He begged most 

228 Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [March, 

unconscionably, and I thought that the list would never come to an 
end ; and he was obliging enough to say, that any thing he might 
think of subsequently would be announced in writing. He was very 
facetious, and evidently rejoiced at the idea of securing so many good 
things at such trifling expense as he had incurred in merely asking 
for them. Nothing could well exceed the discomfort we had to 
undergo during our tedious stay at this place. Our difficulties were 
increased subsequently to our arrival by the occurrence of unsettled 
weather, during which we had ample proofs that Bootan houses are 
not always water-proof; we were besides incessantly annoyed with 
a profusion of rats, bugs, and fleas; nor was there a single thing to 
counterbalance all these inconveniences, and we consequently left the 
place without the shadow of a feeling of regret. 

On the 23rd of March we resumed our journey ; and having 
traversed the court yard of the castle, we struck down at once to the 
river Mateesum by a very steep path. Having crossed this by a 
bridge, we gradually ascended, winding round the various ridges on 
the right flank of the ravine of this river. We left it when it turned 
to the southward, in which direction Bagoa-Dooar was visible, and 
continued ascending gradually until we reached Taseeling, seven 
miles from Tongsa, and 7230 feet above the sea. 

Taseeling consists of a large house, principally used as a halting- 
place for chiefs going to and from Punukka and Tongsa. The sur- 
rounding mountains are rather bare, as indeed is the country between 
it and Tongsa. There is some cultivation to be seen around it, and 
several villages. As we approached Taseeling open oak and rhodo- 
dendron woods recurred. The vegetation near the Mateesum was sub- 
tropical ; the road was good, and in one place was built in zigzag up 
the face of a cliff. 

March 24th. To Tchinjipjee. We commenced by ascending until 
we had surmounted a ridge about 800 feet above Taseeling ; during the 
remainder of the march we traversed undulating ground at nearly 
tin 1 same altitude, at first through an open country, afterward through 
beautiful oak and magnolia woods, until we came on the torrent 
above which we had been ascending since leaving the Mateesum ; a 
little farther on we came on the finest temple we had seen, and 
situated in a most romantic spot. It stood on a fine patch of sward, 
in a gorge of the ravine, the sides of which were covered with beauti- 
ful cedar-looking pines ; the back ground was formed by lofty moun- 
tains covered with heavy snow. 

Following the river upwards for about a mile and a half, we reach- 
ed Tchinjipjee, which is situated on the right bank of the torrent. 

1839.] Capt. Pembertoris Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 229 

The march was throughout beautiful, particularly through the. forest, 
which abounded in picturesque glades. No villages or cultivation 
were seen. 

Tchinjipjee is perhaps the prettiest place we saw in Bootan j our 
halting place stood on fine sward, well ornamented with (Quercus 
seme carpifolia ?J very picturesque oaks, and two fine specimens of 
weeping cypress. The surrounding hills are low, either almost en- 
tirely bare or clothed with pines. The village is of ordinary size, 
and is the only one visible in any direction; its elevation is 786 
feet. There is some cultivation about it, chiefly of barley, mixed 
with radishes. 

March 27th. We continued following the river upwards, the path 
running generally at a small height above its bed. Having crossed it 
by a rude wooden bridge, we diverged up a tributary stream, until 
we reached a small village ; we thence continued ascending over easy 
grassy slopes, here and there prettily wooded, until we reached the 
base of the chief ascent, which is not steep, but long, the path running 
along the margin of a rhododendron and juniper wood : the height 
of its summit is 10,873 feet. Thence to Rydang was an uninterrup- 
ted and steep descent, the path traversing very beautiful woods of 
rhododendrons, oaks, yews, &c. Snow was still seen lingering in 
sheltered places above 10,000 feet. The march throughout was 
beautiful. In the higher elevations the Bogh Pat was very com- 

Besides the village mentioned, two temporary ones were seen near 
the base of the great ascent, built for the accommodation of the Yaks 
and their herdsmen : of this curious animal two herds were seen at 
some distance. 

Rydang is prettily situated towards the bottom of a steep ravine : 
its elevation is 6963 feet. A few villages occur about it, with some 
barley and wheat cultivation. 

March 28th. We descended directly to the river Gnee, which drains 
the ravine, and continued down it sometime, crossing it once ; then 
diverging up a small nullah we commenced an ascent, which did not 
cease until we had reached an elevation of 8374 feet. Continuing 
for sometime at this elevation we traversed picturesque oak and rho- 
dodendron woods, with occasionally swardy spots ; subsequently des- 
cending for a long time until we reached Santagong. 

Oak and rhododendron woods continued common until we approach- 
ed Santagong, in the direction of which the trees became stunted, 
and the country presented a barren aspect. Several villages were 
however seen in various directions, surrounded with cultivation. 

230 dipt. Pembcrton'8 Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [March, 

Santagong is 6300 feet above the sea ; it is a small village, but the 
houses are better than ordinary. The surrounding country, especially 
to the north, is well cultivated, and the villages numerous. The 
country is bare of trees ; almost the only ones to be seen are some 
long leaved firs, a short distance below Santagong, close to a small 
jheel abounding in water fowl. 

March 29th. From Santagong we proceeded to Phain, descending 
immediately to the stream, which runs nearly 1800 feet below our 
halting place. Crossing this, as well as a small tributary, we encoun- 
tered a steep ascent of 1000 feet. Subsequently we wound along, 
gradually ascending at the same time, until we reached an incon- 
siderable ridge above Phain, to which place we descended slightly. 
The distance was six miles. The country was bare in the extreme, 
and after crossing the stream above mentioned, villages became rather 
scanty. Towards Phain the soil became of a deep red colour. 

This place, which is 5280 feet above the sea, is a small village, con- 
taining six or seven tolerable houses. The country is most uninterest- 
ing and uninviting, scarce a tree is to be seen, the little vegetation that 
does exist consisting of low shrubs. A few villages are scattered about 
it, and there is some rice cultivation. 

We were detained here until the 1st of April, in order that we 
might repose after our fatigues ; but in reality to enable the Punukka 
people to get ready our accommodations. Wandipore, a well known 
castle situated in the Chillong pass, is just visible from Phain, below 
which it appears to be some 1200 feet, and about three miles to the 
south west. Its Zoompoor, one of the leading men in Bootan, made 
some ineffectual attempts to take us to Punukka via his own castle; 
various were the artifices he resorted to for this purpose, but he failed 
in all. Among others, he sent a messenger to inform us that the Deb 
and Dhurma were both there, and very anxious to meet us, and that 
after the meeting they would conduct us to Punukka. 

April 1st. To Punukka. We descended rather gradually towards 
the Patchien, proceeding at first north-west, and then to the north. 
On reaching the stream, which is of considerable size, we followed it 
up, chiefly along its banks, until we arrived at the capital, no view of 
which is obtained until it is approached very closely The valley of 
the Patchien was throughout the march very narrow ; there was a good 
deal of miserable wheat cultivation in it, and some villages, all of 
moderate size. The country continued extremely bare. The distance 
was about eleven miles. Punukka, the second capital in Bootan, the 
summer residence of a long line of unconquered monarchs — Punukka 
to which place we had been so long looking forward with feelings ofde- 

1839.] Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 231 

light, although the experience of Tongsa ought to have taught us 
better, disappointed all of us dreadfully. For in the first place I saw a 
miserable village, promising little comfort as respects accommodation, 
and one glance at the surrounding country satisfied me that little was 
to be done in any branch of natural history. For a narrow, unfruit- 
ful valley, hemmed in by barren hills, on which no arboreous vege- 
tation was to be seen, except at considerable elevation, gave no great 
promise of botanical success. 

On reaching the quarters which had been provided for us, and 
which were situated in front of the palace, we were much struck with 
the want of care and consideration that had been shewn, particularly 
after the very long notice the Booteas had received of our coming, and 
the pressing invitations sent to meet us. 

These quarters had evidently been stables, and consisted of a 
square enclosure surrounded by low mud walls. Above the stalls 
small recesses, scarcely bigger than the boxes which are so errone- 
ously called a man's " long home," had been made for our special 
lodgements ; that of the huzoor, Captain Pemberton, was somewhat 
larger, but still very much confined. Having added to these a roof 
formed of single mats, an oppressive sun, and a profusion of every 
description of vermin, Gapt. Pemberton determined on renting quarters 
in the village, and this, owing to his liberality, was soon accom- 
plished ; and from the two houses we occupied did we alone obtain 
comfort among the numerous annoyances we were doomed to ex- 
perience during our lengthened stay. 

The capital of Bootan is for pre-eminence, miserable. The city itself 
consists of some twelve or fifteen houses, half of which are on the 
left bank of the river, and two-thirds of which are completely ruinous, 
and the best of these ' Capital ' houses were far worse than those at 
Phain or Santagong. &c. Around the city, and within a distance of a 
quarter of a mile, three or four other villages occur, all bearing the 
stamp of poverty, and the marks of oppression. 

The palace is situated oil a flat tongue of land formed by the con- 
fluence of the Matchien and Patchien rivers. To the west it is quite 
close to the west boundary of the valley, the rivers alone intervening. 
It is a very large building, but too uniform and too heavy to be im- 
posing: it is upwards of 200 yards in length, by perhaps 80 in 
breadth. Its regal nature is attested by the central tower, and the 
several coppered roofs of this. 

The only cheering objects visible in this capital, are the glorious 
Himalayas to the north, and a Gylong village 12 or 1500 feet above the 
palace to the west ; elsewhere all is dreary, desolate looking, and hot. 

h h 

232 Capt Pembertoris Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [March, 

During the first few days of our stay, and indeed until our interview 
with the Deb, we were much annoyed by the intruding impertinence 
and blind obstinacy of his followers. They were continually causing 
disputes either with the sentries or our immediate followers, and it 
was only by repeated messages to the palace, stating the probable 
consequence of such a system of annoyance, that Captain Pemberton 
succeeded in obtaining any respite. 

After many delays, we were admitted to the Deb's presence on the 
9th. Leaving our ponies, we crossed the bridge built over the Patchien, 
which was lined with guards, and defended by some large, wretchedly 
constructed wall pieces. We then entered a paved yard, and thence 
ascended by some most inconvenient stairs to the palace, the entrance 
to which was guarded by a few household troops dressed in scarlet 
broad cloth. We then crossed the north quadrangle of the palace, 
which is surrounded with galleries and apartments, and was crowded 
with eager spectators, and ascending some still more inconvenient, or 
even dangerous stairs, reached a gallery, along which we proceeded 
to the Deb's receiving room, which is on the west face of the palace : 
at the door of this the usual delays took place, these people supposing 
that their importance is enhanced by the length of delay they can 
manage to make visitors submit to. 

The Deb, who was an ordinary looking man, in good condition, 
received us graciously, and actually got up and received his Lord- 
ship's letter standing; the usual conversation then took place by means 
of interpreters, and the Deb having received his presents, and presented 
us with usual plantains, ghee, and some walnuts, dismissed us ; and 
this was the first and last time I had the honour of seeing him, as 
I was indisposed at the time of our leaving. To return, the room was a 
good sized one, but rather low ; it was supported by well ornamented 
pillars, hastily hung with scarfs and embroidered silk. The most 
amusing part of the ceremony was that exhibited by the accountant 
general's department, who were employed in counting and arranging 
courie shells— really emblematic of the riches of the kingdom— ap- 
parently with no other aim than to re-count, and re-arrange them, yet 
they were very busily engaged in writing the accounts. A day or two 
after, our interview with the Dhurma took place. He received us in 
an upper room of the quadrangular central tower : while we were in 
his presence we remained standing, in compliment to his religious 
character. The Dhurma Rajah is a boy of eight or ten years old, and 
good looking, particularly when the looks of his father, the Tungso 
Pillo, are taken into consideration. He sat in a small recess, lighted 
chiefly with lamps, and was prompted by a very venerable looking, 

1839.] Capt. Tembertotis Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 233 

grey-headed priest. He had fewer attendants, and his room was less 
richly ornamented than that of the Deb. Around the room sat priests 
busily employed in muttering charmed sentences from handsome gilt 
lettered black books, which reminded me of those used in some parts 
of Burmah. 

Very few of our attendants saw either of the Rajahs, and it was 
expected that no one would presume to enter the Dhurma's presence 
empty handed. To some of the sipahis, who were anxious to see him, 
his confidential advisers said, " Give forty rupees, come into the quad- 
rangle under the Dhurma's window, and then you may see him, or 
you may not see him ; I will not be answerable for any thing, but 
receiving the forty rupees." 

During our protracted stay at this place, nothing particularly 
worthy of notice occurred. Intrigues seemed to be constantly going 
on, and the trial of temper on the part of Captain Pemberton must 
have been very great ; it was however soon evident that no business 
could be transacted with a Bootea Government without being enabled 
first to enforce abundance of fear, and consequently any amount of 
agreement from them ; messages to and fro passed continually, the 
bearer being a very great rascal, in the shape of the Deb's Bengal 
Moharrer. Thus he would come and appoint the next day for a 
meeting ; then he would return and say, that such a place was better 
than such a place ; as evening drew near he would come and say, 
unless you agree to such and such, there will be no meeting ; and after 
bearing a message that no change in this respect would be made, he 
would make his appearance and say, all the minsters were sick, and 
so could not meet. 

My only amusement out of doors was a morning walk up or down 
the valley. I was prompted to this chiefly by the pangs of hunger, 
as the Bootea supplies were very short, indeed wild pigeons afforded 
me at least some relief. During the day I examined such objects as my 
collectors brought in, for it was too hot to think of being out after 
9 a. m. I also had a few Bootea patients, most of whom were la- 
bouring under aggravated forms of venereal. 

The climate of Punukka has but little to recommend it, and in fact 
nothing, if viewed in comparison with the other places we had seen in 
Bootan. The greatest annoyance existed in the powerful winds blow- 
ing constantly throughout the day up the valley, and which were 
often loaded with clouds of dust. The mean temperature of April 
may be considered as 71°- 

The maximum heat observed was 83°, the minimum 64°. The 
mean temperature of the first week of May was 75° 3' ; the maximum 

234 Capt. V ember ton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [March, 

80°, and the minimum 70°- The cultivation in the valley, the soil of 
which seems very poor, containing a large proportion of mica, was 
during our stay limited to wheat and buck- wheat, but scarcely any of 
the former seemed likely to come to ear. Ground was preparing for 
the reception of rice, which is sown and planted in the usual manner. 
Crops just sown are immediately eaten up \>y the swarms of sacred 
pigeons that reside in the palace, so that husbandry is by no means 
profitable ; more especially as there are other means of providing for 
the crops, such as they may be. Thus we saw several small fields, 
amounting perhaps to an acre in extent, cut down to provide fodder 
for some ponies that had lately shared in a religious excursion to 

Cattle are not frequent. There were some pigs. The fowls were 
of the most miserable description, and very scarce. In spite of offers 
of purchase and plenty of promises, we were throughout allowed 
three a day r and they were rather smaller than pigeons. Towards the 
latter end of our stay, rice became bad and scarce. 

We saw nothing indicating any degree of trade worth mentioning. 
Parties changing their residence frequently passed through from the 
north-east, generally accompanied by ponies, whose most common 
burdens appeared to be salt. No direct intercourse appears to exist 
with Thibet, as even the tea, which they consume in large quantities, 
is said to come from Paro Pillo's. 

There are a great number of Assamese slaves about Punukka; 
indeed all the agricultural work, as well as that of beasts of burden, 
appears to devolve upon these unfortunate creatures, who are miser- 
ably provided for, and perhaps dirtier than a genuine Bootea himself. 
During my morning walks I was almost daily entreated for protection. 
In one case only, and in this by the merest accident, was Captain 
Peniberton enabled to get such evidence as authorised him to claim 
it as entitled to British protection. Connected with this case is an act 
of black treachery, to which I shall hereafter refer. 

We stopt so long here, and we had daily so many instances proving 
that no confidence could be placed on any thing coming from the 
palace, that I began at last to despair of getting away. The old Deb 
was very anxious to see us, and the new Deb still more anxious that 
we should accompany him when he left Punukka, in the hope that 
the presence of the Mission would be advantageous to him. 

It wa entirely owing to the firmness of Captain Peniberton that 
we were enabled to avoid such a disagreeable meeting ; and the Deb, 
feeling at last convinced that his views could not be carried into 
effect, gave orders for getting rid of us as speedily as possible ; and on 

1839.] Capt. Pember ton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 235 

the 9th May at noon we left Punukka, the most uninviting place 
I have ever seen in a hilly country. On the morning of the same 
day there was a demonstration in the palace of great boldness ; the 
roof of the northern side was covered with troops, who shouted, fired, 
and waved banners. 

We crossed both bridges of the palace without any interruption 
or annoyance, at which I was most agreeably surprised ; and then 
gradually ascended the right flank of the valley, following the course 
of the united rivers, Patchien and Matchien. We proceeded in this di- 
rection for sometime, until we came on a ravine affording an outlet to 
a tributary of the Panukka river, which we then followed, gradually 
descending through fir woods until we reached the torrent. Crossing 
this, which is a small one, we commenced the ascent to Telajong, 
which we soon reached. We were lodged in the castle, which is in 
the hands of the old Deb's followers, and who threatened to fight 
very hard. Its elevation is about 5600 feet, and it is situated towards 
the base of very steep mountains, which we crossed next day. It is 
somewhat ruinous, but might even in Bootea hands make a stout de- 
fence against a Bootea force. 

The march was a moderate one ; up to the ravine the country had 
the same barren aspect, but on changing our direction we came on fir 
woods. About Telagong the country is well wooded, chiefly with 
oaks, and the vegetation is considerably varied. Near the torrent 
we met with a village or two, and a little cultivation, chiefly of buck 

April \0th. We descended to a small nullah just below the castle, 
and then commenced an ascent which lasted for three or four hours, 
and which was generally moderately steep. On surmounting the ridge, 
which was of an elevation of about 10,000 feet, we commenced a 
long, and uninterrupted descent along the course of a small torrent 
(the path being well diversified with wood and glade) until we reach- 
ed Woollokha, distant fourteen and half miles from Telagong. 

About 1200 feet above this we came on rather fine wheat cultiva- 
tion, among which two or three villages were situated. Above this 
elevation we came on fine woods of oaks and yews, diversified with 
swardy spots ; and on reaching the summit of the ridge an open sward 
with beautiful rhododendron, birch, and juniper woods. Herbaceous 
monocotyledons abounded here, in fact the vegetation altogether was 
very rich, and the first spring vegetation we had yet met with. 
Gooseberries and Currants were common from 9000 feet upwards : 
Euphorbius, Primroses, Saxifragis, Clematises, Anemones, Ranuncu- 
luses, &c. ; w r ere some among the many European forms that I met 

236 Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [March, 

with on this march. Near the summit, on the descent, a genuine 
larch was observed, and lower down two species of poplar were very 
common. The scenery was generally very beautiful. We passed a 
delightfully situated Gylong village not much below the summit, and 
near Woollookha saw Symtoka, a rather large square building be- 
longing to the Deb Rajah, situated two or three hundred feet above 
our road. 

Woollookha is a good sized village, and the houses are very good : 
it is close to the river Teemboo, which drains Tassisudon valley, a 
few miles distant to the north. There are several villages around it, 
and a good deal of cultivation of alternating crops of barley, wheat, 
and rice. The valley, if indeed it can be called so, for it is very nar- 
row, is picturesque enough, although the surrounding hills are not well 
wooded. The banks of the river, which here flows gently enough, 
are well ornamented with weeping willows. 

11 th. We continued our route following the river, the path gene- 
rally laying down its bed, or close to it, occasionally ascending two 
or three hundred feet above it. Halted at Lomnoo, an easy march. 
The features of the country remained the same until we neared our 
halting place, when Woods of Pinus excelsa became very common ; 
roses occurred in profusion, and the vegetation generally consisted of 
shrubs ; villages were tolerably frequent, and the cuckoo* was again 

\2th. To Chupcha. Continued for some time through a precisely simi- 
lar country, still following the river, but generally at some height above 
its bed. After passing Panga, a small village at which our conduc- 
tors wished us to halt, although it was only six miles from Somnoo, 
we descended gradually to the river Teemboo, and continued along 
it for some time, during which we passed the remains of a suspension 
bridge. Leaving the rivers soon afterwards, we encountered such a long 
ascent that we did not reach Chupcha till rather late in the evening, 
most of the coolies remaining behind. Having surmounted the ridge 
immediately above Chupcha, and which is about 8600 feet in altitude, 
we descended very rapidly to the village, which is about 600 feet 
lower down the face of the mountain. The road was for the most 
part tolerably good ; in one place it was built up along the face of a 
<• I iff overhanging the Teemboo. The scenery was throughout pretty, 
but especially before coining on the ascent : some of the views along 
the river were very picturesque. 

* The firel time] heard this bird was about Punukka. Although in plumage it 
differs a good deal from the bird so well known in Europe, yet its voice is precisely 

1839.] Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 237 

After leaving Panga no villages were passed, and one small one 
only was seen on the opposite bank of the Teemboo ; but up to the 
above mentioned place the country continued tolerably populous. 
The vegetation, until the ascent was commenced, was a good deal like 
that about Somnoo, Pinus excelsa forming the predominant feature. 
From the base of the ascent it became completely changed — oaks 
forming the woods, and from 7500 feet upwards, various rhododendrons 
occurring in profusion, mixed with wild currants, &c. We were de- 
tained at Chupcha for two days, at the end of which the last coolies had 
scarcely arrived : it is ten miles from Somnoo,, and sixteen miles from 
Panga, and about 8100 feet in elevation, The greatest ascent, and this 
too after a march of twelve miles, must have been between 2500 and 
3000 feet. We were lodged comfortably in the castle, although it 
was not white- washed, nor had it the insignia of a belt of red ochre. 
It is a short distance from the village, which again is two or three 
hundred yards to the west of the direct road. We thought Chupcha a 
delightful place : the scenery is varied, the temperature delightful, 
varying in doors from 46° to 52° 

The face of the mountain although very steep, is about the castle 
well cultivated : the crops which were of six ranked barley, were 
very luxuriant, and certainly the finest we ever saw in the country. 
The red-legged crow recurred here. During our stay, I ascended the 
ridge immediately above the castle, passing through a very large village 
of Gylongs, elevated at least 9000 feet. This village was the largest I 
saw in Bootan, and was ornamented with a pretty religious build- 
ing, surrounded by junipers, and more decorated than such edifices 
usually are. Up to the village the path passed through beautiful 
woods of Pinus excelsa : above it I came on open sward, which 
continued on the south face up to the very summit of the ridge, which 
was nearly 1 1,000 feet. The north face of the mountain was well 
wooded : on it rhododendrons, a few black p'ines, beautiful clumps 
of Pinus Smiihiana, Bogh Pat, Mountain Pears, Aconites, Colum- 
bines, Saxifrages, Primroses, &c. were found in abundance. The 
southern face was decorated with a pretty yellow Anemone, and 
the pink spikes of a Bistort. From the ridge still loftier ones were 
visible in every direction, all of which were covered with snow, which 
lightly sprinkled the one on which I stood. At this season snow 
scarcely remains for a day under 11,000 feet, except in very sheltered 

1 5th. I left Chupcha with much regret. We descended by a pre- 
cipitous path to a torrent about 1800 feet below the castle. Cross- 
ing this, we descended gradually until we came 1 * the ravine of the 

•238 Capt. Vembertotis Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [March, 

Teemboo ; at which point there is a small pagoda, visible from 
Chupcha. We then turned southwards, and continued for a long time 
at nearly the same level, passing a small village, Punugga, three or 
four hundred feet below us, and in which Capt. Turner had halted on 
his ascent. The descent to Chuka was long and gradual, becoming 
tolerably steep as we approached it. We reached the Teemboo by a 
miserable road, about half a mile from Chuka castle, which occupies 
a small eminence in what has once been the bed of the river. 

The march was seventeen miles. The road in many places was very 
bad, and scarcely passable for loaded ponies. The scenery was frequent- 
ly delightful, and vegetation was in the height of spring luxuriance. 
The hills bounding the ravine of Teemboo continued very high until 
we reached Chuka; they were well diversified, particularly at some 
height above us, with sward and glade, and richly ornamented with 
fine oaks, rhododendrons, cedar-like pines, and Pinus excelsa. Water 
was most abundant throughout the march, and in such places the 
vegetation was indescribably rich and luxuriant. 

No village besides that of Punugga was passed or seen, nor did I 
observe any cultivation. I was much impeded by droves of cattle 
passing into the interior, for the road was frequently so narrow, and 
the mountains on which it was formed so steep, that I was obliged to 
wait quietly until all had passed. These cattle were of a different 
breed from those hitherto seen in Bootan, approaching in appearance 
the common cattle of the plains, than which however they were much 
finer and larger. 

We were sufficiently well accommodated in the castle of Chuka, 
which is as bare of ornament as its neighbour of Chupcha; it is a place 
of some strength against forces unprovided with artillery, and com- 
mands the pass into the interior very completely. There is a miser- 
able village near it, and several trees of the Ficus elastica. 

16th. To Murichom. We descended to the Teemboo, which runs 
some fifty feet below the castle, and crossed it by a suspension 
bridge, of which a figure has been given by Capt. Turner ; it is very 
inferior in size and construction to that of Rassgong, although, unlike 
that, it is flat at the bottom. We continued following the Teemboo 
winding gradually up its right bank, chiefly through rather heavy 
jungle, and descending subsequently about 600 feet to its bed by a 
dreadfully dangerous path, built up the face of a huge cliff. We con- 
tinued along it until we crossed a small torrent at its junction with 
the large river, and then ascended gradually, following the ravine of 
this through humid jungle. As we approached Murichom we left 
the Teemboo a little to our left, and continued through a heavily 

1839.] Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 239 

wooded country. Before ascending finally to Murichom, we descended 
twice to cross torrents. We reached Murichom late in the evening, 
the distance being eighteen miles. 

No villages were seen until we came in sight of Murichom. The 
mountains were much decreased in height, and clothed with dense 
black jungle. We passed two water-falls, both on the left bank of the 
Teemboo, the one most to the south being the Minza peeya of Turner. 
Neither of them appeared particularly worthy of notice. The vegeta- 
tion had almost completely changed, it partook largely of the sub- 
tropical characters, scarcely a single European form being met with. 
The road was absolutely villainous,* it was very narrow, frequently 
reduced to a mere ledge, and painful owing to the sharp projections 
of the limestone, the prevailing rock of this part of the country. 
Murichom is a small village, rather more than 4000 feet above the sea ; 
the houses, which are about eight or ten in number are thatched : it is 
prettily situated : there is a little cultivation of wheat and maize 
about it. Although at so considerable an elevation, most of the plants 
were similar to those of Assam. 

Y]th. Leaving Murichom we descended rapidly to a small tor- 
rent, from which we re-ascended until we had regained the level 
of Murichom. The path then wound along through heavily wooded 
country at an elevation of 4000 or 4200 feet : we continued thus 
throughout the day. At 5 p. m. finding that the coolies were com- 
mencing to stop behind, and failing in getting any information of my 
companions, I returned about 1 \ mile to the small village of Gygoogoo, 
which is about 300 feet below the path, and not visible from it. It is a 
miserable village of three or four bamboo huts. We had previously 
passed another and much better village, but as this was only six miles 
from Murichom, Capt. Pemberton determined to push on. 

\Wi. I proceeded to Buxa. The path was somewhat improved, and 
the ascent gradual until an elevation of about 5500 feet was sur- 
mounted, from which the descent to Buxa is steep and uninterrupted. 
This place is seen from a ridge about 1200 feet above it. I reached 
it between 9 and 10 a. m., and found that my companions had 
arrived late on the preceding evening, having accomplished a march 
of twenty miles in one day. Scarcely any coolies had arrived, however, 
before me. The features of the country remained the same, the 
whole face being covered with dense black looking forest. Even on 

* Such is the nature of the path from Chuka to the plains, although it is the great 
thoroughfare between both capitals and Rungpore, that either the trade of Bootan with 
that place must be much exaggerated, or some other road must exist between these two 

i i 

240 Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [March, 

the ridge, which must have been between 5000 and 5500 feet in 
elevation, scarcely any change took place. As I descended to Buxa 
vegetation became more and more tropical, and on reaching it found 
myself surrounded with plants common in many parts of the plains of 

Buxa is rather a pretty pjace, about 2000 feet above the sea. 
The only decent house in it is that of the Soobah, who is of inferior 
rank. The huts are of the ordinary description, and do not exceed 
twelve in number. The Soobah's house, with some of those of Bengal 
officers, occupy a low rising ground in the centre of the pass, which is 
divided from the hills on either side by a small torrent. A view of the 
plains is obtainable from this place. 

Captain Pemberton left Buxa a day before me, as I was detained 
behind for coolies, none of whom had yet arrived. On the following 
day I rejoined him at Chicha-cotta. The descent to the plains is steep 
at first, and commences about a quarter of a mile from Buxa. On 
reaching the steep portion a halting place, called Minagoung, is 
passed, at which place, all bullocks, which are here used as beasts of 
burden, are relieved if bound to Buxa, or provided with burdens, 
if bound for the plains. The descent from this place is very gra- 
dual, and scarcely appreciable ; the path was good, and bore appear- 
ances of being tolerably well frequented ; it passed through a 
rather open forest, low grasses forming the under-plants. The 
plains were not reached for several miles, indeed the descent was so 
gradual, that the boundaries of the hills and those of the plains were 
but ill defined. At last however the usual Assam features of vast 
expanses of grassy vegetation, interrupted here and there with strips 
°f jungle, presented themselves. The country is very low, entirely 
inundated during the rains, and almost uninhabited. Saul occurred 
toward that which may be considered the Toorai of these parts, but 
the trees were of no size. 

Chicha-cotta is eighteen miles from Buxa, and is situated on a grassy 
plain ; it is small and miserably stockaded, nor is there any appear- 
ance about the place indicative of comfort or security. To Koolta. We 
continued through nearly a desolate country, overrun with coarse 
grasses, until we came on the river, which is of considerable width, 
but fordable ; we now found ourselves in the Cooch-Behar territory, 
and were much struck with the contrast between its richly cultivated 
state, and the absolute desolation of that belonging to Bootan. We 
continued traversing a highly fertile country, teeming with population, 

* Plantains, jacks, mangoes, figs, oranges, &c, are found about the huts of Buxa. 

Journ.. CUf.Soc. 



\ VKacAa*;, ia\ \Mdmoc J/Uu^V 

(^UifcckayTarri q 1j 

\\\ ^ i> 

J'/TczZe' 32 Mtlts to an- itch 

tyritntal J.JK' Tr&t. 

J 839.] Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootatu 1837-38. 241 

until we reached those uncultivated portions of Assam, that are so 
frequent in the immediate vicinity of the Brahmaputra. 

Our marches to Rangamutty were as follow : — 

From Koolta to Bullumpore. 

From Bullumpore to Kuldhooba. 

From Kuldhooba to Burrumdungur. 

From Burrumdungur to Rangamutty. 

At Rangamutty, where we received every civility from the Bhoo- 
rawur, we took boat and arrived at Goalpara on the 

Beyond this it is scarcely necessary to trace our progress. I have 
only to add, that but one death occurred during the time the Mission 
was absent. 

( To be continued.) 

Art. VI. — Report on the Museum of the Asiatic Society. 
By Dr. Wm. Jameson. 

[The subjoined very important Report on the state of our Museum, 
forms a part of the Proceedings of April, but we deem it well deserving 
of the earliest publicity. During the few weeks Dr. Jameson held the 
office of Curator, his exertions have accomplished more than could be 
readily believed, in reducing the chaotic materials of the Museum into 
systematic arrangement and disposition. His suggestions will doubtless 
receive the attentive consideration they are so strongly entitled to, and 
we trust before long that our Museum will be guaranteed from such 
reproaches as Mr. Jameson now too justly inflicts on it. His accom- 
plished successor, Dr. M'Clelland, has all the skill and zeal essential for 
success, but the means at his disposal are manifestly too limited to en- 
able him to execute all the measures his judgment would dictate. We 
anxiously hope that the naturalists of the Society will be excited by Dr. 
Jameson's Report to consider of the best and readiest means for the 
establishment of a Museum befitting the first Scientific Institution in the 
East. As our funds have been heavily drawn on this season for the 
erection of a new suite of apartments, to accommodate our growing 
collections, we think it would be worthy of those who feel the importance 
of such ennobling pursuits, to come forward with the means for furnish- 
ing our Museum with every essential appurtenance of the best and most 

242 Report on the Museum of the Asiatic Society. [March, 

durable kind. We shall be happy to act as Trustees for a i Museum 
Fund,' should our suggestions meet the approbation of those who under- 
stand and appreciate the object in view. — Eds.] 

In reporting upon the present state of the collection of the Asiatic Society, we have 
felt much disinclination, fearing lest by so doing we might be considered as attacking 
the proceedings of our predecessors ; we however consider it our duty, from the place 
we now hold, and the more so as we leave this in a few days for the Upper Provinces, 
trusting that when the statement has been laid before the Society, active measures 
will be taken to improve its condition. 

We shall first notice the Minerals and Rocks. In these two departments the 
collection is exceedingly rich as far as numbers are concerned. Of the former there are 
upwards of two thousand specimens, and of the latter probably upwards of four thousand ; 
but the miserable condition in which they have been kept — packed in drawers one 
above another, without paper, or any other material intervening — has rendered many 
of them entirely useless and unfit to be placed in the collection. In particular we 
would mention the Zeolites, many of which originally must have been magnificent. 
The Apophyllites (a species of zeolite) are very fine, and still valuable specimens, 
and had they not been so much destroyed, the Society might have claimed the merit of 
possessing, of this particular variety, the finest specimen, probably, in the world. 
Most of the other specimens have been equally neglected, and many of value destroyed. 
In regard to labels, there were but few attached, and of these many wrong. The Rocks, 
of which there is a most magnificent and extensive collection, would have been doubly 
valuable if they had been furnished with labels, indicating the locality from whence they 
had been obtained ; at present after a collection containing every variety has been laid 
aside for the Society's own Museum, the others, when named, will form valuable 
duplicates for exchanging. To this department of the Society's Museum no at- 
tention whatever has been paid, although probably the most important. Lying beneath 
one of the tables in the Museum there was a large collection, said to be sent by 
Dr. Heifer, but as not one of the specimens was labelled, that is intimating where 
found, we have not been able to make use of them. In fact such a collection is quite 
useless to a Society ; and even if some important mineral should be found in it, the 
value of the discovery could not be followed up. It would be of importance to intimate 
this to individuals engaged in making such collections. 

Mammalia.— The collection of quadrupeds consists of about seventy specimens, 
many of which are exceedingly good, and a few very rare, among which we would 
characterise the Hylobates albimanus, Hylobates hooloch, Ailurus refugens, Icticles 
albifrons ; but in this department the collection of the Society is very deficient, not 
containing above a fifth of the quadrupeds found in India. Moreover many specimens, 
from their bad condition, would require to be replaced as soon as possible. 

Birds. — The number of birds prepared amount to upwards of six hundred specimens, 
and in addition to these there is a considerable collection in boxes, many specimens of 
which are not as yet in the Museum. Among the birds, there are some exceedingly 
rare and valuable specimens, and several new to science, which we shall now notice 
briefly. 1. Larus kroicocephalus. The discovery of this species is probably one 
of the most interesting which has hcen made in ornithology for some time. In size it is 
equal to the Larus marinus of Europe, and possesses in the head and neck colours 

1839.] Report on the Museum of the Asiatic Society. 243 

one of the principal characters essential to the genus Kroicocephalus of Eton, in every 
other character it is a true Larus ; and as the colour of the head and neck disappear in 
winter, we have therefore this species representing in summer the genus Kroicocephalus, 
and in winter Larus ; shewing the necessity of abandoning the former genus. The 
specimen in the Society's collection is partly in a state of change from the summer 
to the winter. In the Edinburgh Royal Museum there is another specimen in perfect 
summer plumage : these probably are the only two specimens known. The name 
we have adopted is one which we proposed to the Wernerian Society, being the generic 
one of Eton reduced to trivial value. Belonging to that interesting genus the 
Leiothrix, Swains, of which there is but one species described, there are two new species 
in the collection of the Society, in the Edinburgh Museum there is a third, and in the 
Zoological Society's Museum of London a fourth, all of which are peculiar to India, 
and thus the number of species is now increased to five, shewing the necessity and 
importance of making new genera, if the characters presented are sufficiently marked, 
although at first only one species should be presented. We could enumerate a 
large series of genera which were represented a few years ago by one species only, but 
which now contain from three to twelve species. In a bird lately laid before the 
Society by Dr. Evans, and considered by him as a variety of the Aquila Chryractos, 
the Society has a new species belonging to the genera Haliaetus ; the only other 
specimen we have seen is in the collection of the Zoological Society of London. We 
cannot omit mentioning the Eurylaimus Dalhousice as exceedingly rare and valuable 
species, three specimens only being known to exist in collections. Many other 
novelties, some of them extremely interesting in illustrating ornithological geography 
could be pointed out, which however would extend our report to an undue length ; we 
however may state that Dr. Heifer has sent lately to the Society a new Chalcites, and 
Irena puella, and Calyptomina viridis, both of which were supposed to be confined 
to the Asiatic Islands. 

Osteology. — The Osteological Department of the Society's collection is small, 
but still there are several splendid skeletons. The magnificence of the Fossil Osteolo- 
gical collection cannot be too strongly pointed out ; but it is much and deeply to be 
regretted that there is no proper accommodation for it ; which we hope will soon be 
remedied by proper cases being provided, and placed in the new apartments now 
building, in order that the many unique and valuable specimens may be properly 
exposed to view. 

In regard to the Icthyological, Erpetological, Conchological, &c. departments of the 
Society we have not had any leisure to examine, and therefore forbear at present 
giving any report. But as there is much room for improvement in the departments 
we have already noticed, we beg to offer a few suggestions. 

Minerals and Rocks. — Before the collections of Minerals and Rocks can be generally 
useful, there must be proper means for exhibitions, and we hope soon to see cases fitted 
up on the plan we proposed, or any other which may be suggested, furnished to the rooms. 
The advantages in having collections of Rocks and Minerals arranged and labelled 
properly, would no doubt be of the greatest consequence, seeing that it would form 
the basis for comparison of any collections which may hereafter reach the Museum ; and 
also be of use to individuals for comparing their own private collections. As far as 
it lay in our power, during the short space of time we have had, we have arranged the 
Minerals in the tables formerly occupied by eggs, birds' heads, &c. only temporary 
however, expecting that more suitable cases will be provided. The Rocks are still lying 

244 Report on the Museum of the Asiatic Society. [March, 

exposed for want of accommodation, but a few of them so arranged that when cases 
are provided, they can be removed by any individual.* The system we have followed 
is that of Werner, as improved by modern authors. If any member would now visit 
and see the extent of their Mineralogical collection, I am sure they would be convinced 
of the necessity of having proper cases. 

The Bird cases since last Meeting have been fitted up with shelving, which has 
enabled us to arrange systematically the collection, and the system we have adopted is 
that of the Baron Cuvier. Moreover, in addition to the advantage derived in having 
a systematic arrangement, the cases will now contain three times as many specimens as 
they did formerly. To us it appears a most extraordinary idea, to suppose that objects of 
Natural History cannot be properly preserved in this country. No doubt in cases fitted 
up in the same manner as those of the Society at the present moment, they could 
not, either here or any where else ; but if these cases were made air-tight, by lining 
the edges of the doors with chamois leather poisoned with arsenic, according to 
the plan adopted with the cases of many of the European collections, we would be 
bound to say, that the collections could be preserved nearly as well here as in Europe. 
At least this is a subject well worthy the attention of the Society. 

In conclusion, we shall offer a few brief remarks in regard to the desiderata. To in- 
crease their collections, public bodies have generally adopted one plan, viz. — a memo- 
rial giving a brief account of the manner how to prepare, collect, and pack objects 
of Natural History, and at the same time pointing out those objects most to be desired. 
If such a memorial was got up under the auspices of this Society, and distributed among 
its numerous members and correspondents throughout India, the Society would not only 
possess for itself a collection in a very short time, but at the same time would have at 
its disposal, for making exchanges, a large series of duplicates ; and in the space of a 
few years by so doing with the different collections in Europe, America, Cape, and 
Sydney, it would thus bring together, with little expense to itself, a collection which 
would vie with the various noble institutions on the European continent, and at the 
same time worthy fof this the so-called City of Palaces. Before this can be done, 
a Catalogue of the collection must be made. Moreover the Society could in a 
series of tables exhibit by specimens, that is by bringing together the rocks of the dif- 
ferent districts bordering on each other, the Geology of the whole of India, and thus in 
a manner supply that great desideratum, at least to individuals here, viz. the want 
of a Geological Map, and probably it might be the means of leading to this desirable 
object ; an undertaking worthy of support from such an institution, and from the 
country at large. 

W. J. 

* Dr. M'Clellaud informs us they have been once more swept into chaos by the 
unguarded hands of assistants since Mr. Jameson's departure. Nothing can more 
clearly prove the futility of attempting to do any thing in this department before 
proper cabinets are procured.— Eos. 

1839.] Asiatic Society. 245 

Art. V II.— Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 

Wednesday Evening, 6th March, 1839. 

At a Meeting held at the Grand Jury Room of the Supreme Court. 

The Honorable Sir E. Ryan, President, in the chair. 

The Proceedings of the last Meeting were read and confirmed. 

The Honorable Sir H. Seton, the Rev. John Henry Pratt, Dr. William 
Jameson, Mr. E. Thomas, Mr. J. W. Laidlay, and Mr. A. C. Dunlop, proposed 
at the last Meeting, were ballotted for, and duly elected Members of the Society. 

Read a letter from Mr. Charles Ritter, acknowledging his election as an honorary 

The Officiating Secretary apprized the Meeting of the departure of their Curator, 

Dr. George Evans, to Europe; and after some discussion it was resolved that Dr. 

William Jameson be appointed to the office, on the same allowances as those drawn 

by his predecessor. 


Read a letter from H. T. Prinsep, Esq. forwarding for inspection Dr. Robert 
Wight's Illustrations of Indian Botany. 

The following books were presented : — 

Bulletin de la Societe de Geographie, vol. 9th — by the Society. 

On the Ovulum of Santalum, by William Griffiths, Esq. — by the Author. 

Die Stupa's (Topes) and dieColosse Von Bamiyan, by Carl Ritter — by the Author. 

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, No. 9 — by the Society. 

Proceedings of the Bombay Geographical Society for August, 1838 — by the Society. 

Ditto of the American Philosophical Society, Nos. 1,2, and 3, from January to August 
1838— by the Society. 

5 Copies Alif Leila, vol. 1st in Arabic — subscribed for by the Society. 

Lardner's Cyclopaedia — Literary and Scientific Men, vol. 9th— -from the Booksellers. 

Read an application from Premchaund Pundit, Editorof the " Nyeshadha," regard- 
ing the 2nd part of the work in Manuscript, and offering to making over the same to 
the Society, on condition of his being remunerated for his trouble in compilation. 

Resolved that the application be referred to the Committee of Papers. 


A Gumsoor Battle Axe was presented by Mr. J. G. Balmain. 


Read a letter from H. H. Spry, Esq., Secretary to the Statistical Sub-Committee, 
intimating that in consequence of the Society's declining to publish the Documents 
compiled by them, they will no longer prosecute their researches. 

The Annual Report for 1838, which had been presented on the 1st of January, was 
then read, and adopted by the Meeting. 

Secretaries' Annual Report. 
The indisposition and absence of the Rev. Mr. Malan since his appointment, and 
the short period during which we have held the office of Officiating-Secretaries, will 
we trust constitute a sufficient apology for the incompleteness of the present anniversary 

We have endeavoured by a diligent perusal of the proceedings of the year just 
elapsed to become familiar with the state and prospects of the Society, and we have also 

240 Asiatic Society. [March, 

sought move detailed information from the gentlemen severally responsible for the 
Library, Finance, and Museum departments. 

On the general statistics of the Society we have to state that the accession gf Mem- 
bers to the Society during the year 1838 was as follows: — 
Ordinary Members, .... 25 

Honorary Members, .... 1 

Associate Members, .... 1 

The loss of Members by deaths, departures to Europe, and withdrawals, has been 
—by departure to Europe, Messrs. W. Adam, A Colvin, H. Walters, Col. Burney, 
and Mr. James Prinsep. By withdrawals, Messrs. W. Bruce and W. Dent. 

By deaths in India, Messrs. A. E. DoBBsand John Bell, and in France Monsieur A 
J acquet, an honorary Member, and one of the most distinguished Orientalists of the day. 

We designedly forbear on this occasion from the attempt at any minute obituary 
notice of the Members whose deaths we so deeply lament. The decease of M. Jacquet 
was only announced at our last meeting. His friend and fellow labourer, Eugene 
Burnouf, in the letter which conveys this melancholy news, gives a touching narrative 
of the circumstances of M. Jacquet's malady and death. A victim to consumption, 
induced by his unremitting studies, he died at the age of 28, in the delusive confidence 
of revealing by his future labours much of what is still mysterious in the history and 
chronology of the Hindoo nations A quarter of an hour before death he was still 
ardently pursuing his studies. In the homage paid to his memory in France, the Asiatic- 
Society of Bengal most unanimously and profoundly concur. 


We have to state that during the past year the 4th and last volume of the " Maha- 
bharata" has been the only work printed in the Oriental department. The volume will 
be immediately published, and will cost the Society between 4 and 5,000 Rupees. The 
liberality of Government has most opportunely enabled the Society to meet from its 
own resources this heavy outlay, which otherwise would have fallen on our respect- 
ed Secretary, Mr. Prinsep. The sale of the work in France has unfortunately proved 
far short of M. Burnouf' s sanguine predictions. 

The publication of the " Sharira Vidaya" or translation of " Hooper's Anatomist's 
Vade Mecum," has been sanctioned by the Society in conjunction with Mr. Muir, who 
has generously subscribed 1,000 Rupees for this special object. There is yet however 
much difficulty in this undertaking. The professional members of the Society con- 
sider the work wholly useless without plates, and the lowest estimate yet obtained 
places the cost of such illustrations at 6x250= 1,500 Rupees. A reference to Europe 
was evidently expedient to procure cheaper and better cuts than are obtainable in 
India, and for the result of such reference the work is now postponed. 

The publication of the "Sharya-ul- Islam" by the Newab Tahawur Jung, has unfor- 
tunately been much retarded. The delay is attributable to the conjoint inactivity of 
the Printer and of the Moulavee employed to correct the proofs. Means are being taken 
however to accelerate the completion of the work. An advance of 800 Rupees has 
this month been made to the Printer, in pursuance of a resolution of the Committee 
of Papers and Finance. 

The Transactions of the Society will soon be augmented by the publication of the 2nd 

Parts of the 1 9th and 20th Volumes. We may be pardoned for anticipating that the 

literary reputation of the Society will be well sustained in their pages. If the Society 

ten reproached with neglecting the Natural History of Asia, the part of the 

1839.] Asiatic Society. 247 

Physical Researches now in the press, will, we are confident, more than remove that 
stigma. The bulk of the Physical Partwill consist of Dr. M'Clelland's elaborate 
paper on " Indian Cyprinidte." 

In connexion with the subject of publications, we should not omit to notice two works 
by Members of the Society, to which Government has contributed either by sub- 
scription or by still more direct support. The first is the version by Mr. Torrens of 
the ever-charming " Alif Leila." The second is the remarkable and valuable Cochin- 
Chinese Dictionary, by the Right Rev. the Bishop of Isauropolis, now Roman Catholic 
Bishop of the Diocese of Bengal. 

In antiquarian enterprise, research, and discovery, the past year has been most prolific. 
Among the events of interest we notice in our records, we may particularize the liberal 
grant by Government for the erection of the Allahabad pillar — the receipt from the 
Rev. Mr. Wilson of fac-similes of the Girnar inscriptions — Mr. Prinsep's most im- 
portant discovery of the name of Antiochus in two of the edicts of Ashoka — Mr. 
Prinsep's translation of the religious edicts of Ashoka, discovered in Gujerat and in 
Cuttack — and the discovery that the inscription of Junegurh related the circumstance of 
the repair of a bridge in the time of Chundra Gupta, by Ashoka, his grandson. 

To these let us add, the interesting fruits of Mr. Kittoe's Researches in Cuttack — 
the active and successful measures adopted by Government to procure fac-similes of the 
Junegurh and Girnaghur inscriptions — the verification by Lieut. Postans of Mr. 
Prinsep's views as to the reading of the name of Antigonus next to that of Ptolemy 
in the 14th edict, in the Girnar inscriptions — the measures taken by Government to 
prevent the demolition of the Kanarah Temple — and, lastly, Professor Lassen's simul- 
taneous proposition of an alphabet for the Pali and Bactrian languages, nearly identi- 
cal with that described by Mr. Prinsep in the July number of the Journal. On even 
this disjointed and hasty glance, we may well be proud of the progress the Society has 
accomplished in the fulfilment of one of the chief objects of its institution. It will, we 
doubt not, be universally admitted that the Asiatic Society during the past year has 
justified its high name, and retained its natural position, as the most energetic and suc- 
cessful agent of antiquarian discovery in the East. 


Owing to the lamented deaths of Sir B. Malkin and Mr. Bell, the retirement of 
Messrs. Walters and Adam, and the withdrawal of Messrs. Bignel, Curnin, and 
M f Clintock, the Committee was at the end of the year 1838 reduced to four Mem- 
bers, Messrs. Ewart, Spry, Baillie, and Stewart. Mr. W. P, Grant has since 
been elected a Member. 

It is understood that Dr. Stewart has been for some time engaged in tabulating 
translations of the Records of Native Mortality in Calcutta, with the view to illustrate 
the localities of disease in this city, and the effects of climate on the health of its inha- 
bitants. Dr. Spry has prepared a series of tables illustrating the state of education 
among different classes of Society in Bengal. Mr. Ewart has ready for press some 
very valuable original tables connected with the currency and trade of Calcutta. 
The only paper which has yet appeared in common with the labors of this Committee, 
is the very important document by Mr. H. T. Prinsep, on the decrement of juvenile 
European life in Bengal. This valuable contribution to vital statistics has already 
appeared in the Society's Journal. 

K k 

248 . - Asiatic Society. [March, 

The Statistical Committee have met with the most willing and efficient support from 
the Government, and from the Parent Society. Access has been granted to all 
official records connected with the subjects of finance, commerce, education, and 
judicial administration. The Society has already contributed 500 Rs. to defray any 
expenses incurred by the Committee. High expectations are consequently entertained 
as to the harvest to be reaped from so fertile a field, by such active labourers, and 
under such warm and constant encouragement. The form best suited for the pub- 
lication of the documents already prepared has excited considerable discussion, and 
still awaits a final decision. 


The Librarian has been kind enough to comply with our request for a detailed report 
of the accessions to our collection during the last year, and he has classified the entire 
under the heads of languages and subjects. We now beg leave to present his report, 
by which it appears that we have received, 

Publications in English, .. 117 

in Latin, 


. . 


in German, 



in Dutch, 



in Persian, 



in Arabic, 



in Turkish, . 



Total, . . 174 up to the period of Mr. Csoma's Report. 

On the last day of the old year, we had the pleasure of receiving from M. Cassin the 
highly important consignments exhibited on the table at the last meeting. 

199 vols. 4to. and 8vo. 
109 Pamphlets. 

The works' in question embrace some of the most important and valuable publi- 
cations in every department of Natural History. 

The mode in which this supply has been obtained is also very gratifying, the 
expense having been defrayed by the sale of our Oriental Publications in Paris. It is 
pleasing to observe this reciprocation of benefits by the cultivation of apparently 
opposite pursuits— We have exchanged the ancient lore of the East, for the most 
modem and useful sciences of Europe. Each branch of our labors thus proves auxi- 
liary to the other. The researches of the naturalist are promoted by the discoveries 
of the philologist and antiquarian, and thus, each in our particular sphere, we sustain 
the reputation and enhance the utility of a Society established for the universal purpose 
of investigating "whatever is performed by man or produced by nature" in the East. 

Museum of Natural History. 
Mr. Evans has sent in an Annual Report, which will be published separately for 
your information. 


During the past year some miscellaneous passages in our history deserve to be re- 
corded in our annual notice. 

In January we had the gratification of witnessing the erection in our apartments of 
the bust of our distinguished associate, Professor Wilson. The feeling excited on 

1839.] Asiatic Society. 249 

this occasion, led on the following month to the adoption of measures, by which we look 
forward to an early installation of the like remembrances of Sir Wm, Jones, of Mr. 
Colebrooke, and Dr. Mill. This is indeed an object worthy of a grateful and wise 
Society, and must excite in the present Members the ambition of ultimately deserving 
such inestimable rewards. 

In February a despatch was received from the Court of Dh*ectors, ordering 40 copies 
of each number of the Society's Journal — an act of generous patronage most fitly 
bestowed on the periodical, as it was then conducted. It was moreover but the fore- 
runner of still greater munificence, in the grant authorized in September of 500 Rupees 
per mensem for the encouragement of Oriental Publications. 

Nor while we acknowledge this princely aid from Government, should we be silent 
on the liberality of some individual benefactors. Among these. Mr. Muir stands pre- 
eminent — his subscription of 1000 Rupees to the expenses of the " Sharira Vidaya" will 
we trust ere long be instrumental in placing a practical work on Anatomy within the reach 
of the hereditary physicians of the East. Another act of warm co-operation, and we 
have done. Let us commemorate the readiness with which Mr. James Prinsep sus- 
tained, by an outlay of 6,000 Rupees, the publication of the " Mahabharata," which 
would otherwise have necessarily been discontinued. For this we are fortunately en- 
abled to indemnify Mr. Prinsep, but he is not the less entitled to this grateful notice 
of his unrivalled liberality. 

In conclusion of this very imperfect Report, we should have dwelt in due and de- 
served detail on the vast loss we have experienced in Mr. Prinsep's departure to 
Europe, had not the subject been so fully and recently before the Society, and 
so perfectly dealt with in the President's address. We have now only to express 
our earnest hopes that in full health and spirit Mr. Prinsep may soon return to the 
scenes of his brilliant and numerous triumphs. His absence must not however altoge- 
ther nullify the movement he excited. It seems to us too that the best proof, of the 
esteem and affection in which we hold him, will be the perseverance in his pursuits, and 
in the support of his Journal, until his presence enables the Society to enjoy again 
the advantage of his inestimable labours. 

(Signed) J. C. C. SUTHERLAND, 


Acting Secretaries. 


Art. VIII. — Meteorological Register. 






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No. 88.— APRIL, 1839. 

Art. I. — Journal of the Mission which visited Bootan, in 1837-38, 
under Captain R. Boileau Pembbrton. By W. Griffith, Esq. 
Madras Medical Establishment. 

(Continued from page 241.) 


\Remarks on the nature of the country, especially its vegetation, boundaries, and 
divisions — its government, population, sects, character, customs, manners, and diet — 
political relations. ] 

The following remarks suggested themselves to me during the 
bird's eye view I had of Bootan ; their superficiality is only to be ex- 
cused by the shortness of my stay, the want of proper interpreters, the 
jealousy of the Booteas, and extreme mendacity of such of their 
Bengal subjects from whom, in my total ignorance of the Bootea 
language, information was alone to be expected. And as I had daily 
opportunities of seeing the constancy with which the head of the 
Mission amassed all available information, I contented myself with 
remarking on external rather than internal objects, on the face of 
nature, rather than on that of men. Bootan, I need scarcely observe, 
is a mountainous country, forming a considerable part of the most 
magnificent chain of mountains in the universe ; in it are to be found 
all degrees of elevation, from 1000 to 25,000 feet. In its extent it is 
rather more limited than was supposed, since Capt. Pemberton has as- 
certained that the country to the eastward, which is ruled by the 
Towang Rajah, is directly dependent on, and forms a portion of the 
Lhassa government. 


252 Capt. Vembertoiis Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [April, 

The boundaries of the country are, Thibet to the north ; the plains 
of Assam and Bengal to the south ; Sikkira to the west ; and the Kam- 
pa country to the east. Its greatest breadth will hence be about 90, and 
its greatest length about 210 miles. 

The physical aspect of this country, so far as regards its most essen- 
tial point — mountains, presents perhaps but little deviation from that 
of other parts of the Great Himalayan chain ; but on this point I 
am unable to give any information. Every variety of surface was 
met with, from bluff-headed to peaked highly angular summits. In some 
places the paths were built up the naked faces of precipices ; in others, 
very considerable elevations might be attained by very gradual ascents, 
over a sufficiently practicable country. The two most rugged and most 
peaked were, as might be expected, the two highest — Dongdola and 
Rodola: the others, which generally averaged 10,500 feet, were very 
easy. Of the rivers, which are in all cases mere mountain torrents, 
nothing need be said. The largest we saw was the Monass, which 
forms the principal drain of the eastern portion of Bootan. No lakes 
appear to occur: there is below Santagong a jheel of small extent, but 
it is of no depth, and does not derive its presence from springs or 
the embouchure of small tributaries. It abounded with water fowl, 
and was choked up with sedges, and a plant belonging to the family 
Hydropeltidce, hitherto not, I believe, found in India. Neither is 
Bootan a country of valleys ; in fact, with the exception of those of 
Bhoomlungtung, Byagur, and Jaisa, we saw none worthy of bear- 
ing the name. That of Punukka owes its existence to the va- 
garies of the river, as its only level part has obviously at some 
previous time formed part of its bed. The three valleys otherwise 
mentioned are, if viewed in comparison with other valleys situated in 
similarly mountainous countries, perfectly insignificant, for they con- 
sist of a gentle slope from the bases of the contiguous hills to the bed of 
the draining stream. The valley of Tassisudon is probably of like 
extent with that of Punukka, but Turner's accounts are so little to be 
relied on, that even in a simple matter like this no just conclusion is to 
be formed. I have only to add, that the three valleys are represented 
as being close to some of the passes into Thibet : this alone is perhaps 
sufficient to account for their great elevation. 

Hot springs occur one day's journey from Punukka, and appear to 
be the resort of many invalids, victims to the most frequent disease, 
lues venerea. From specimens procured by our guide, Chillong Soubah, 
there must be at least two springs ; of one the water is of a yellowish 
tint, and highly sulphureous ; that of the other is limpid, and 
possesses no sensible properties. I did not hear of the existence of such 
springs elsewhere. 

1839.] Capt. Pembertorts Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 253 

Of the climate, which is necessarily so varied, it would be useless 
to attempt to give an account ; indeed the only two places of the cli- 
mate of which the mean could be given for even one month, are 
Tongsa and Punukka. The mean for the month of March at Tongsa 
may be estimated at 56° 3', the maximum heat between the 6th and 
21st instant being 63°, and the minimum 51°. I have elsewhere 
stated the results of the observations made at Punukka. Throughout 
the barren portions of the country, which are so generally limited to 
inconsiderable elevations, the heat must no doubt be great during the 
summer months; at Punukka in April the sun was found very 
incommoding after 9 a. m ; and as a proof of the heat at such eleva- 
tions as 7000 feet in some places, I may readvert to the culture of rice 
at, and above Tongsa. The ravines are, however, very narrow about 
this place, and the faces of the mountain on which the cultivation oc- 
curred had a western aspect. 

In very many places, however, more abstracted from the influence 
of radiated heat, delightful climates may be found. It is curious, 
though not singular, that the best situations were always found occu- 
pied by Gylong villages. Considerable elevation is, in addition to other 
minor causes, requisite at least for a Bootea, during the summer 
months: thus the Gylong villages were rarely seen under 8000 feet, 
and oftener about 9000 feet; and the chiefs find a summer change of 
residence necessary, during which they repair to elevations varying 
from 7000 to 9000 feet. 

The change in the Deb's residence from Punukka to Tassisudon in 
the summer, and vice versa in the winter, is to be accounted for, espe- 
cially the latter change, on principles of equalization; that is, the 
ryots about the one place are obstinate enough to refuse supplies for 
more than six months ; such at least was the story heard by us, 
although it is rendered doubtful, by the total want of regard evinced 
by the rulers of the land for the interest of their subjects. The most 
delightful climate we experienced was that of May at Chupcha, which 
is situated on the steep face of a mountain with a south west aspect, yet 
the temperature ranged from 46° to 51°. A week afterwards, and we 
were exposed to the unmitigated fierceness of a Bengal sun at the 
hottest time of the year. 

The most disagreeable part of the climate of Bootan exists in the 
violence of the winds, more particularly in the valleys. The direc- 
tion of these winds, which are very gusty, is invariably up the 
ravines, or contrary to the course of the draining torrents, no matter 
what direction these may have; the winds therefore are dependent 
upon local circumstances, as might be expected from the dryness of the 

254 Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [April, 

soil, and its effects on vegetation. The winds are more violent through- 
out the lower tracts than elsewhere, and as in many of these places 
they are enabled to supply themselves with dust, they often became 
very positively disagreeable, and formed no inconsiderable part of the 
annoyances we were subjected to during our residence at Punukka. 
These partial winds* are frequently so violent as to unroof the 
houses ; it must be remembered, however, that the roofs are generally 
mere shingles, kept in their places by large stones. During our stay 
at Punukka, the regal or sacred part of the roof was blown off; the 
clattering that ensued from the falling of the copper plates, mixed 
with the noise of the shingles and stones of other parts of the palace, was 
very great; a deputation was immediately sent from the palace to 
request that we would fire off no more guns near the palace, and we 
found out afterwards that we were looked upon with a very suspicious 

We were not much incommoded with rain, neither should I consi- 
der it to be abundant throughout the lower elevations, at least no 
part of the vegetation I saw in such tracts seemed to indicate even a 
small amount of moisture. We were only once delayed by snow, and 
on our return enjoyed uninterrupted fine weather until we reached 
Buxa, where, as might be expected from its proximity to the plains 
and the season, the weather was unsettled. 

As regards quantity of vegetation, Bootan exhibits, it appears to me, 
considerable peculiarities. In the other parts of the Himalayan chain I 
have seen, and generally throughout India, the bases and lower portions 
of the mountains are the most thickly wooded, and it is generally a 
tolerably certain indication of elevation when less wooded tracts are 
met with ; but in Bootan not only is the vegetation of the lower 
ranges contiguous to the plains unusually scanty throughout a consi- 
derable part of their extent, but throughout the interior it is generally 
absolutely barren within certain elevations. This scantiness at the 
base of the mountains is perhaps at its maximum due north from 
Gowahatti, in which direction the vegetation is almost entirely grami- 
neous ; to the westward it certainly lessens, but even to the north of 
Kungpore (Bengal) the woods are thin, especially when contrasted 
with the Toorais of other portions ; at the same time the vegetation of 
the lower ranges is in this direction nearly as dense as it is else- 
where. Of its extent to the eastward I have no actual evidence to of- 
fer ; but as to the north of. Jeypore there is a well defined Toorai, and 

• The general winds have, it would appear, the usual direction ; that is, they blow 
from thc^ plain?. 

1839.] Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 255 

as to the eastward again, it would appear to again become deficient : 
it probably is irregular in its distribution, and depends consequently 
on local causes. 

But while there is such difference in the amount of vegetation 
along the tract at the base of the mountains, the vegetation on these 
up to an elevation of 1600—3500 feet is uniformly scanty, except to 
the westward, in which direction, as I have mentioned, they do not 
differ in absolute amount from the well wooded mountains to be seen 

Between Dewangiri and Punukka we found that the surface of 
the' interior below 5000 feet in elevation was uniformly very barren, 
and after crossing the ridge above Telagoung we found similar ap- 
pearances, but with a very dissimilar vegetation, at elevations of 
from 7000 to 1 1,000 feet, but they were by no means so uniform or so 
general. Throughout the barren tracts* of the first of the above 
portions of Bootan the vegetation consists for the most part of grasses, 
among which a few low shrubs occur. The arboreous vegetation is 
confined almost entirely to Pinus longifolia, which is very commonly 
much stunted. The barren tracts to the westward of Telagoung were 
remarked almost entirely along the Teemboo, the southern face of 
the ravine of which was generally remarkably barren, even at very 
considerable elevations. Grasses did not form here so predominant 
a portion, shrubs on the contrary abounded, and among these the most 
common perhaps was a species of Rosa, very much like the R sericea 
of Royle's Illustrations. 

In Bootan it is only at high elevations, and under certain circum- 
stances, among which aspect and especially humidity are the most 
important, that the grand forests which have excited the admiration 
of all travellers in the Himalayas to the westward, make their ap- 
pearance. The requisite elevation is scarcely ever less than 7000, and 
is generally about 8000—8500 feet ; at such, oaks, magnolias, rho- 
dodendrons, and several species of firs attain to great perfection. Be- 
tween, or on the borders of the woods, patches of swards, adorned in 
the spring with beautiful herbaceous plants are frequently met with, 
and form the prettiest object in the whole scenery of Bootan. The 
vegetation of such, and of much higher elevations, is generally well 
diversified, until indeed one reaches an elevation of 11,500 feet ; at 
such I found it generally reduced to black firs, stunted junipers, 
and shrubby rhododendrons, the bulk, as regards amount of species, 

* These lower mountains are very frequently curiously marked with transverse 
ridges. These have much of the appearance of ancient terrace cultivation, but on 
inquiry I was assured that such was not their origin. 

25G Capt. Pembertoris Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [April, 

consisting of herbaceous plants, whose growth is confined to a very 
few congenial months, and which were almost all hid from my view 
by the heavy snow, so constant between the latter end of October and 
the commencement of May. Another striking feature in Bootan is the 
constancy with which southern faces of mountains are, especially 
towards their summits, bare of trees or shrubs ; this it has in 
common with other parts of the Himalayas both to the westward, 
where it has struck all travellers, and to the eastward, as on the 
Mishmees. I am not prepared to state whether any satisfactory 
explanation of this has been given ; it struck me to be due, in 
Bootan at least, to the searching severity of the winds, which are 
quite sufficient to keep down all luxuriance of vegetation. Whatever 
the secondary causes may be, there can be no doubt that the primary 
one is due to the influence of the south-west monsoon, to which all 
these faces of the Himalayan mountains are freely exposed. 

The higher the altitude the greater, as indeed might be expected, 
was the uniformity of vegetation, and it was only in such that any 
general features of vegetation could be said to occur. A very constant 
feature of high altitude, such as from 11,000 to 12,500 feet, existed in 
the black fir, a lofty tabuJarly branched tree of a very peculiar 
appearance, in comparison at least with other Bootan species, and 
which, when seen standing out in dark relief, might, from the very 
frequent mutilation of its lower branches, be mistaken at a distance for 
palm; with these there was as nearly a constant association of the 
same species of other plants. The most striking among the partial 
features of the vegetation of Bootan was presented to us by the three 
valleys, so often alluded to ; these may well be called the region 
of pines of that country. The range of the three species was most 
distinct and very instructive, although the Smithian Pine, a little 
further to the westward, descended to a somewhat lower elevation than 
it did in the tract above mentioned. 

Still more partial features were presented by the Pinus excelsa, and 
more especially by the Pinus longifolia, the distribution of both of which 
appears to depend on local causes. The latter species was not seen 
on our return, nor was tiiere a vestige of a fir visible after reaching 
Chuka ; no species but the long-leaved was seen below 5500 feet. 

I have in the foregoing few remarks merely glanced at the most 
familiar features of the botany of Bootan. As the importance of strict 
determination has been much insisted on before correct views can be 
formed of the botanical geography of any country, I have purposely 
omitted all details, until the collection shall have been duly examined; 
but even when this has been done, the difficulties arc almost insuper- 

1839.] Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 257 

able, for although Roxburgh died thirty four years ago, and the number 
of plants indigenous to India has been increased fourfold since that 
time, the means exist of determining but a very few more than those 
described by Roxburgh himself. It is familiar to all botanists that of 
the 8000 species distributed eight or ten years since by the Honorable 
Company, not more than 1000 have yet received their promised share 
of elaboration.* 

Bootan is divided into provinces which are ruled by Pillos, of whom 
there are three — the Paro, Tongsa, and Tacca : they derive their names 
from their respective residences ; the rank of the two first is, I believe, 
equal, and they are admitted into council, while that of Tacca Pillo 
is very inferior. 

The provinces are again divided into districts, equivalent to Sou- 
bahships; of these there are several. The Soobah's jurisdictions through 
which we passed were those of Dewangiri, Tassgong, Tassangsee, Leng- 
lung, and Byagur, all of which are in Tongsa Pillo's province. After 
leaving Tongsa we came into the province of Punukka, and after 
leaving this capital we came on the tract attached to that of Tassisu- 
don, or as it is called Tassjeung. The Soobahs all exercise supreme 
jurisdiction within their own limits, but pay a certain annual amount 
of revenue to their respective Pillos. The Soobahs of Dewangiri and 
Buxa are of subordinate rank. 

But besides these governors of provinces, and governors of districts, 
there are other officers of high rank, who assist in moving the machine 
of government ; they do not however make good exemplifications of the 
proverb, " in the multitude of counsellors there is wisdom." The 
offices of these additional counsellors are as follow — the Tass Troom- 
poon, or warder of the palace of Tassisudon ; the Puna Troompoon of 
the palace of Punukka; and Wandipore Troompoon of the castle of 
Wandipore ; then there is the Lam Trimpe on the part of the Dhurma, 
and Deb Trimpe on the part of the Deb. 

* The following passage was erased from the proof of Dr. Griffith's M.S. in the 
office of the Secretary to Government. We insert it as a note, on Dr. Griffith's and 
our own responsibility, and in the confidence that Dr. Wallich can readily give a full 
and a satisfactory answer to the implied charges. — Eds. 

" Had Dr. Wallich never been in India the matter would have been otherwise, as 
it would not then have been a matter of policy to remove every vestige of an Herba- 
rium from the Botanic Gardens, and to publish a confused catalogue of names without 
characters. As the matter now stands, Indian botanists are reduced to this, — they must 
either give up all the advantages they possess by being in India, and wait until all the 
species, amounting to 3 or 4,000, named by Dr. Wallich have been described by others 
in Europe from dried, and in many cases very imperfect specimens, or they must in no 
ease acknowledge the authority of any body to name an object without giving it a charac- 
ter, and publish such new species as they may deem to be new with their names and 
their descriptions." 

258 Capt. Vemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [April, 

The supreme authorities are the Dhurma and Deb Rajahs ; the 
latter representing the temporal government in its strictest sense, as 
his reign is generally short ; the former the spiritual in as strict a sense, 
for he is, although infinitely divisible, quite eternal. The immorta- 
lity of the Dhurma is not so well known as that of the Lama of Thibet, 
it is nevertheless equally true; both appear to have been firmly be- 
lieved by Captain Turner, whose account of the behaviour and intel- 
ligence of the Grand Lama, an infant of some months old, is very 
amusing and characteristic. The present Dhurma is, as I have men- 
tioned, the son of Tongsa Pillo, a curious coincidence. 

The chief test of the authenticity of the infant in whom the Dhur- 
ma condescends to leave the regions of aether for those of gross spirits, 
consists in his recognising his former articles of wearing apparel, &c; 
and to avoid any supposition that might arise from the probability of 
any mortal child being struck with shewy gew-gaws, this child is 
bound to assert that they are actually his own ; if it does so, surely 
it is satisfactory evidence. The infant Dhurma may as well be found in 
the hut of the poorest peasant as in the residence of an officer of high 
rank, but I dare say, if the truth were known, he is usually made 
for the occasion. 

When he has been completely tested he is removed to the palace, 
and his life thenceforward becomes one of almost absolute seclusion. 
Surrounded by hosts of priests, and in the apparent enjoyment of 
most things deemed desirable by a Bootea, he is nothing but a state 
prisoner, virtually sacrificed to state ordinances. Neither is it proba- 
ble that he enjoys any power sufficient to recompense him for being 
cut off from the merry side of life, for if his teachers have been wise 
teachers, they probably rule him throughout. But all this holds good 
only on the supposition that his life is as really monastically rigid as 
those of some orders of Christian monks were not. We heard strange 
accounts, especially at Punukka, sufficient to suggest that a priest is 
not necessarily virtuous in Bootan more than any where else. 

His revenues are, I believe, derived from certain lands in the plains, 
and above all from offerings. He is also said to trade, but none of 
them can derive much profit from commercial speculations. 

It is in the Deb that the supreme authority as regards the internal 
economy of the country is vested. But supreme though he be called, 
as he can do nothing without consulting all the counsellors, including 
the Pillos, who have no cause to dread his displeasure, his power must 
be extremely limited, and very often disputed ; and, if it is remem- 
bered that he is always checked by those counsellors who are actually 
present with him, and that he holds no, or at least very little, territory 

1839.] Capt. Pembertorts Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 259 

on the plains ; and that a Pillo has no check on himself, that his pro- 
vince is perhaps remote from the capital, and that he has filled up all 
his offices with his own relations and friends, it is evident, I think, 
that the change from governor of a province to that of supreme ruler 
of the country must be attended with loss of power. Besides, the Deb 
is only expected to retain office for three years, at the end of which he 
is expected to retire, provided he be weak enough. 

The present Deb, if indeed he now exists, has no authority out of 
Punukka, and not too much even in his own palace. He was formerly 
Tacca Pillo, and this seemed to be the grand source of complaint 
against him. 

The chief object of the Deb, as is that of all his officers, is to accu- 
mulate money. The sources of this are plunder, fines, reversion of 
property to him by death of the owners (and this seems to be carried to 
a frightful extent), tributes from the Pillos, offerings on accepting office, 
trading, and the proceeds of lands in the plains ; but this last source 
cannot yield much, since the occupation of the best part by HerrGovindh. 
Our Deb, in addition to his usual sources, added another during our 
visit, by robbing the Dhurma of all his presents. The revenues of the 
Pillos are derived principally from their Dooars, or territories in the 
plains, by plunder either of their own subjects, or those of the British 
government, fines, in short by every possible method. 

Nothing can be said in favour of this many-headed government ; 
each Deb, each Pillo, each Soobah, -each officer in fact of high or low 
degree, is obstinately bent on enriching himself at the expense of his 
subjects or his inferiors ; and their object is to do this as rapidly as 
possible, as removals are always probable, and are almost sure to 
depend upon a change of the Deb. There is no security for property, 
and not much for life, but fines are fortunately deemed more pro- 
fitable than bloodshed, and, in short, the only safety of the lower 
orders consists in their extreme poverty. The whole proceedings of 
this government with the Mission were characterised by utter want 
of faith, honesty, and consideration. The trickery, intrigue, and false- 
hood could only be equalled by the supreme ignorance, presumption, 
and folly exhibited upon every occasion. Procrastination was a trump 
card in the game they played, mildness of deportment was pretty sure 
of inducing insolence, and they were only kept in decent order by per- 
ceiving that you were determined not to be trifled with. 

I am not disposed to assign their behaviour to the nature of the pre- 
sent temporary government ; it was only natural in an ignorant, very 
conceited people, who find that they are treated with distinguished 
consideration by the only power that admits them to an equality. The 

m m 

260 Capt. Pembertoris Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [April, 

preceding Deb, from convictions of interest, and from having tasted 
more than once of British liberality, might have treated the Mission 
with some consideration, but the issue as to business would doubtless 
have been the same. I regret much not being able to state more about 
the government of the country, and more especially its internal eco- 
nomy. The usual punishment for crimes is in fines, a method always 
resorted to wherever money is considered as the grand object. In 
Bootan I have little doubt but that the commission of grievous crimes 
would be encouraged, were the lower orders in condition to pay the 

I have before adverted to an instance of black treachery : that instance 
was furnished by a Mahomedan, Nuzeeb-ood Deen, a native of Cal- 
cutta; who having accompanied a trader into Bootan had been 
detained and placed in a state of captivity for twelve years. By some 
fortunate neglect on the part of the Booteas in the palace, he contrived 
to gain admission to Capt. Pemberton ; and his tale was so consistent, 
and bore such evidences of truth, that Capt. Pemberton claimed him 
as a British subject ; and the justice of the claim was very strongly 
urged by the prevarication of the Booteas, who indeed finally admit- 
ted it. Nuzeeb-ood Deen returned to the palace, but very luckily for 
him, Capt. Pemberton, who suspected that the Booteas might dispose 
of him privily, insisted much that he should be forthcoming when he 
called for him, and wrote to the Deb to the same purpose ; yet even 
under these circumstances, it was unanimously agreed that he should 
be cut to pieces and thrown into the river, but they refrained from 
doing so from fear of the consequences. As soon as he was given up, 
which happened a day or two before our departure, he placed himself 
under Captain Pemberton, who advised him not to associate with 
Booteas, and above all to eat or drink nothing from their hands. 
Nuzeeb-ood Deen however was not proof against a cup presented to him 
by a boy with whom he had been very intimate during his captivity. 
The consequences were every symptom of having partaken of some 
narcotic poison ; he was saved by the action of powerful emetics, but 
did not recover for some time afterwards; he was carried through 
the palace and throughout the first march on a Bootea's back. 

The population of the country is certainly scanty, and indeed could 
not be otherwise under existing circumstances. Villages are very ge- 
nerally " few and far between," in addition to their being small. The 
only decently populated bits of country we saw about Santagong and 
Tamashoo. The valley of the Teemboo as far as Panga was also 
tolerably populous, but it must be remembered that this is the princi- 
pal part of the great thoroughfare of the country. The palaces and 

1839-] Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 261 

castles are the only places well inhabited, but the inmates might 
very advantageously be dispensed with, as they consist of idle priests 
in excess, and bullying followers ; both too happy to live at the ex- 
pense of the poor cultivators. 

The causes of this scantiness of the population exist in polyandry, 
and one of its opposites agyny, in the bad government, and the filthy 
and licentious habits of the people. The great rarity of aged people 
struck us all very forcibly, and is a proof that whatever may be 
the proportion of births, the proportion of life is below average. The 
bad influence of polyandry is supposed to be counteracted by the idea, 
that the spouse of many will be faithful to the eldest so long as he 
may be present, and after him to the second, and so on ; — such an idea 
is at best absurd, and as regards Bootan women, is positively ridi- 
culous, their chastity not being of such a quality as to induce them to 
be particular as to relationship, or even acquaintance. 

The expected celibacy of so large a portion of the inhabitants, al- 
though probably assumed in some degree, and which depends either on 
acceptance of office or on the course of education, must be very 
pernicious. The large number thus withdrawn from propagating — the 
only good in their power — would lead us to suppose that polygamy 
would be of much more likely occurrence than polyandry ; and the 
custom is rendered still more paradoxical by the contrariety of custom 
observed amongst most other Asiatic people, who make polygamy 
almost an invariable consequence of worldly prosperity. 

In very many places there is obviously an extreme disproportion of 
females to males, yet it would be too much to assume that there is a 
general disproportion, although the two causes above adverted to be 
would sanction such a belief, unnatural as it may supposed to be. We 
could not ascertain that the apparent disproportion of females was 
the result of unnatural conduct on the part of the Booteas, although 
in my opinion they are sufficiently capable of destroying either male 
or female offspring, did they consider it expedient to their interests. 

Of the diseases, which in all countries form so essential a part of the 
causes tending to diminish population, I know nothing. The few pati- 
ents 1 had at Punukka were all suffering from venereal, frequently in 
its worst form. Chillong Soobah assured me that such cases occur in 
the proportion of one in five. 

The number of half-ruined villages would suggest the idea that the 
population was formerly more extensive than it now is. But it must 
be remembered that, in this as well as most other hilly parts of India, 
the population is partly migratory. In a country where agriculture is 
not understood, where no natural means exist for renovating the soil, 

262 Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [April, 

and no artificial ones are employed, the population must vary their 
abodes in accordance with means of subsistence. The only cause for 
surprise is that they should build such substantial houses ; they may 
do so with a view of returning to them after the ground has been 
sufficiently fallowed. 

Education. Of the course of this essence of the growth of the mind 
I can state nothing. If the assumption of the habits of priesthood 
be considered as the first step of education, it is rather extensive; 
but I doubt whether a Bootea boy may not wear these robes for 
years and then throw them off improved in no good, but in all vice. 
There is scarcely a village in Bootan in which some exterior decorations, 
as well as the whole air of the house, do not indicate it to be the 
favoured residence of a priest ; yet I never heard the hum of scholars 
in any other place than Dewangiri, in which, and it is a curious 
coincidence, priests were comparatively uncommon. 

The Booteas appear to have no caste ; they are divided, however, 
into several sects, and in the account of the Persian sent into Bootan 
by Mr. Scott, whose account may be found in the fifteenth volume of 
the Asiatic Researches, as many as fifteen are enumerated. It does 
not appear, however, that the possession of the higher offices is con- 
fined to the higher sects ; for Tongsa Pillo is known to be a man of a 
low sect, although he may be considered, from his station and con- 
nexions, the most powerful man in the country. 

Most Booteas have much of the same appearance ; to this however 
the people about Bhoomlungtung, Byagur, and Jaisa, as well as those 
about Rydang are marked exceptions, and have much more of what I 
imagine to be the Tartar appearance.* 

If we look at those sects which do not depend upon blood, but 
upon education or circumstances, we may divide the inhabitants into 
labourers, priests, idle retainers, and great men, which is in many 
places another word for tyrants. The labourers are better acquainted 
with poverty than any thing else, and are lucky in being allowed to 
have such a safeguard. 

Perhaps the most numerous, and certainly the most pernicious 
class, is that of the Priests or Gylongs. Their number is really astonish- 
ing, particularly when compared with the population in general. Not 
only do they swarm in the castles and palaces, of which they occupy 
the best and most exalted parts, but they inhabit whole villages, which 
may be always recognised by the houses being somewhat white- washed, 
of a better than ordinary description, and always in the best and 

* The people again towards Buxa are of very distinct appearance, but this results 
from a tolerably free admixture of Bengalee blood. 

1839.] Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 263 

coolest situations. Of their grades of rank I can say nothing, but 
much importance seems to depend upon due agedness. The highest 
were usually admitted to the interviews, and of course expected to be 
recompensed for the honour they did us ; but as they were well con- 
tented with two or three rupees, their ideas cannot be said to be 
extravagant. They are perhaps rather more cleanly than other 
Booteas, and are reported to bathe publicly every week ; but although 
we frequently saw processions in single files, in all cases headed by a 
small drum, a sort of gong, a clarionet, and an incense bearer, the 
priests following according to their seniority, the youngest noviciate 
ending the tail, I am not convinced but that the bathing part may be 
more nominal than actual ; one thing at least is certain, that the duty, 
whatever it was, was agreeable, otherwise we should not have seen the 
processions so often. 

They are kept in order in the castles by hide whips, in the use 
of which some of the brethren are neither sparing nor discriminating. 
The dress is becoming, consisting of a sleeveless tunic, generally of a cho- 
colate colour, and edged with black or yellow. They are certainly bet- 
ter off than any other class : their chief duty is to be idle, to feast at 
the expense of the country, and at most, to tell their beads and recite 

The idle retainers form also a large portion, though by no means 
equal to that of the priests. As little can be said in the favour of these 
as in that of those, but they have one disadvantage in not being able to 
make use of their religion as a cloak for evil deeds. In these two classes 
all the most able-bodied men in the country are absorbed: they are 
taught to be idle and to become oppressors, and what is very bad in 
such a thinly populated country, they learn to look upon the ordinance 
of marriage, and its usual consequences, as a bar to their own interest. 
Of the great men I can only say that their influence is undeviatingly 
directed to the furtherance of their interests ; they become governors to 
oppress, not to protect the governed — they rule by misrule; and as 
being the sources of the two great evils I have just mentioned — priests 
and retainers — they are themselves the greatest curse that ever was 
inflicted upon a poor country. 

Of the moral qualities of the Booteas it is not in my power to give a 
pleasing account. To the lower orders I am disposed to give credit for 
much cheerfulness, even under their most depressed circumstances, 
and generally for considerable honesty. The only instances of theft 
that occurred did so on our approach to the Capital. How strange, that 
where all that should be good, and all that is great is congregated, 
there is little to be found but sheer vice ; and how strange, that 

264 CapL Veniberton's Mission to Boolan, 1837-3& |_ Aphid, 

where good examples alone should be led, bad examples alone are 

To the higher orders I cannot attribute the possession of a single 
good quality. They are utter strangers to truth, they are greedy 
beggars, they are wholly familiar with rapacity and craftiness, and the 
will of working evil. This censure applies only to those with whom 
we had personal intercourse ; it would be perhaps unfair to include 
the Soobahs, whom we only saw once, in such a flattering picture, 
but it certainly would not be unreasonable ; and I must make one 
exception in favour of Bullumboo, the Soobah of Dewangiri, and he 
was the only man of any rank that we had reason to be friendly 
towards and to respect. In morale they appeared to me to be inferior 
to all ordinary Hill tribes, on whom a Bootea would look with in- 
effable contempt ; and although their houses are generally better, and 
although they actually have castles and places called palaces, and 
although the elders of the land dress in fine cloths and gaudy silks, 
and possess money, ponies, mules, and slaves, I am disposed to consi- 
der them as inferior even to the naked Naga. 

They are not even courageous. I am inclined to rank courage among 
physical rather than moral qualities, yet it could not so be classified 
in the consideration of a Bootea, in whom other physical qualities are 
well developed. I therefore consider it among those other qualities 
which, as I have said, are absent in Bootan. A Bootea is a great 
boaster, but a small performer. All the accounts I heard of their re- 
puted courage were ludicrous. Turner mentions seriously that one 
desperate revolution superinduced the death of one man in battle; 
and we were told that in the late protracted one, the only sufferers 
were two sick people who were unable to escape from a burning house. 
In a military point of view they could only make up for their deficiency 
in numbers by an excess of courage and of perseverance under diffi- 
culties. They are not even well versed in the use of their national 
weapons. The Gourkha Soubahdar who accompanied the Mission 
looked on them with the utmost contempt, and this knowledge he had 
gained by long experience. In Mr. Scott's time a handful of Assamese 
sebundies would take stronghold after stronghold, and lead off all the 
tenants, excepting the defenders who had run away, as captives ; and 
very lately 700 Booteas, with every advantage of ground, were totally 
routed by seventy of the same sebundies. Their courage may there- 
fore be written down as entirely imaginary. 

Their ideas of religion appear to be very confused ; religion with 
them consisting, as indeed it may do among other more civilised 
people, of certain external forms, such as counting beads, and mutter- 

1839.] Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 265 

ing sacred sentences. The people throughout are remarkably super- 
stitious, believing in an innumerable host of spirits, whose residences 
they dare not pass on horseback; and while they are near these 
abodes they keep the tenant at bay with vollies of incantations. The 
offerings to these spirits are usually flowers, or bits of rag ; this prac- 
tice they have in common with most of the tribes to the extreme east 
of Assam. 

Of any marriage ceremonies I could not hear; but as chastity would 
appear to be unknown, no particular forms are probably required ; 
nor do I think that there is a particular class of prostitutes. We all had 
opportunities of remarking the gross indelicacy of Bootea women ; of 
this and of their extreme amiableness, the custom of polyandry is a 
very sufficient cause. So far as I could see, there is no distinction of 
rank among Bootea women, and those only are saved from the per- 
formance of menial duties who are incapacitated by sickness or age. 

If the account given by Mr. Scott's Persian of the ceremonies atten- 
dant on birth be true, another sufficient cause exists for scantiness of 
population, as well as for a disproportion of women. He asserts that 
the second day after birth both child and mother are plunged into the 
nearest river ; but so great is the dislike of a Bootea for this element, 
that I am inclined to discredit the account, and more especially as 
regards the mother. 

The disposal of corpses is much the same as among the Hindoos : 
the ashes of the body are collected, and are, I believe, thrown into the 
nearest river. The ceremonies, of course, begin and end with a dona- 
tion to the officiating priest. The only part of them I witnessed was 
the burning, and this only in one instance ; it was done in a slovenly 
and disgusting manner. 

Of the social habits, little favourable could be said in any place 
where the women are looked on as inferior beings, and used as slaves. 
The men generally are excessively idle, and spend most of their time 
in drinking chong, for the preparation of which, as well as that of 
arrack, there are provisions in most houses. I do not think I ever 
saw a male Bootea employed, except indeed those who acted as 
coolies. All the work in doors and out of doors is done by women, to 
whom about Punukka Assamese slaves are added. The men are great 
admirers of basking in the sun, and even prefer sitting shivering in the 
cold to active employment. 

I need scarcely add that both sexes are in all their habits inexpres- 
sibly filthy. The women in their extreme indelicacy form a marked 
contrast with such other Hill tribes as I am acquainted with. 

The only use either sex make of water is in the preparation of food 

266 Capt. Pembertoris Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [April, 

or of spirits — no water ever comes into contact with any part of their 
person ; they scarcely ever change their clothes, especially the woollen 
ones. The people about Bhoomlungtung are far the dirtiest, and as 
they wear dark woollen cloths, rendered still darker by long accumu- 
lation of smoke and dirt, they look more like representations of natives 
of Pandemonium, than of any place on the earth's surface. 

As they, at least the official part, are very assuming, so does state 
enter largely into all their proceedings. All our interviews with 
them were conducted with all possible state on their part ; and that 
exhibited to us at Tongsa and Punukka, was striking enough, and 
will ever after form in my mind as bitter a satire upon state as one 
could well wish. The effect was much lowered by the usual Asiatic 
want of arrangement, by an assumption of superiority among the in- 
feriors (probably enough at the instance of their superiors), and by the 
admixture of the profanum vulgus, who had no opportunity of hiding 
inherent dirt under fine robes. On these occasions the behaviour of 
the chief was certainly gentlemanly, but the impression was soon ob- 
literated by a messenger overtaking us, probably on our return, for 
another watch, or another telescope, or any other thing. In personal 
appearance I did not observe much difference between the higher and 
the lower orders, with the exception of the ex-Pillo of Tongsa, who 
seemed to have the best blood in the country concentrated in him. 
The presents given as returns of the magnificent gifts of the Governor 
General were beggarly ; and yet there was a good deal of parade in 
their exhibition. To us narrow silk scarfs were always given, occa- 
sionally varied with a foot and a half of blanket. The scarfs are 
habitual gifts among all the upper classes, and very generally form 
the inner envelope of letters. 

Fine woollens and embroidered China silks form the dress of the 
nobles ; thick cotton or woollen doublets or tunics are common to every 
body else, but the chiefs probably have similar dresses in private, at 
least their principal officers certainly have ; and the only difference in 
such cases is the belt, from which the dha is on occasions suspended 
these are embroidered, and have a rich appearance. ,Tne dress of all 
is certainly cumbrous, especially when the peculiarly Chinese boots are 
donned. The boots of the higher orders are certainly not made in 
Bootan ; those of the lower orders consisted of a foot of some skin, with 
party-coloured woollen leggins, which lie above the calf. They are worn 
by both sexes. 

The general receptacle for odds and ends, and a most capacious one it 
is, is between the skin and the doublet. Into this, which (consequent 
to one side being formed by the body) is not of the cleanest description, 

1839.] Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 267 

every thing is thrust, from a handful of rice to a walnut, from a live 
fish to a bit of half putrid dried meat. Tobacco is carried in a small 
pouch suspended from one side. 

A dha, or straight sword of a heavy description, is worn by all who 
can afford it, and the belt of this secures the loose doublet about the 
waist, and prevents the innumerable deposits therein from falling down. 
Those who cannot wear dhas from poverty, wear ridiculous looking 
knives, which dangling from the belt have a very absurd appearance. 
It is lucky that the people are not quarrelsome, and not inclined to 
resist the followers of chiefs, otherwise from the men being so generally 
armed, and so generally addicted to drinking, assaults might be ex- 
pected to be of common occurrence ; I only saw however one instance 
in which a man had been wounded. I certainly shuddered at times, 
expecting every moment to see adverse parties multiply each other by 
division ; but latterly I was persuaded that cutting blows were rarely 
resorted to. The end of these disputes, which barring the blows 
were very fierce, was always brought about by the arrival of some 
third person, who by espousing one, espoused the stronger cause, and 
when this was done the weaker withdrew, or was made to withdraw 
by blows with the flat side of the weapon. 

The accoutrements of a man of war differ, so far as his mere dress 
goes, in nothing. His defences consist of a well quilted iron skull-cap, 
which, when out of danger, is worn slung on the back ; lappets are 
attached to it which defend the face — perhaps from cold. They also 
carry circular leathern shields, apparently of rather good manufacture. 
Their weapons of defence are first the dha, which is a heavy unwieldy 
weapon, without any guard. They are worn on the right side, 
but this to us awkward mode of wearing does not hinder a Bootea 
from disengaging his weapon readily, the sheath being first seized by 
the left hand. A blow from this weapon must cause a desperate 
wound, and judging from their quarrels, in which not a vestige of any 
skill in self-defence was shewn, the first blow, when actually struck, 
must decide the matter. Their fire arms, which are all matchlocks, 
and which vary in size from musketoons to huge wall pieces, are con- 
temptible : they are of Chinese manufacture. Their powder, which 
they manufacture themselves, is powerless ; indeed in one sense it may 
be considered as positively lessening power, for Captain Pemberton 
and Lieut. Blake ascertained that in ordinary charges it could not cause 
the discharge of the wad, and hence it actually weakened the cap. 
To remedy this badness they put in very large charges, but after all they 
seem to depend more on the effect of the noise than on that of the 
missile, for so little reliance is placed on this, that the marksman is 

n n 

268 C'apt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [April, 

said to follow up the discharge by the piece by the discharge of a 
stone. It is likewise said that few venture to take aim except with 
the stone ; they generally attach the gun to a tree, and without point- 
ing it consider that they have performed a dangerous feat by causing 
its discharge. All the musketeers I saw, even when there was 
no ball in the gun, certainly averted their faces very studiously when 
the due fizzing of the powder warned them that the explosion would 
soon come on. 

The most common weapon next the dha is the bow : this we only 
saw practised at Dewangiri, and the result was not alarming. The 
bows are longer than ordinary, at least so they appeared to my inex- 
perienced eyes. It must be remembered that they do not, as in 
some more civilised places, fire at marks the size of an ordinary house. 
The mark which we saw was a small battledoor-shaped piece of 
wood, the distance was 150 yards, and the situation of the mark was 
pointed out by branches of trees ; scarcely an arrow alighted with- 
in reasonable distance, yet the mark bore several marks, which we 
knew were made for the occasion. Each archer was very noisy in ap- 
plauding his own skill, and challenging the others to equal it. 

The dress of the women likewise consists of a loose garment, and is 
very similar to that worn by Hill tribes to the eastward of Assam. 
They have very few ornaments : the chief ones consist of a plate of 
silver fastened round the head, and crossing the upper part of the fore- 
head, wire ear-rings of large dimensions, and peculiar rings fastened to 
a straight silver wire and worn projecting beyond the shoulder. They 
appear to be fond of flowers, and frequently decorate themselves with 
garlands, particularly of the scarlet rhododendron and the weeping 

The diet of the lower orders is very, very poor ; they appear to live 
entirely on grain of an inferior nature, or in the wheat districts on 
coarse, abominably dirty chowpatties. There can be little doubt but 
that in many places they are not unfrequently much pinched by 

The chiefs and their followers, and the inmates generally of the 
castles, live chiefly on rice brought from the plains ; they likewise con- 
sume much dried fish, and very likely not a little dried meat, which 
they prepare by means of fire and smoke. They are as strict in their 
ideas of not eating flesh of living animals as the Burmese are ; and 
they are beyond doubt very fond of animal diet : the salt is I believe 
brought from Thibet : they eat with the hand. 

Their beverages are in the first place tea, but this is I believe used 
only by persons of some rank or property : they procure this from 

1839.] Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 269 

Thibet, in the form of huge flat cakes : it does not possess a particle 
of aroma. Still more common is the beverage called runga pat, which 
may be likewise used for the tea; if their accounts can be relied 
on it is prepared from the leaf of a pear or medlar. I had no anxiety 
to taste it as it was of a muddy appearance and reddish colour. 

Of intoxicating fluids they have two; one of these is merely fer- 
mented, and is known by the name of chong ; it is a vile preparation 
from rice, made in the same manner, but very inferior in quality 
to that used by the Singphos. To this drink, which is not strong, 
they are immoderately addicted, and it generally is carried with them 
on journeys in large horns made from the horns of the Mithan. 

The distilled liquor I had one opportunity of tasting; it was 
very clear, and much resembled weak whisky, as the Soobah had 
I imagine diluted it prior to distribution to the spectators. 

The political relations of the country are as limited as the boun- 
daries. With Sikkim they appear to have no intercourse. In the 
Kampas to the eastward there is some reason to believe that they 
pay an annual tribute. That they are tributary indirectly to Lhassa, 
and now directly to China, there can be no doubt, although the 
official people most strenuously denied it. It was affirmed indeed that 
a considerable time ago the Chinese were in actual possession of the 
country, but relinquished it finally on account of its poverty. China 
also exercises its authority in inflicting fines on them, and keeps 
guards on all the passes into Thibet. The tribute is taken I believe 
annually to Lhassa accompanied with an envoy. With the British 
government its chief relations have existed owing to the occupation of 
certain tracts in the plains called Dooars, from their being situated 
near the passes into the mountains. These tracts are of considerable 
extent, and are held by the Booteas on toleration, as the tribute they 
are under the obligation to pay is not only so small in amount as to 
be quite nominal, but is generally allowed to lapse into arrears. 

In assigning the continuation of the possession of these tracts where- 
ever an accession of dominion was gained, the British government 
acted with its usual liberal policy; but this liberality has been so 
little appreciated by the people of Bootan, that the system, as it has 
worked hitherto, has been fraught with mischief; it has been most 
positively injurious to the territories in the plains, and it is, I think, 
injurious to Bootan itself. 

We had ample opportunities of observing the extremity of misrule 
to which the Dooars in Assam as well as those in Rungpore are sub- 
jected by the infamous government of the Booteas, and it was the 
more striking from the contrast presented by our Assamese territories, 

270 Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [April,, 

and as much so, by those of Cooch Behar. The crossing of a river 
eighty yards wide is sufficient to carry one from a desert into a coun- 
try, every incli of which is highly cultivated ; yet the richness of 
the soil is in favour of the tracts immediately contiguous to the Hills, 
and such are, in Assam at least, especially esteemed by the most 
laborious part of the population, the Kacharies ; and were it not for 
this predeliction in favour of these tracts, and the short-sightedness 
peculiar to a native population, by which immunity from taxation is 
preferred to security of property, the Assamese Dooars would rapidly 
become totally depopulated. 

A gift long granted as a favour, in the eyes of an Asiatic, is soon con- 
sidered as a right ; and although the Bootea government has received 
some severe lessons in the shape of capturing their impregnable places, 
and of a resumption of portion of the Plain tracts, yet the free and 
quick restoration of the same on apologies having been made, with 
copious professions of better behaviour in future, has been attended 
with a very different result from that which would be occasioned by 
gratitude. The very severe lesson which they were taught in 1836, in 
which they were completely disgraced by being defeated by a handful 
of sebundies, and then punished by losing a Dooar, has taught them 
nothing. That very same Dooar, perhaps too liberally restored, has 
been for some months seizable for arrears of tribute. Nor is this all; 
since that restoration it would appear that their officers have become 
more than usually insolent. I think that it may fairly be assumed, 
that they argue on the certainty of restoration, so that a good foray 
might possibly, if its consequences were only temporary resumption, be 
a source of profit to them. By the plan of allowing barbarians to 
hold country in the plains, the inhabitants of those plains lose a portion 
of their most fertile soil ; many of them are besides exposed to all the 
inconveniences and dangers of an unsettled frontier, for such must 
such a frontier be ;* and hitherto it has not been attended, at least 
in many places, with the expected effect of securing the friendship of 
the Booteas, and the quiet of the frontier. 

But no argument can place the matter in a clearer light than the 
facts connected with Herr Govindh, a subject of Bootan, but who is 
now independent both of Bootan and of the English government, and 
who therefore enjoys considerable tracts of country without paying any 
thing for them ; nor can any thing more forcibly point out the weak- 
ness of the Bootea nation, for not only does Herr Govindh keep them 
in effectual check, but he has, I believe, offered to take all the Dooars 

* Occupation of such tracts is very favourable to the carrying off of slaves, an habi- 
tual practice I have no doubt with the Booteas. 

1839.] Capt. Vembertoris Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 271 

from them, if the government will allow him to pay 40,000 Rupees a 
year as tribute. 

It acts injuriously on Bootan by diminishing the energies of its in- 
habitants, and suppressing the development of those resources which 
every habitable country may be supposed to possess. It must be re- 
membered that the cultivation of the Plain tracts is not, as in some 
other instances, carried on by the inhabitants of the mountains, but by 
the natives of the Plains, who after reaping the produce of their labour 
appear to be compelled to take it to the first station in the Hills, from 
which it is distributed to the appointed places. 

In all cases of entreaty for restoration it has been urged that the in- 
habitants of Bootan cannot subsist without these tracts, but they forget 
that by labouring in their own country they might supply themselves 
either with grain, or the means of purchasing it; and further, that the 
supplies drawn from the Plains are only enjoyed by the chiefs and 
their followers. 

Some distress would doubtless result from immediate and final re- 
sumption, but this distress would be confined to the better orders, and 
would be a due punishment to them; it would in a short time be 
abundantly counteracted by the reduction of the Gy longs, and by the 
compulsion of a great number of idle hands to work for subsistence. 
It would also, I think, have a beneficial effect in lessening internal 
commotions. The ambition or rapacity of a chief is now readily 
seconded by the greediness of his idle followers, but were these 
necessitated to become agriculturists they would certainly not respond 
very readily to his call ; as matters now stand, in short, there is a 
ruinous drainage of a very fertile tract of country, without any sort of 
return whatever ; for the revenue derived from one Dooar during, 
a short season that it remained in our hands was amply beyond 
all proportion to the tribute ; and it may fairly, I think, be stated 
that a country which draws every thing from another, and makes no 
return, may be compared to a parasite, the removal of which is 
always desirable, and very frequently essential. The Bootan go- 
vernment has been invariably treated with great liberality by the 
greatest power in the East, and how has it requited it f It has 
requited it by the rejection of a treaty which could only be productive 
of advantage to them, by shuffling mendacity, by tampering with 
British subjects, and by inconsiderate conduct to a British Mission, 
evinced in many other ways than that of opening its daks. They ob- 
ject to forwarding communications to Lhassa, they object to British 
traders entering their country, and, in fine, they object to every thing 
that is reasonable, and that would be mutually advantageous. In short, 

272 Capt. Pemberfon's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [April, 

they shewed themselves to be ignorant, greedy barbarians, such as 
should be punished first, and commanded afterwards. 

The objection raised against the resumption of the Dooars, on the 
plea that no check will then exist on the Booteas, is one contrived 
to meet expediencies : it has never been attended with the supposed 
effect. The affair of Herr Govindh, and the recent victory at Silka- 
bhari are convincing proofs that the Booteas may easily be kept with- 
in their own limits. And even arguing the necessity of an increased 
military force, it must not be forgotten that the same tract which now 
yields us nothing but a few debased coins, a few inferior ponies, with 
abundance of disputes and law suits, would in a very short time be- 
come equal in richness to any of the neighbouring tracts, rich as these 
undoubtedly are. 


[Natural productions, agriculture, domestic animals, arts, and commerce A 

Few wild quadrupeds were seen by us in Bootan. Tigers, leopards, 
and elephants are to be found on the lower ranges, and probably the 
former straggle up to as considerable a height as they do to the west- 
ward. The chief beasts of prey in the interior are bears, but they 
do not seem to be numerous, and foxes of large size and great beauty : 
these last are confined to considerable elevations, and none were seen 
under 8000 feet. 

Monkeys as usual abound on the lower ranges, on which the 
Hoollock of Assam likewise occurs. Some long-tailed monkeys occur- 
red above Bulphai, 8200 feet above the sea; and in January I 
likewise saw a flock of noble ones not far from Tongsa, at an elevation 
of 5800 feet ; these were white, and in form and size resembled the 
Langoors. Among wild ruminants, I may mention the barking deer, 
which however scarcely ascend above 4000 feet, and the musk deer, 
the most valuable wild animal of the country. It would appear to 
be rather common on the higher ranges, as several skins were brought 
to us from Punukka; the price for us, of a perfect one, that is with- 
out the musk, being five rupees. 

The smaller animals that came under our notice were a species^ 
I believe, of Lagomys, which Lieut. Blake found dead on the path, one 
or two animals of the weasel kind, and rats which swarm in very 
many of the houses. 

Three or four species of squirrel were likewise procured, all from 
elevations of 5500 feet, yet all were likewise natives of Assam. The 

1839.] Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 273 

most striking one is a black one, with a whitish belly, measuring, 
including the tail, nearly three feet.* 

The variety of birds is, of course, considerable, but the lower ranges 
seem to be by far the most productive ; on these jungle fowl and two 
species of black pheasant are found. The raven is found throughout, 
but the very familiar crow or jackdaw never leaves the plains, and 
never leaves populous places. Throughout the higher portions of 
Bootan it has as noisy, but scarcely possibly as mischievous a substi- 
tute in a red-legged crow. This is common in the three elevated 
valleys, and not rare elsewhere at elevations of 8000 to 9500 feet : and 
below these it is scarcely to be seen. Cuckoos, larks, magpies, jays, 
and sparrows were the chief European forms met with, but except the 
latter, perhaps, all were of different species from the birds known by 
those names in Europe. 

The cuckoo is rather widely dispersed. I first heard it about 
Punukka, and subsequently along the Teemboo, at an elevation of 
7000 feet ; below this height, at least in this direction, its peculiarly 
pleasing voice was not heard, although I think I saw the bird consi- 
derably lower. With the magpie, which has much of the plumage of 
the European bird, but a shorter tail, we became familiar at Bhoom- 
lungtung, but lost it at Jaisa. The jay, a figure of which may be seen 
in Mr. Royle's Illustrations, was found pretty constantly throughout 
the wooded tracts between 5500 to 7000 feet ; it is a noisy, but not a 
very wary bird. Larks were very common in the elevated valleys, and 
afforded us some good shooting ; in habits, plumage, and voice they 
are to an uninitiated eye the prototypes of the bird so well known in 
Europe. In the same valleys Syrases were common. Wild fowl are, as 
might be expected, rare ; the only place where they occurred in toler- 
able plenty was in the jheel below Santagong. The most destructive 
and numerous bird is the wild pigeon, which is to be found in plenty 
in almost every village, and in literal swarms in the castles and 
palaces : they do a great deal of damage to the poor ryots, who are 
not allowed to destroy them, on account of their being sacred. This 
exclusion holds good very strictly about the residences of the chiefs ; 
and, although the villagers were in all cases delighted to see them shot, 
yet they keep no check on their increase, as they have no means of 
destroying them, and appear never to have thought of doing so by 
means of their eggs. At Byagur, the place of this bird was supplied 
by another very curiously marked species, which, it is said, likewise 
occurs about Simla. 

* Sciurus beng-morkus, McCl. 

274 Capt. Vembertons Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [April, 

None of the wild birds are made subservient to use ; indeed the 
natives appear to be very deficient in means for procuring them. The 
sacredness of life may be one reason, but even the most superstitious 
will eat any bird one shoots, provided it be large enough to promise a 
substantial repast. 

The same remark is applicable to fish, which are common in most 
streams below 4000 feet. The two most common are the Bookhar, 
which is scarcely found higher than 2000 feet, and the Adoee, which is 
found as high as 4000 feet, and perhaps higher, but its habits render 
it difficult to see. The Bookhar abounds in the Deo Nuddee below 
Dewangiri ; it is from the sport it affords, and the great readiness with 
which it takes a fly, to be considered as the trout of India. The Adoee 
is said to refuse all bait, and I have found this to be the case not only 
in this instance, but in all those which have a similarly situated 
mouth, such as the Sentoosee, Gurriah, and Nepoorah of Assam. At 
Punukka, where the Adoee is plentiful, it is caught by nooses ; such as 
were so caught were all small, and the young anglers were obviously 
afraid of detection. At this place I saw a solitary instance of the use of 
a casting net, but I suspect that it was under authority ; elsewhere I 
observed none even of the ordinary rude expedients for catching fish. 
Both of the above fish are nutritious food, and are so plentiful that they 
really might form a valuable acquisition to the miserable diet of the 
lower classes ; but this would not suit the benevolent ideas of the priests, 
who however appear to eat stinking dried fish from the Plains with 
great sang froid. To the poor in Bootan every thing is denied. Bees 
appear to be plentiful, but their buildings are passed with indifference 
by the lazy Bootea. 

Of the vegetable productions that occur naturally in Bootan, the ap- 
plication for purposes of life is confined to timber, fuel, and dyes.* Of 
the various kinds of timber trees I am quite ignorant ; they are 
used chiefly for rafters, planks, and troughs, either for aqueducts 
or for mangers. A great part of the planking is derived from fir trees, 
which are always preferred for fuel. Of the turpentine procurable 
from their various species of Pinus they seem to make no use, so 
that they are ignorant of one great value of these valuable trees ; that 
of the Pinus excelsa is very abundant, and highly fragrant. In the 
lower ranges the bamboo becomes of almost universal application, and 
constitutes the greater portion of the huts of the inhabitants of these 
districts ; baskets of various sizes, and implements for clearing the rice 
from the husk by agitation, &c. are likewise manufactured from it. 

* Although the Bogh Pitttur, or path, is found in abundance on the higher ranges, 
yet it is not resorted to for furnishing an article of trade. The tree is a species of 
birch, and the thin flakes of its bark arc used in the composition of hookah snakes, 

1839.] CapL Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 275 

In similar places rattans are m demand, and several valuable 
sorts may be procured. They form the fastening of all the bam- 
boo work, are used in some places to secure the roofs from the 
effects of the violence of the winds, and form a great portion of the 
baskets in which loads are in this country universally carried. These 
are very convenient receptacles, forming a rather narrow parallelogram ; 
they are frequently covered with hides, they open at the top, and are 
the most convenient hill baskets I have hitherto seen. 

The Booteas depend on the plains for supplies of betel-nuts, 
otherwise they might advantageously cultivate the tree on many 
of the lower ranges. So far as I had an opportunity of judging, they 
possess few wild palms of any description, excepting rattans ; I ob- 
served one, which grows on inaccessible places as high as 2000 feet, 
and which will probably prove new, but I did not succeed in obtaining 
the specimen requisite for actually determining whether it is so or not. 
Ficus elastica, the caoutchouc tree, occurs about Dewangiri, but not 
in abundance, and may be expected to occur throughout greater part 
of the ranges between the Plains and an elevation of 3000 feet. 
They are aware of the properties of the juice, and use it to make 
vessels formed from split bamboos, water-proof. The Simool tree 
likewise occurs within similar elevations, but they make no use of it, 
although in Assam the cotton is used for the manufacture of a very 
light and excessively warm cloth, excellently adapted for quilting. 

A solitary mango tree occurs here and there in villages even as 
high as 4000 feet. The finest occurs at Punukka, in the royal 
gardens, which are emblematic of the poverty and want of hor- 
ticultural skill in Bootan. It bears its flowers there at a time when 
the fruit is fully ripe in the Plains. 

Jack trees occur every where about the villages on the lower ranges, 
and is one of the few fruit trees from which they derive any 
gratification, These trees thrive remarkably well at elevations of 
2000 feet, particularly if within the influence of the Plains. 

In villages at similar elevations two or three species of fig may be 
found, but the fruit is not edible ; no oranges are cultivated with a 
view to the market ; a few occur in some of the villages ; the tree does 
not occur above 5500 feet, and in such altitudes it requires a sheltered, 
sunny place. The oranges which we received as presents, all came 
from the Plains. With the orange, the shaddock also occurs in toler- 
able frequence. 

One of the most common fruit trees is the pomegranate, it does 
not thrive however above an elevation of 4000 feet : I saw no fruit on 

o o 

270 Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [April, 

the trees, which were however loaded with flowers; very fine ones 
occur about Punukka. 

They likewise possess peaches, (perhaps the almond) and pear trees : 
but I am unable to say of what nature the fruit may be ; we saw the 
trees during their flowering season. 

The Bheir also occurs at low elevations ; and in the gardens of 
Punukka I observed another species, forming a handsome good sized 
tree, but like most of the others, it was not bearing fruit. In the 
same garden there is cultivated a species of Diospyros with edible 
fruit, which also I did not see, and in fact we did not appear to have 
been in Bootan during the fruit season. The only fruit which we en- 
joyed were walnuts ; we procured these only at Punukka, most of them 
in presents from the Deb, and a few by purchase, but these were of in- 
ferior quality; these walnuts are very good, and would be much better 
were care taken at the time of gathering. The trees are said to be cul- 
tivated in orchards at considerable elevations, but we saw no attempt 
at any thing of the sort, although we met with a few isolated trees 
here and there. 

On the lower ranges, but scarcely above 3000 feet, the papaw occurs, 
but so far as I could see did not promise much return. Pine-apples, 
which occur so profusely on the Khasy hills, and are of so much 
use to the natives, are very rare in Bootan, as well as in those parts 
of the Dooars which we crossed. 

On our return, we met with a fruit which promised under improved 
cultivation to be agreeable enough ; it was about the size of a pigeon's 
egg, with a large smooth shining black seed ; in flavour it approached 
somewhat to the Sappadillo, to the natural family of which it would 
seem to belong. The only ornamental tree to which the Booteas are 
particularly attached is the weeping cypress : these occur about all 
the castles and palaces, and especially about religious buildings. It 
is as ornamental a tree as can be well conceived, and as it thrives 
between elevations of 5000 to 7000 feet, I was very anxious to obtain 
seed for introduction into England ; but all that I did obtain were bad, 
and I imagine that the female tree was alone met with. Of the grami- 
neous plants found wild in Bootan no use seems to be made ; wher- 
ever such plants are in requisition for thatching, the Plains are resort- 
ed to, as these, at least under the admirable management of the Bootea 
government, abound with Oollookher, Kagctra, Megala, Nol, and Iko- 
ra. The plants of the hills themselves are chiefly coarse species of An- 
dropogon, not serviceable for thatching ; among these the lemon grass oc- 
curs abundantly. I am not aware whether the natives of these mountains 
use any plants occurring naturally as vegetables, cooked or uncooked ; I 

1839.] Capt. Pembertons Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 277 

never saw any of that scrambling into the jungle on the part of the 
coolies which so generally occurs in Assam and Burmah, where every 
second or third plant is a favourite dish. 

Of their medicinal plants I am quite ignorant. Our guide, Chillong 
Soobah, who had a great leaning to the practice of physic, assured me 
that the Booteas were quite ignorant of any medicine whatever ; but 
this is so contrary to the prevailing practice among barbarous and semi- 
barbarous nations, that I place no confidence in the assertion. 

Of the mineral productions of the country I had no opportunity of 
learning any thing. The only article of this nature that I saw turned 
to account was clay for pottery ; and this was only met with at Punuk- 
ka. In short, whatever the resources of the country are, one thing is 
at least certain, that they have not yet been developed ; and I give 
the greater part of the nation credit for being amongst the most idle and 
most useless on the face of the globe. 

Of the agriculture of Bootan little is to be said, as so very large 
a proportion of the supplies is derived from the Plains. The state 
in which the little agriculture is, that is carried on, argues as little 
in favour of the amount of agricultural skill they possess, as the un- 
cultivated state of the Dooars does in favour of their numerical extent, 
or of that of their Plain subjects. 

Of Cerealia, or culmiferous plants, they have the following sorts : 
rice, wheat, barley, raggy, millet, maize ; and of farinaceous grains, 
not the produce of culmiferous plants, they have buckwheat; and 
of Atriplex, one or two species of the leguminous grains. They 
cultivate one or two species of Phaseolus, one of which is the Phaseo- 
lus, Max ; the Oror, Cytisus Casan ; the Pea, Pisum satirun. 

The only oily seeded plant I saw, and of this only fragments, was 
the Tel, Sesamum orientate ; I saw no reason however for supposing 
that they manufactured this oil themselves. 

Of the culmiferous plants, rice forms the staple article of food, and 
is perhaps exclusively used by the chiefs and their adherents, and the 
very numerous establishments of priests. It is only the staple article 
viewing the Dooars as forming part of Bootan, for in the interior 
the proportion borne by this grain to that of either wheat or barley 
is very small. 

Most of the spots available from situation and elevation are cultiva- 
ted in rice, but in all I saw, judging from the remains of the stubble, 
the crops must have been small. The cultivation is conducted in the 
ordinary manner, as is likewise the mode of preparing the slopes for 
irrigation, or in other words, terracing : as might be expected it is 
generally a summer crop, and in all places of sufficient elevation, is 

278 Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [April, 

made to alternate with winter crops of wheat or barley. The highest 
elevation at which we saw it cultivated was about Tongsa, to the 
north of which village there is a slope cultivated with it from an 
altitude of 5500 feet to one nearly of 7000 feet. 

It is principally used boiled in the ordinary manner, and in the pre- 
paration of their fermented and spirituous liquors. They do not seem 
to prepare it for eating in the dry state, as is so generally done by 
Hindoos. Wheat is perhaps the most common grain cultivated in the 
interior, yet I saw no instance of the promise of fine crops; it is 
cultivated as low as 3500 feet, and as high as 9000 feet, but the fields 
we saw at this elevation were miserably poor, from the effects of the 
bleakness of the winds. No particular steps are taken to favour its 
growth, except in the three elevated valleys, where manure is employ- 
ed from some attention to agriculture being absolutely indispensable. 
The grain is, I think, of inferior quality ; it is principally eaten in the 
shape of chowpatties, or cakes of heated dough. The flour is ground 
in mills turned by water, but the meal is badly cleaned. 

Barley is nearly of equally extensive cultivation, and I think 
arrives to somewhat greater perfection than wheat; the cultivation 
is precisely the same, and probably its application. Two or three sorts 
occur ; of these the finest indisputably is a six-rowed barley, but I 
am unable to say whether it is identical with the Hordeum hexastichon, 
the bear or bigg of Scotland. This sort occurred in great perfection 
along the ravine of the Teemboo, especially about Chupcha ; it was the 
only crop, really worthy of the name that we saw in the country. 

Of the remaining grains of this nature, Raggy,* Bobosa of Assam, is 
the most common ; it is of a very inferior nature, and is only used as 
a makeshift. Millet and maize are so limited in extent, as not to 
be worth consideration. 

Of the other farinaceous grains, buckwheat is the only one culti- 
vated to any extent ; it occurs throughout the greater part of Bootan, 
but especially about 4000 feet. This grain is either a great favourite 
with all Hill people, or it is of such easy cultivation as to compen- 
sate for its inferiority to some others. The Booteas do not appear to 
feed their cattle on it, and ours by no means approved of it. It 
is probably used as a bread corn. 

The species of Atriplex, and one or two of a nearly allied genus, 
Chenopodium, are scarcely worth notice. They occur in Bootan, as in 
most other mountainous countries in the East, and are more valuable 
as affording sorts of spinach than for the grains. Equally unworthy 

* Clcitsine Coracana. 

1839.] Capt Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 279 

of notice are the leguminous grains of Bootan ; and the few species 
I saw of the produce appeared to me more probably derived from the 
Plains than from any labour of their own. The only actual cultiva- 
tion of such I saw was a small plantation of oror below Benka or 
Tassgong, and this we were told was more with a view to the produce 
of lac than dal ; and of the pea, I saw one flourishing field of small 
extent between Tumashoo and Oongar. 

Of their various other " plants cultivated as vegetables for the table," 
I am quite as ignorant ; every thing in fact is derived from the Plains. 
We did not even meet with yams or kuchoos, both of which I have 
seen among other Hill people in great perfection. They are unaware 
of the value of the potatoe. 

Every body has heard of Bootan turnips, but very few have, I ima- 
gine, seen them. With the exception of a few we obtained at 
Dewangiri we saw none, nor when we reached the interior did we 
ever hear of any. There is no doubt however that excellent turnip 
seeds have been sent to some from Bootan, but whether from this 
bhote ka moolkh or the far finer one to the westward, I cannot state ; 
I only state their extreme rarity, so far as the Mission was concerned. 
Far more common is the Mola, or radish, which I suspect Turner 
mistook for turnips, for one has only to imagine that an actual Bootan 
radish is a real Bootan turnip, and it is so. The Bootan radishes 
grow to a large size, but they are very coarse and spongy, and heavy 
of digestion even to a Hindoo stomach. The cultivation chiefly 
occurs between 5000 to 7000 feet. 

Of plantains they possess a few specimens, which may be seen 
struggling for existence as high as 3500 feet. I did not even see any 
of the wild plantain, easily distinguishable from the white powder 
with which the under surface of the leaves is covered, and its large 
stature. This is common on the Himalayan range to the eastward, 
and ascends as high as 5000 feet. 

Of that most useful family the Gourd family, I saw no sorts under 
cultivation. As they depend on the Plains for all that in their opinion 
makes life tolerable, so do they depend upon their jungles for all 
flowers to which they may have a fancy, or which may be considered 
as agreeable for offerings. There is no such thing as a flower garden 
in the whole parts of the country we saw. The royal gardens at 
Punukka are scarcely an acre in extent, and stretch along ther iver 
from the bridge to the village. It was made originally with a view to 
use, never for ornament, and possesses now neither the one nor the 
other recommendation, although it has an Assamese gardener: oranges, 
shaddocks, pomegranates, the mango, jack, bheir, &c. &c, are to be found 

280 Capt. Temberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [April, 

in it. The Booteas shew some taste in their selection of wild flowers, 
which is more than can be said for the natives of Bengal, who 
approve of such vile things as Ganda, and Champa, and many other 
equally strong or equally gaudy productions. With Booteas rhodo- 
dendrons, especially the scarlet and the white arboreous sorts, are 
favourites, and I observed formed the greater part of some offerings 
lying in the presence of the Dhurma. 

The only cotton, and it was a miserable specimen, that I saw, I have 
mentioned as occurring along the Monass; yet we were told that a 
good deal was cultivated in similar places throughout Bootan. That 
we saw none is accounted for by the bulk of the population wearing 
woollen cloths, and by the remainder obtaining their supplies from the 
Plains. No plants were observed used for making cordage, the ropes 
used for fixing the loads being either made of twisted rattan, or horse- 
hair. On emergencies the bearers resort to the jungles, in which 
some very tenacious creepers may be found; but they appear to 
prefer the species of Daphne for this purpose, as the inhabitants of 
Upper Assam do the Ood-dal, a species of Sterculia. 

No sugar is cultivated in Bootan ; a few solitary specimens occurring 
about villages being the only specimens we saw. The cane itself is 
imported from the Plains, as well as ghoor. The same is equally appli- 
cable to tobacco, large quantities of which must be consumed, as all the 
men are great smokers. 

They do not appear to me to be great pan eaters ; their supplies 
of this are also derived from that source, which they do not scruple to 
drain so freely. A few straggling plants of hemp are to be met with 
amongst most villages at rather low elevations, but I never saw any to 
an extent sufficient to warrant me in supposing that any use was made 
of it. 

Of plants cultivated for dyeing, I am not aware that any cultivation 
is carried on. At Phullung, one villager was attempting to rear a few 
plants of the wild indigo, so much used in Upper Assam, and which 
I have elsewhere stated is a species of Ruellia. Of this plant which 
appears to abound in colouring material of a deeper, but less brilliant 
hue than that of indigo, I have not been able to meet with any ac- 
count that can be depended on. I have seen that in one of the volumes 
of the Transactions of the Agricultural Society it is mentioned as 
Ruellia carnosa: no good authority for the name is given, and on 
that of the book itself few, I imagine, will be willing to adopt it. 

The most common dye in Bootan is that furnished by the mungisth, 
it appears also to be the favourite colour. As the supply obtained from 
the jungles is plentiful, no means are resorted too to cultivate it. It 

1839.] Capt. P ember ton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 281 

forms one of the few articles of export from the country, and is gene- 
rally exchanged for dried fish. In Bootan at least two species are 
used, one of these is Roxburgh's Rubia mungista. Of the different 
species of Rubia very little is known, and that little is a good deal 
confused. From Mr. Royle's account it would appear that the article 
Munjeeth is the produce alone of Rubia cordifolia (R mungistha Roxb.) 
The two species used in Bootan are very distinct, and very general con- 
stituents of other mountainous floras ; one of them has leaves without 

Agriculture being in such a poor state, we need not look for im- 
provement in the implements by which it is carried on. The plough is 
a lumbering article, on the ordinary Indian principle, and the others are 
equally bad imitations ; but as the Booteas pride themselves on being 
warriors, they are not inclined to turn their swords into ploughshares, 
and until this is done no improvement can be expected. Manures, so 
far as I had opportunities of judging, are chiefly confined to the three 
great valleys ; they consisted chiefly of rotten fir leaves, and appeared 
to me to be of a very poor description. In these parts ashes of stubble 
and weeds are likewise spread over the surface, but the greatest por- 
tion of labour was expended in pulverising the surface. The natives 
likewise make use of the accumulation of filth under their houses, 
which judging from the depth of the layer is not always removed annu- 
ally. This is excellent manure, and is principally used about the little 
plots of ground attached to most of the villages. 

Of fences they are generally very regardless, or at best, place them 
where they are of no use. Thus the yards of many of the houses, 
and in some parts what are called gardens, are surrounded with stone 
walls ; some few rising crops are protected by branches of thorny shrubs, 
but generally the only defence exists in the shape of a herd-boy, 
who is regardful only of damage done by his own charge. 

In domestic animals they cannot be said to be rich. Chowry tailed 
cows certainly are not common, and would appear to be kept chiefly 
by the officers of high rank. As their range is restricted to very 
high elevations, they must be in Bootan of very limited utility. 
I only saw one sufficiently close to ascertain what kind of creature 
it was, and I was much disappointed in finding it an heavy, clumsy- 
looking animal; the specimen, however, was not a fine one. The 
only herds seen by the Mission were at elevations of nearly 10,000 feet. 
The Chowry tails exported to the Plains probably come from Thibet ; 
and judging from those which we saw, they are of very inferior 
quality. The cattle are used as beasts of burden. 

A much finer animal is the Mithun ; this is the same as the Mithun 

282 Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [April, 

of the Mishmees, or the animal so known in those parts to the 
Assamese by that name, but is very different from the Mithun 
of the JMeekir hills. This animal is not uncommon : the finest we saw 
were at Dewangiri, and none were seen after leaving Tongsa. Nothing 
can exceed the appearance of a fine bull ; it appears to me intermediate 
between the buffaloe and the English bull, but the cows have much 
less of the heavy appearance so characteristic of the buffaloe. Their 
temper is remarkably fine, and their voices or lowing very peculiar, 
resembling a good deal some of the cries of the elephant. I am 
not aware that they are of much use to the natives : the oxen are 
employed at the plough. As the Booteas do not seem to care for milk, 
they are probably kept with a view to sacrifice, which is with an 
Asiatic not unfrequently another word for feasting. 

The other breed which they possess, and which we only saw 
between Punukka and the Plains, assimilates much to the common 
cattle of Bengal ; it is however a much larger and a much finer animal. 

Sheep are not very common : the most we saw were rams, which 
formed a standing part of the russut. The ewes are used by the 
Kampas as beasts of burden, but I am not aware that they are of any 
use to the Booteas. Throughout Bootan I only saw two flocks. 

Goats are common enough, and appear to be of the ordinary Plain 
breed. We saw no Khussies, at least live ones, unless I except the six 
shawl goats sent by the former Deb as presents to the Governor 

All these animals are turned out during the day, either alone, or at- 
tended by boys. The cattle are picketted at night either in yards or 
about the villages: the goats find their own quarters in the ground floors 
of their owner's houses. Either no fodder at all is given, or they are 
provided with coarse straw, which evidently requires great effort to 
be eaten. During the rains their condition is much bettered ; in the 
cold weather it is bad enough, as the looks of the beasts testify. 

Pigs of ordinary customs are common enough, and were the only 
animals I saw slaughtered : they are kept with more care than 
either ponies or cows. They are generally treated to a wash once a 
day, consisting of a decoction of herbs, of which the common stinging 
nettle appears to be a favourite, and radish peelings. Most of the pigs 
we saw engrossed the tender cares of the women, who certainly paid 
much more attention to them than they would appear to do to their 
own children. They have peculiar cries well known by the pigs, who 
are generally very obedient, particularly if they see the wash-tub ; at 
night they also occupy the ground floors. The ponies of Bootan are 
sufficiently well known, and are I think much over-estimated. They 

1839.] Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 283 

are very inferior to the Ghoonts of Simla, in size, strength, and ap- 
pearance. Like all such creatures they are spirited, and sufficiently 
headstrong: they understand their duties perfectly, and are orderly 
enough on a line of march, unless the road is particularly easy. Very 
few first class ponies are to be found in Bootan, and none are to be 
obtained except, perhaps, at most exorbitant prices. The Booteas 
patronise nothing but stallions, the mares being almost exclusively 
used for breeding or for carrying loads; in such cases they are not 
led, but follow their leader quietly. Ridden ponies are always led ; in 
difficult ascents they are assisted by pushing up, and in descents they 
are equally assisted by vigorous pulling at the tail. They form a part 
of all out of door ceremonials, and are dressed out with gay trappings ; 
their switch tails are then converted into regular cock-tails, and or- 
namented with chowrys. Three or four ponies were selected as 
presents to the Mission, but as the hour approached for presenting 
them, the liberality of the Deb rapidly fell, and one alone was given 
to the Governor General. This creature never reached the Plains, for 
after falling twice, once a height of 15 to 20 feet, it expired above Buxa : 
we heard afterward that it had been very ill for a long time, so that 
the Deb thought it a capital opportunity of getting rid of him. 

The mules are fine, and of much more reasonable price than the 
ponies : they are chiefly kept for riding, and are mostly of good size. 

Both ponies and mules are stabled and provided with litters, not as 
may be supposed of the cleanest description. Their food varies a good 
deal; on some rare occasions they partake of Indian corn and wild 
tares ; still better off are those which have participated in some religi- 
ous ceremonies — for these, the green corn of the poor ryot is not consi- 
dered too good ; generally, however, they are fed on the worm wood, 
which is so common throughout Bootan below 5500 feet, and which 
is cut up, and then boiled ; and in some places they are fed on the 
young boiled leaves of an oak, not unlike the celebrated English tree. 
We saw few in good condition. It is probable enough that the ponies 
of the Deb and his chief ministers are occasionally treated to paddy 
husks, as the Deb very graciously sent us a handful or two of this nu- 
tritious material, in compliance with our requests for some grain for 
our ponies. Of grass they are deprived except during the rains, al- 
though Doab grass is to be found about Punukka in sufficience to feed 
six or seven ponies a day. 

The ordinary dog appears to have been brought from the Plains, 
but its pariah qualities are not improved, neither is its condition. Of 
this, one was so convinced, that he took advantage of our escort, and 
returned to his native country with us, evidently highly pleased at 


284 Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [April, 

his escape, and very grateful to us for our good offices. Many of the 
better orders keep Tartar dogs : these are large, shaggy, powerful beasts, 
apparently very fierce, and the most incessant barkers I ever met 
with; they are always kept chained up. At a white face they appear 
perfectly furious, but perhaps they rely on the chain. Turner says they 
are not so bad if one is armed with a bludgeon. Mr. Blake found 
that in almost every instance their eyes were of different colours. 

Of domestic birds, the common fowl is the only one : in many places 
it reaches considerable perfection ; about the capital the breed is as bad 
as can be imagined. They all appear to be low-bred, and the old 
birds, especially the cocks, are generally lame from corns. Their crows 
are most curious, and very unlike those of any other variety I know 
of; it is of inordinate length, and when once commenced can not be 
stopped, for fright only changes it to a hasty gobble. The bird, while 
he is undergoing the process, walks along with neck and tail at full 
stretch, and with his beak wide open, totally absorbed in the business. 
No care is taken of the fowls, or at most, they are allowed to stand 
round when rice is cleared or pounded. 

They have no ducks or geese, a want they share with all the moun- 
tainous tribes I have seen. A peacock is occasionally to be seen in 
the castles, and at Tongsa we saw one associated with a tame jacana. 
Fine Arts. — The ordinary form of houses in Bootan is that of a rather 
narrow oblong, disproportionately high, building : the better order are 
rather irregular in shape. They are built either of slabs of stone, 
generally unhewn, or of mud well beaten down ; the walls in all cases 
are of considerable thickness, and almost universally slope inwards. 
They are for oriental houses well provided with windows, and are 
further furnished with small verandahs, of which the Booteas seem 
very fond. There is little or no ornamental work about them, with the 
exception of those infested by priests, in which there is generally 
a rather ornamental verandah. The roofs throughout the interior are of 
bad construction ; they are formed of loose shingles, merely retained 
in their places by heavy stones placed on the top of each ; this 
necessarily requires a very small slope, but even small as it is, the 
whole roof occasionally slips off. In some few places where bamboos 
are available the roofs are formed by bamboo mats, placed in several 
layers, and secured either by stones or rattans. In the better order 
of houses the great perviousness of the roof is compensated for by the 
imperviousness of the ceiling of the uppermost st6ry, which is well 
laid down with mud; houses situated near the plains, where proper 
grasses are obtainable are thatched : (the most common grass is the 
Oollookher, Saccharum cylindricwri), such roofs from their slope, 

1839.] Capt. Peniberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 285 

thickness, and projecting eaves are excellent. The generality of houses 
have a court-yard in front surrounded by a stone or mud wall, the 
entrance to which is, or has at one time been, furnished with a stout 
door. Access to the first floor, (for the ground floor is invariably 
occupied by pigs, goats, &c.,) is gained by a rude sort of stair, inter- 
mediate between real stairs and ladders, and rather dangerous: a 
greater degree of safety is sometimes insured by the presence of a 
banister. Each story is divided into several apartments, which are 
generally defective in height; no regularity in their distribution 
appears to be ever observed ; they are not provided with chimneys, 
and in many instances we found the smoke almost intolerable. 

The houses of the poorer orders, situated near the plains, are 
miserable habitations, but still are better than those in common use in 
Bengal and Assam, in as much as they are built on muchowns. 

The castles and palaces are buildings of a much superior nature; 
indeed it is said that they are erected by Thibetans or Chinese. They 
are of immense size, varying a good deal in form, according to the 
nature of the ground on which they are built, and which is invariably 
a spur or tongue of land situated between the junction of two streams. 
If the ground be even, the form chosen seems to be parallelogram mic, 
but if it be uneven, it has no form at all. They are, particularly in 
the latter case, ornamented with towers and other defences, either 
forming part of the building or detached from it. 

The national walls and roofs are preserved ; the former are of great 
thickness, pierced in the lower part with narrow, utterly inefficient 
loop-holes. In the interior there are one or two large court-yards. 
The first and second stories are the chiefly inhabited ones, the ground 
floor, however, is not so profaned as in other houses. Most of them are 
ornamented with a raised square or oblong tower or building, in which* 
* * take up their quarters. That of Punukka is the largest and 
loftiest, consisting of several stories, and several roofs gradually 
decreasing in size — an obvious imitation, except in the straightness 
of the roofs, of the Chinese form; it is in part covered with copper, 
as the Booteas assured us, gilt. 

All these large buildings, as well as the summer-houses attached 
to them, the houses of recluses, or active priests, the resting houses 
of chiefs, and religious edifices of every kind or description, are white- 
washed, and most are ornamented with a belt of red ochre, not 
far from the roof. The residences of the great men, and some of 
the religious edifices, are distinguished by a folded gilt umbrella 
stuck on the top, resembling a long narrow bell, rather than that 
for which it is intended. 

* A blank in the M, S.— Eds, 

286 Capt. Pembertoris Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [April, 

In none do there appear to be any particular accommodations for 
sleeping, but in each house there is a cloacus. One room is set apart 
for a cook-room, and constitutes the principal inconvenience in a Bootea 
house ; no use is made of the uppermost story for this purpose, 
as the Booteas consider it sacred ; and as they have no chimneys, out of 
pure reverence they are content to bear smoke in its blackest and most 
pungent forms. Their fire-places, that is for cooking, are good 
and powerful ; these are likewise used as furnaces for their stills. 
A good representation is given of them in Turner's Bootan. The floor- 
ing of the houses is generally good, of many really excellent; the 
doors are folding, and the fastenings of the windows of similar construc- 
tion ; the only very deficient part of a good Bootea house exists in 
the stairs and want of chimneys. 

To the castles, stables are appended ; but in spite of their being de- 
prived of this copious source of filth and vermin, the deficiency is made 
up by the number of inhabitants. 

Of their religious edifices, some are of picturesque appearance, being 
ornamented with carved window-frames and verandahs. The most 
common are the pagodas, which approach in form to the ordinary 
Boodhistical forms, such, at least, as are universal throughout Burmah. 
Those of Bootan are, however, vastly inferior in size, form, and 
construction, and are mostly such as an ordinary Burmese peasant 
would be ashamed of building. They are built of slabs of unhewn 
stone, and are not much ornamented, particularly as they are not 
provided with a red belt. The handsomest and the largest* we saw 
was that close to Chinjipjee, this was ornamented with small pagodas at 
each corner, and had the umbrella, which was of curious form, 
garnished with bells, with the usual long tongues. In the upper 
portion each face had a nose of portentous dimensions, and two Chinese 
eyes. I am not aware whether, as in Burmah, they contain images or 
not, but slabs of inscribed slate are very generally let into their sides.t 
Appended to these are long walls of poor construction covered with 
roofs ; on each they bear inscriptions, and in some instances paintings 
situated in recesses. The other forms generally occur as small square 
buildings; they are either built up over large idols or are empty, but 
decorated with paintings of gods, much resembling, especially in gau- 
diness, the common sorts of Hindoo deities ; or they contain the peculiar 
cylinders which contain incantations, and which are constantly, or at 

* The name of this, L'hiotackari kocho. 

f The pagodas are always surrounded by poles either of bamboo or fir, to which 
are attached longitudinally long strips of coarse cotton cloths, entirely covered 
with inscriptions. 

1839.] Capt. Vembertorts Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 287 

least ought to be, kept in motion by the action of water. In some 
places where running streams are not obtainable, as in the Soobah's 
houses, these are revolved by the hand. 

There is nothing particular in the construction of their flour mills, 
which are very small ; the pivot is vertically attached at the bottom 
to an horizontal water wheel, and passing above through two horizontal 
stones, of which the upper one alone revolves, the flour is hindered 
from falling off the under stone by the* person in attendance. 

Of bridges they have two kinds, the suspension and wooden ; the 
latter are, I think, of better construction than the former, although not 
of equal ingenuity. The finest suspension bridge in Bootan is that 
across the Monass, below Tassgong, and has a span of about sixty yards. 
The chains are slight, and the links too long ; the masonry by which 
the chains are supported is massive, and built into tall respectable 
looking towers. The motion is very considerable. The great fault in 
this bridge, and in this respect it is inferior to that of Chicka, is that 
its bottom or platform is not flat, but forms the segment of a circle, and 
is continuous with the sides, which are made of bamboo matting. 

The wooden bridges, which are thrown over all the second class 
torrents, are solid looking, and impress one with the idea of great 
strength. Considerable pains are taken in the selection of such spots 
where the span is less, and where solid abutments either exist, or may 
be readily made. The supports are large beams placed in pairs, with 
a cross timber between each, and which pass through the abutments, 
on which towers are erected for the purpose of giving stability. The 
beams gradually increase in length from below upwards, so that each 
projects somewhat beyond that immediately below it. On the upper 
pair, which form a slightly inclined plane, planks are placed. As the 
upper beams only project over perhaps one-third of the span, the centre 
of the bridge is made up of horizontal beams and planks ; if quite com- 
plete the bridge is covered with a chopper, and provided on either side 
with a stout open balustrade. Small streams are crossed by planks, or 
timbers, the upper surface of which is rendered plane. From the consi- 
deration of their buildings it would appear that they possess consider- 
able architectural genius ;* but we were told that all those of superior 
construction are built by Thibetans or Chinese; this was certainly 
the case with the bridge erecting over the Deo Nuddee, not far from 
Dewangiri. As long as nature supplies rocks of easy and perfect cleav- 

* Turner in mentioning their aqueducts draws a comparison between the Booteas and 
the wonderful ancients; he compares a few wooden troughs, applied end to end, and so 
badly constructed that one kick would demolish considerable portions, to those master- 
pieces of master minds which laugh at time. 

288 Capt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. CAprii,, 

age, the houses are built of such materials, and these are used perhaps 
in all cases in the constructions of rank or sacred character. In many 
places mud is resorted to ; the mud is pressed tightly between planks, 
and then assiduously beaten down by feet and clubs ; in this they shew 
great dexterity, five or six persons, chiefly women beating at once a 
piece of mud of small dimensions. The mud is beaten down on that 
which has been previously so treated, so that when they come to any 
' height, there must be considerable danger of falling, particularly as the 
beaters make most extraordinary antics. When each piece is sufficient- 
ly compacted it is allowed to dry. As portions of mud of a parallelogram- 
mic form are thus treated, the house presents lines, which at first lead 
one to suppose that it is built of blocks of coarse sand-stone. The 
process is very tedious. 

The sculpture they possess would appear to be Chinese : some of the 
figures were really excellent ; the finest we saw were at Dewangiri, 
especially that of the Dhurma, before which it is considered impossi- 
ble to sin, and this may be the reason of the natives striving so strenu- 
ously to do so. All these figures were well dressed. The few figures 
of Boodh that I saw were rather rude, in the usual position, and with 
the usual long fingers and toes. These people certainly have an idea 
of drawing, and this was very pleasing. To a native of the Plains you 
may shew a drawing which you have every reason to be pleased with, 
particularly if you have done it yourself, and he says, " kya V or he 
mistakes a house for a boat, or a tree for a cow. In Bootan, however, 
the case is very different ; our sketches were recognised immediately, 
no matter what subjects we intended to represent. They are also 
ready at comprehending charts. And with regard to their own per- 
formances we had opportunities of judgment presented to us by the 
walls of many houses, which were covered with scrawls ; they excel in 
the representation of animals, particularly when the shape depends 
upon the will of the artist. 

Music enters into most of their ceremonies, and the favourite instru- 
ment emits a sound like that of a bassoon. Another favourite instru- 
ment is a clarionet, particularly when made from the thigh bone of a 
man : the sound of this is equal to that of any Bengal musical instru- 
ment, and is as disagreeable as it is continuous, the skill of the per- 
former depending entirely upon his length of wind. One of these in- 
struments generally heads every procession of sufficient importance. 

At two of our interviews with Soobah we had an opportunity of wit- 
nessing the mode of dancing, which was done entirely by women, and 
as certain qualifications for dancing girls exist to a remarkable extent 
in Bootan, they are chosen indiscriminately. The dancing merely 
consists in slow revolutions and evolutions, and outturning of the 

1839.] Copt. Pemberton's Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 289 

hands. They danced to their own music, which consisted of a low 
monotonous chanting, of a much more pleasing nature that the al- 
tissimo screeching so admired in India. 

Of their manufacturing skill I saw few or no instances. All the 
woollen cloths of ordinary quality are imported from Bengal or 
Thibet ; their own manufacture being, it is said, confined to the pro- 
duction of coarse, often striped, blankets, scarcely a foot wide. They 
make but very little cotton cloth, and the manufacture of this appears 
to be confined to the villages near the Plains ; the article is of poor 
and coarse quality : all their silks and many other parts of their fine 
apparel are Chinese. 

I have, before mentioned the use they make of bamboos, and rattans : 
in the work of articles manufactured from these materials they are not 
superior to the wildest of the Hill tribes to be found about Assam. 

Their ordinary drinking cups are wooden, and look as if they 
were turned ; and they are perhaps the best specimens of manufacture 
we witnessed. 

Their workers in metal are very inferior ; we saw some miserable 
blacksmiths and silversmiths, provided with utterly inefficient appara- 
tus ; however there is not much demand on their skill, as all their 
arms, and all their better sort of utensils are of foreign manufacture, 
principally Thibetan. They are said to manufacture the copper pans 
used for cooking or dyeing, and which are frequently of very large 
dimensions; and they went so far as to point out the place of manu- 
facture, viz. Tassangsee. But I doubt this, for in the first place the 
vessels resemble much those made in Thibet ; and in the second, I 
saw nothing like any manufacture going on at Tassangsee, except that 
of burning charcoal, which is much used in cooking. Paper they cer- 
tainly do make, and in some quantity : I had no opportunity of seeing 
the process. The material is furnished by two or three species of 
Daphne. The article varies much in size, shape, and quantity ; the 
finest being white, clean, and very thin ; the worst nearly as coarse as 
brown paper. If bought from the manufacturers themselves it is cheap, 
the price being six annas for twenty large sheets ; if from an agent the 
price of course increases in a centesimal proportion. It is well adapted 
for packing, as insects will not come near it, always excepting the 
formidable white ant, who however consumes the contents of the 
paper, not the article itself. This paper appears to be precisely the 
same as that manufactured to the north-west and south-east by the 
Shan Chinese. 

The only potteries, I saw were near Punukka, but although they 
supplied the capital, there were only two or three families employed. 
The clay is obtained close to the potteries,, and is of tolerable quality ; 

290 Capf. Pembertoris Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. [April, 

it is pulverised by thrashing with a flat club, and is then sifted. It is 
subsequently kneaded by means of water into the proper consistence. 
The operations are conducted entirely by the. hand, and the dexterity 
which is shewn in fashioning the vessels is considerable. Of vessels 
for containing water the upper half is made first, and the under is 
added afterwards. Those made during the day are burnt at night, be- 
ing covered with straw, which is then set on fire ; the finishing opera- 
tion, if required, and which is intended as a substitute for glazing, is 
rubbing them over with tarry turpentine ; they are then packed and 
carried off to market, or rather to the palace : the artists are the poorest 
of the poor, and as filthy as any other class in Bootan. They live 
close to the potteries, in the most miserable hovels imaginable. The 
wares they furnish are of several sorts — dishes, and pans, (some of which 
have very small inefficient handles) gurrahs, and large oblong vessels 
for containing water; of these one family consisting often or twelve 
can make a considerable number, say sixty in one day. 

Of their manufactures of leathern articles I can say nothing : the 
only articles I saw of this nature were the boots, which are of untan- 
ned hides, and the reticules for holding tobacco, which are of decent 
fashioning, tanned and coloured. And I believe I may here close the 
list, meagre as it is, for the sugar, oil, ghee, &c. they use, is all brought 
up from the Plains. As their manufactures are at so low an ebb, not 
much is to be expected in the way of commerce; and this must con- 
tinue to be the case so long as they derive every thing from the Plains, 
and make no returns whatever ; so long as they may live an idle life 
at the expense of others. Throughout the country indeed there is but 
little evidence of frequency of intercourse. The busiest place by far 
was Dewangiri, but this depended chiefly on the steps taken for the 
provision of our party, and on the daily assembling of the Kampas 
prior to descending to Hazoo. The Deb is stated to be the principal 
merchant, but we only met two coolies laden with his merchandise ! 
All the Soobahs likewise trade, but I apprehend their dealings are 
altogether insignificant ; for excepting their followers, who are disin- 
clined to pay, even had they money, and the priests who will not pay, 
I know none from whom advantage in the way of traffic could with 
any reason be expected. 

The exports from Bootan to the Plains are generally exposed for sale 
at annual fairs, of which Hazoo and Rungpore are the principal. 
The articles are ponies, mules, woollen cloth, and rock salt. To these 
I must add a peculiar spice, known in Assam by the name of 
Jubrung, and which is used, I believe, to some extent by the natives 
in their cookery. It is very fragrant, very aromatic, and excessively 
pungent, and if kept in the mouth but a short time, occasions a 

1839.] Capt. Pemberton' s Mission to Bootan, 1837-38. 291 

remarkably tremulous sensation of the tongue and lips. It is the 
capsule of a species of Zanthoxylon found on other mountains to 
the north-east, although I am not aware whether it is used as 
a spice elsewhere than in Bootan. Captain Jenkins first pointed it out to 
me, and I had several opportunities of seeing the shrub producing 
it during my visit to Bootan. All these are of inferior quality, 
scarcely less so, perhaps, than the article in which they pay the greater 
part of even their nominal tribute. From Thibet they obtain all their 
silks and tea, there is, however, very little intercourse between the 

I am afraid that this very imperfect account will be considered 
as prejudiced ; but I believe it will be found, if put to the test, 
tolerably faithful. I went into the country prepossessed in favour 
of every thing bearing the name of Bootan — I expected to see a rich 
country, and a civilized people. I need not say how all my ex- 
pectations were disappointed. Whatever ulterior benefits may be 
derived from the Mission, one, and that by no means inconsiderable, 
has already resulted — I allude to the demolition of the extravagant 
ideas entertained, even by our frontier officers, of the prowess and 
riches of Bootan. As the Mission will have been the means of reducing 
this people to their proper level among barbarous tribes, we may 
expect their demeanour will become more respectful, their behaviour 
more cautious, and the payment of the tribute more sound and 
more punctual. In a word, they will understand that they are tolerated 
by — not the equals of — the gigantic British power. I have stated 
my opinion of them with some severity, but with impartiality; and my 
conviction is, that they are in all the higher attributes very inferior 
to any other mountainous tribe I am acquainted with on the north- 
east frontier. 

It must not be supposed that, however disgusted with the inhabi- 
tants of the country, the Mission was not a source of great gratification 
to me. It afforded me an opportunity of visiting a very alpine coun- 
try ; and, what is much more important, of fixing, through the kindness 
and skill of Captain Pemberton, the localities of nearly 1500 species of 
plants with such accuracy, that the collection will be of much inter- 
est to all students of botanical geography. It afforded me too an 
opportunity of profiting from the valuable instructions of Captain 
Pemberton ; so much so, that it will always be a matter of regret to 
me that I was so ignorant of so many essential requisites during the 
other journeys I have had the honour of performing. 

Asst. Surg. Madras Est. in Med. charge Bootan Mission. 

292 Account of Tamba Patra Plates found at Baroda. [April,, 

Art. II. — Account of Tamba Patra Plates dug up at Baroda in 
Goojrat ; with Facsimile and Translation. 

(Laid before the Meeting of the Asiatic Society of 5th June, 1839.) 

The Tamba Patras now submitted to the inspection of the members 
of this Society were placed in my hands by Mr. W. P. Grant, who ob- 
tained them from Beni Ram, of Baroda, and whose account of the 
method of their discovery as derived from that person, was, that they 
were dug up in excavating the foundations of a house in that city. 

The grant is peculiar in many respects. It is in a character not 
exactly corresponding with any previously observed, but sufficiently 
similar to that of the grants decyphered by Mr. Wathen to be easily 
made out by persons accustomed to the work, after a little study and 
comparison. The pandits and antiquaries of Baroda, indeed, were 
baffled in their attempts to make out the character, and the plates were 
put into my hands as undecypherable ; but Kamlakanta, the pandit 
who assisted our late Secretary in his discoveries, undertook the task of 
reading them with confidence, and accomplished the complete trans- 
cription into Devanagri in about a fortnight. The plates are sub- 
mitted to inspection with a transcript, fac-simile, and close translation, 
the latter made by Saroda Parshad Chakravarti. 

They are found to be the record of a deed of grant made by Karka' 
Raja of Ldteshwara to Bha'nu Brahmin, son of Sa'maditya, in the 
year of Saka 734, corresponding with 812 a.d., that is, just one thousand 
and twenty- seven years ago. Their state of preservation is wonderful 
for such a period, but that may be owing partly to the purity of the cop- 
per, and partly to the care with which the edges have been beaten up 
so as to take all the friction, and prevent the faces of the plates from 
rubbing against one another. Their present appearance is owing to an 
acid having been used to clean them. 

Although uniformly clean and bright, the marks of corrosion will be 
observed in several places, which are the effect of antiquity ; but for- 
tunately the letters are so deeply engraved that scarcely any are com- 
pletely effaced. 

The historical facts deducible from this Tamba Patra are the 
following : — 

First, That towards the end of the 8th and beginning of the 9th 
century of our era, that is during the reign of Charlemagne of France, 
Hindoostan and the Dukhun were divided into four kingdoms : — The 
Gajara Raj westward — the Malwa Raj centrical — to the east the 
Gourha Raj, (including Bengal and Behar) — and the Ldteshwara Raj 

1 839.] Account of Tamba Patra Plates found at Baroda. 293 

to the south ; of which last the reigning Raja in 812 a.d. was Karka' 
Raja, the maker of this grant. 

Secondly, That in the Ldteshwara Raj the following kings, ancestors 
of Karka' Raja, had successively reigned : — 

1. Govind Raja. 

2. Karka, Raja, his son. 

3. Krishna Raja, his son. 

4. Dhruva Raja his son, who obtained the beatitude of dying at 
Allahabad where the waters of Jamna and Ganga unite. 

5 Govinda Raja II, son of Dhruva. 

6. Indra Raja, brother of Govinda. 

7. Karka, Raja II, son of Indra Raja. 

Thirdly, It further appears that in 812 a.d. Karka Raja had no 
son ; but his brother Danti Varma signs as heir presumptive. 

Fourthly, The capital of the Ldteshwara Raj appears to have been 
Elapur, where a magnificent fort and temple of Siva are stated to 
have been erected by the third of the above race — the Krishna Raja. 

It remains to identify this dynasty. Of all the lists of Rajas and 
races collected in the late Secretary's useful tables, the one, and indeed 
the only one, which contains names corresponding with those found in 
the present grant is that given in Table XLIV. page 121, headed 
" Rajas of Chera or Konga," (comprehending Salem and Coimbatore) 
and stated to be taken from the late Colonel Mackenzie's manuscript 

Amongst the twenty-six princes of that dynasty, taken from the Kon- 
gadesa Raja Kal* all the names of our list are found except that of 
Indra Raja, the father of Karka Raja II. This latter name, Karka, I 
take to be identical with that of Kongani, which occurs thrice amongst 
the twenty-six. The period assigned inthe useful tables for the Rajas of 
Kongades corresponds exactly with the date of our grant ; nevertheless 
I do not feel quite satisfied with the evidence to the identity of Ldtesh- 
wara with the Kongades, and I should wish the attention of the learned 
and curious to be directed to the determination of this point, and to the 
ascertainment of the locality of the famous fort of Elapur. 

H. T. P. 

* The notice of this work will be found in page 198 of Professor Wilson's printed 
accountof the collection of Col. Mackenzie's manuscripts, and again in the Rev. Mr. 
Taylor's more recent examination of the manuscripts at Madras. There are, it ap- 
pears, two copies of the work in Tamul on Palm leaves, from which Mr. Taylor has 
had a copy transcribed on paper, and deeming the work valuable, he has translated it. 

294 Account of Tamba Patra Plates found at Baroda. [April, 

^to^c: ^W^flft ^f^KTw: fafepft ^ ru 

^^^T^r^Wr^TM^ W*l II 8 II 

tWUYHWW ^vm *r% w: ^t*£t ^ li^W^TW* ii^ii 

1839] Account of Tamba Patra Plates found at Baroda. 295 

^fT?JT^T ^SFnft 'drifts *<fllrt I 
^iTTf*r SOT *$ra tW^^TR f^ft 

<tw ftwcn ^^wr^t^t ^h: iiv^ii 

« sf V> C\ 

296 Account of Tamba Patra Plates found at Baroda. [April, 

*rf *rfTO*rSr ?n;ifwt ^rw^ **f 

^TTTTT^fr^ ^r ^Hw^wt ntf^ci^pw; 111,411 

^FC *rt *rm fire: f%<ffa: hi*h 


1839.] Account of Tamba Patra Plates found at Baroda. 297 

298 Account of Tamba Patra Plates found at Baroda. [April, 

if^pmu *fr* Jrihroft ^m^ croft t^tto^ 
^T^JTPrf%f%^: **i«rf^wtf*r: ^t^TW^n^rT3T 

^rrr^Tr^-ir^r^ww *nr mitt ^siwrg ttt^t: i 

srcsr sr^ ^Tvfawssr <r**r <t?t ^ n 

1 839.] Account of Tamba Patra Plates found at Baroda. 299 

^f?rfir«rtwiftf3T ^c^f^Wyw: trc^^fw^t; i« 

^TWW WRffH ^PWf *5 ji WRcTT*T KTf^r: ttTw 
**f *TRTrftf?T M 

300 Account of Tamba Patra Plates found at Baroda. [April, 

Translation of Tamba'Patra Plates. 

1. May he in whose lily-like navel Brahma* took his abode, and with 
whose wife's brother (i. e. the moon) Siva is ornamented, protect you. 

2. There was a Raja named Govinda Raja who was the superior of 
his race, and the ornament of the Surastra kingdom ; he was sprung from 
a spotless line, a hero in enterprize, and most valiant in war. 

3. He (Govinda Raja) was most gallant, intelligent, and victorious at 
his first glance over all. His armies were like ploughs rooting up the 
royal families (of his enemies). He never adored other gods but Siva, 
the god of gods. 

4. From him, anxious to obtain children, was born through the favor 
of Siva, Karka Raja, who was possessed of all good qualities. The 
name was well adapted to him. 

5. His (Karka Raja's) kingdom, (which lost the appellation 
Sowrdjya through the ruin that had fallen upon it, but the remains of 
the splendour of which are esteemed by the universe) was formerly 
governed jointly by the descendants of this race, but afterwards by him 

6. Men were struck with surprise by his restoring the Vrisha to its 
four legs, which had been reduced to one by Kali' (yuga), and by his 
making it to walk without limping.* 

7. It is not wonderful that he governed his people with propriety, 
(being so gifted) ; having placed Vishnu as the object of his meditation, 
he (died and) was succeeded by his son named Krishna Raja, who was 
virtuous, and like the son of Dharma (Ju'dhistiii'ra) : he expelled 
those who were addicted to evil, for the prosperity of his line and reign. 

8. His devotion to Brahmans was unspeakable and confirmed, and 
those who were only nominally Brahmans (i. e. who had fallen off from 
their religion) resumed their former rites through the greedy desire of 
obtaining gifts from him, which were due to more perfect Brahmans. 

9. By his constant liberality the minds of his attendants were 
refreshed like those of farmers by exuberant showers. 

10 He who was like a lion among Rajas, and powerful in sovereign- 
ty, overcame his boar-like rivals like deers ; though their teeth, curved 
like bows, were radiant with the rays of heroism, and they itched witli 
the desire of fight. 

1 1 The immortals walking on the firmament, being astonished with 

* This is a figurative mode of saying "That he restored to virtue the three parts 
which it is supposed to have lost in the Kali yuga," the word for quarter Tf"[2 being the 
same as for foot, makes the conceit which gives point to this expression. 

1839.] Account of Tamba Pair a Plates found at Baroda. 301 

the view of his fort of Elapur, declared continually that the beauty 
of that fort was no where to be found but in the works of Swayambhu, 
Siva, and Bamana. 

12. The architect of it was himself struck with wonder at its beauty. 
His name has been proclaimed every where by the king himself. 

13. The image of Sambhu' (Siva) established therein, though wonder- 
fully ornamented with the symbols of Gangd, the crescent and the 
kalakuta (a kind of poison), yet was further adorned with ornaments of 
gold and jewels, and several other materials. 

14. His (Krishna Raja's) son was Dhru'va Raja : his enemies, who 
were humbled by his might, were burnt by the fire of his spirit. 

15. He was successful in his endeavours to bring Lakshmi to sub- 
mission, how wonderful ! ! for even Siva, though lord of all, was unable 
to make his wife obedient to him without resuming his godhead. 

16. From Dhru'va Raja, who established peace with all his enemies, 
and who attained the final and the highest rank of gods (dying) at the 
junction of the waters of Gangd and Yamuna, immersed in them with 
remarkable signs, and whose merits covered the universe, was born 
Govinda Raja, who was famous. 

17. He deprived all the kings of antiquity who had their communi- 
cation with different countries of their fame, and destroyed all his 

18. He was in all circumstances irresponsible, and resembled the 
Creator in his conduct, destroying all rival claimants to royalty in his 
time, and setting them at defiance. 

19. He did such wonders in battle, that his foes acknowledged that 
they had been taught by men ignorant of military affairs. He was like 
Pa'rtha, the only hero in the three regions who never deprived his ene- 
mies of their lives. 

20. The elephants of his enemies which came forward in battle and 
were pierced with his shafts, resembled the wall mountain of the world 
shaken by the winds at the end of kalpa (during the deluge.) 

21. His brother Indra Raja, a king powerful like Indra, governed 
the kingdom of Ldteshwara. He performed many wonderful deeds. 

22. To this day, the Gods, Kennaras, Siddhas, Saddhyas, and the 
Vidyadharas, who have heard of his qualities, are singing his kunda- 
flower-like fame, lost to all sense of shame in their transports, and put- 
ting their hands on the breasts of other's females, (i. e. they are so 
deeply engaged in song that they have become out of sense.) 

23. He soon reduced the king of Gujjara, who prepared to engage 
in war with him, and who raised his head with bravery, to fly skulking 
like a deer, and after plundering all his estates restored him again, out 

302 Account of Tamba Patra Plates found at Baroda. [April, 

of compassion, saving his chieftains from ruin who were afraid of (him) 
and scattered in different places. 

24. His (Indra Raja's) son was the Lakhsmi enticer, whose mind was 
devoted to the lily-feet of Hara (Siva), and whose spirit was felt by his 
enemies, like the moon in disposition — Karka Raja who preserved 

25. There was no robber in his kingdom, nor any sort of mortifica- 
tion, nor famine, nor fear, accidental or natural. All kinds of vice 
were reduced to a low ebb, and his enemies were humbled ; none had the 
presumption to show disrespect to those who were learned. 

26. The owner of Mdlava, in order to defend his kingdom from the 
invasion of the king of Gourha (Bengal) used the (uplifted) hand of 
Karka Raja as a stay on the lord of Gujjara, and thereby enjoyed all 
he desired. 

27. He having considered life to be fickle as the lightning, and the 
virtue of giving land durable, executed this religious gift. 

28. He, the king of Ldteshwara, possessed of armies and many chief- 
tains, brought into submission in different countries, and in whose reign 
there was a shower of gold, thus proclaims to all his statesmen, the 
treasurers, the functionaries, and those who have the care of castes, 
with the respect due to them. 

Be it known to all of you, that for promoting the virtue and fame 
both here, and in the next world, of his father, and mother, and himself, 
he, the said Raja, has presented for continuing his five jagnas to the 
Brahman Bha'nu', who belonged to the line of Va'tsa'yana, and was 
acquainted with the four Vidyds, and who was a religious student, the 
son of Soma'ditya, the fertile village called Pattanak, part of the tract 
containing eighty-four angkotans (each 100 begas) bounded on the 
east by the village of Jambubdbikd, on the south by Mahd Sanaka, on 
the west by • a nala (ankootaka), and on the north by the village 
Bagghachha. The land within the above boundaries is to be enjoyed 
with all marriage and other fees from cultivators, with all fishing 
and fruit privileges, with all that may be washed or deposited by 
torrents, with all fines for petty offences, with all free labour privileges, 
with all rights of treasure- trove and mines, without interference of 
any kind from government officers. It is to be enjoyed in full pro- 
perty as a perpetual inheritance by the said Brahman, his sons, and 
posterity for ever, jo long as the sun, moon, and rivers, and the moun- 
tains shall endure ! It is not to be touched by the hands of the king's 
servants, nor to be claimed on the part of gods and Brahmans. by whom 
it was heretofore possessed. Given in the year of Saka's death 734 on 
the 12th of Bysakh (24th April, 822 a.d.) 

1839.] Account of Tamba Patra Plates found at Baroda. 303 

Let none obstruct his (Bha'nu's) enjoying, or letting others enjoy it ; 
or his ploughing, or letting others plough. After this, let future Rajas 
of our race, or of any other race, reflect that wealth and life are unstable 
as lightning, and fickle as water in the leaf of water lilies, and so let 
them respect this our grant, and confirm the grantees in possession. He 
only whose mind is blackened by the darkness of ignorance will resume, 
or be pleased at seeing others molest its possessor, reckless of the guilt 
of the five deadly sins and other heinous crimes, as described at length 
by Ve'davya'sa. 

He who grants lands lives 60,000 years in heaven, but he who con- 
fiscates or resumes, or allows others to do so, is doomed to hell for a like 

Those who resume lands granted by others will become black serpents 
in the dry holes of the forest of the Vindhya mountain. 

Gold is the first offspring of fire, and the earth the wife of Vishnu, 
and cows are the daughters of the sun. He who grants these things 
gives also the three regions. 

The earth has been enjoyed by many kings, as the Sa'gara Raja and 
others, and he who rules it in his turn, is the sole enjoyer of its fruits. 

But what generous man will take again the grants made by Rajas 
who have gone before him, and whose gifts are like wreaths of flowers, 
spreading the fragrance of a good name, and of the reputation for 
wealth and virtue. 

Oh ye virtuous kings, respect the grants of lands (given by 
others), for to preserve their grants is better than a fresh donation. 

Men whose minds are cleared from sin, considering life and wealth 
fickle as water in the leaf of the water lily, will never destroy the fame 
of others. 

It is further said by Ra'm Bhadra — You who are the best of Rajas, 
are hereby repeatedly prayed by Ra'm Chandra to preserve this bridge 
of virtue for ever. 

Confirmed by the counter-signature of the presumptive heir and 
brother of the king, Danti Varma, and signed with the autograph of 
myself the Karka Raja, son of Indra Raja, and prepared and engrossed 
by the hereditary servant of the king for peace and war, Nunaditya, 
sonofDuRGA Bhatta. For the good of my father and his ancestors have 
I made this grant to the Brahman Bha'nu', who has served my family 
with his prayers for many years. May he enjoy the grant, and profit by it ! 

N.B. There are several counter-signatures, apparently autographs, in the last four 
lines of the last plate, which besides that they are of doubtful reading, it would be of 
little interest to transcribe. On the outside are the words "'Tis for the good of my 
father and mother." 

30 i Alexander's exploits on the Western Banks of the Indus. [April, 

Art. III. — Collection of Facts which may be useful for the comprehen- 
sion of Alexander the Great's exploits on the Western Banks of 
the Indus (with map). 

By M. A. Court, Ancien Eleve de V Ecole Militaire de Saint Cyr. 
(Translated for the Journal of the Asiatic Society from the French Original M.S.) 

The military achievements of Alexander in the regions which lie be- 
tween the Indus and the Cophenes form one of the most brilliant episodes 
of his history. 

Those regions at present are known by the name of Yousoufzeis, 
Kooner, Suwat, Dhyr, Bajore, and Moumends. More northward lies 
KafTristan, which occupies the southern and northern sides of the gigan- 
tic snow-topped chain of mountains which bounds this country to the 
north, and is but an extension of the Himalayas, and to the west 
reaches Hindo-Koosh at the Khound, an enormous ridge, the tops of 
which are flat, and almost perpetually covered with snow, a circumstance 
which renders it observable at a great distance : there are likewise 
visible the banks of the Indus, from which it is about eighty koss 

Those regions are bounded on the east by the Indus, on the south by 
the river of Cabul, which is no other but the Cophes or Cophenes of 
the Greeks, placed by Arrian at the eastern extremity of Paropamis, 
and the source of which Pliny collocates in the north western part 
of this mountainous province, assigning its course eastward, and sta- 
ting that after its confluence with the Choes near Nyssa, it falls into 
the Indus to the south west of Taxila below Ambolima (probably Amb) — 
data that perfectly combine with the Cabul river, which I have des- 
cribed in my journey through Affghanistan. This name Cophes, by 
which it was known to the historiographers of antiquity, seems to have 
been given it by the Greeks, who may have derived it from Cophenes 
who perhaps then governed the country it washes in the name of his 
father Artabazus, whom Alexander had appointed prefect of Bactria. 
This is at least what induced Arrian to adopt the above opinion, who re- 
lates that Alexander was accompanied, on his arrival at the banks of the 
Tndus, by Cophes and Assagetes, virapyoi or sub-rulers of the pro- 
vince situated to the west of that river. Or perhaps it is the name 
which it originally bore, and from a corruption of which the Mahometans 
formed the word Kaffristan. 

This vast extent of mountainous country is very little known to Eu- 
ropeans. The geographical details which Quintus Curtius gives of it 
are too succinct, and it is a matter of much regret, that the veracious 

1839.] Alexanders exploits on the Western Banks of the Indus. 305 

Arrian has been incomparably dry, when treating this subject. Add 
to this the disastrous conquests of the Mahometans, who spread through- 
out trouble and confusion, besides the custom that prevailed, wherever 
the Greeks of Alexander's army were to be found, of changing the names 
of the places which they traversed, and we must unavoidably conclude 
that it is no easy task for a traveller to discern true from false. 

Among the Oriental works (that treat on this subject) we have only 
the commentaries of Baberch on which we can rely for exact informa- 
tion. The few modern travellers extant are vague and uncertain. 
Those regions would procure for any European who would survey them, 
the glory of throwing a brilliant light on Alexander's march, and of 
enriching science with hitherto unknown facts relative to the Bactrians ; 
in as much as they are overspread with ruins, cupolas, and inscriptions, 
all referring to those conquerors, and attributed by their actual in- 
habitants to the CaiFrans. They are alluded to by the Chinese Religi- 
ous, who traversed those countries in the commencement of the 7th 
century of our era, and whose manuscript exists in the Oriental Library 
of France. But whatever European may undertake a similar journey, 
must expect to encounter numberless dangers, and almost insur- 
mountable obstacles from the barbarity of the tribes who inhabit them, 
and above all from the jealousy of the chiefs, who, naturally suspicious, 
are always inclined to form sinister judgments of the projects of any 
stranger who travels through their district. This was the lot of Dr. 
Henderson, who desirous of crossing those regions to repair to Badak- 
chan, although he was disguised as a fakeer, and had a perfect know- 
ledge of Persian, was seized, stripped, and beaten, for having put his 
foot in Suwat, and was compelled to return to Peshawur, where 1 had 
the good fortune to attend him. Subsequently I myself having become 
intimate with the chiefs of those regions, had cherished some hope of 
being enabled personally to explore them ; but unfortunately the rank 
I hold in the army of the Maharajah of Lahore occasioned them so much 
terror, that they imagined that my researches, far from being actuated 
by curiosity and an interest for science, were only directed to explore 
the country, so as to facilitate its conquest by Runjeet Sing. I was 
thus constrained by their earnest remonstrances to abandon my inten- 
tion of undertaking such a journey, and to content myself with having 
recourse to the people of Peshawur to survey secretly the country, so as 
to acquire some knowledge of its geography. 

The items which I have had here transcribed in Persian were col- 
lected by them, and I only give them publicity in order to fix the at- 
tention of the geographers and archeeologists who may happen to come 
hither after me, and to facilitate thereby the combination of modern 

306 Alexander s exploits on the Western Banks of the Indus. [April, 

with ancient geography. I may possibly avail myself of these materials 
hereafter, to furnish a complement to my conjectures on Alexander's 
marches through Bactria, 

The country which I am about to describe, is intersected by three 
principal rivers, viz. the Khonar, the Pendjecoore, and the Suwat. 

The first directs its course S. S. W. along the southern side of the 
snowy chain above alluded to, dividing CafFristan from the cantons of 
Bajore and Dhyr, and after rolling its impetuous waters through 
a bed strewn with rocks, wherein it would be difficult to meet any sand, 
it falls into the Cabul river, almost opposite the city of Jellalabad. I 
know not where it rises ; some place its source in Cachgar, which it 
intersects. The proximity of the snowy chain, and the direction of the 
river's course, denote that it must necessarily have more than one influx. 
During the liquefaction of the snow it acquires so great a volume of 
water that it cannot be crossed but on rafts. This river, as I have stated 
in my memoirs, is denominated Sind by the Kaffrees who inhabit its 
banks, and Khonar by the Affghans, a name borrowed from a town that 
is the capital of a canton or district situated on its western bank, be- 
tween Jellalabad and Bajore. Some travellers improperly give it the 
name of Khameh.* This may be possibly the Choes of Arrian, which 
Alexander coasted on his march to Suastus, to which his troops may 
have given the name of Choes, a corruption probably of that of Cheva, a 
canton situated at its confluence with the Cabul river, which may have 
anciently given its name to this river, as the town of Khonar gave its 
own. As the Greeks sometimes translated the names of foreign places, 
and liked to call them by particular ones somehow connected with the 
traditions they indiscriminately adopted, they may possibly have baptized 
with the name of Choes one of the rivers of those regions, in memory 
of the festival of Choes (Xoec) or of the libations which the Athenians 
celebrated in the month of Anthesterion in honor of Bacchus, .and which 
they also styled 'Av^f^rjpia. 

After what Strabo relates, we would be led to suppose that the 
river in question is his Choaspes, which disembogues, according to him, 
into the Cophenes. 

The Penjecoore rising in Ghilghit, flows between the Khonar and 
the Suwat : its direction is from north to south. It is called Penjecoori 
because it is formed from the union of Jive other rivers, viz. the Tal, 
the Laori, the Awchiri, the Neag, and the Jinde* ; the first of which is the 
most considerable of the five. Besides those influents, it receives 

* This river is marked (i Kama H." in Tassin's map'. 

1839.] Alexander s exploits on the Western Banks of the Indus. 307 

several others of inferior note, such as the Berravol and the Caron ; the 
latter intersects the district of Penjecoore between the Awchiri and the 

The river of Penjecoore is the most considerable in those regions 
next to that of Cabul ; hence I have to say of this also, that during the 
liquefaction of the mountain snows it cannot be crossed but with rafts. 
Without being very deep its current is extremely rapid, and its bed is 
so sown with rocks and slippery stones, that of ten persons that wade 
it when its water is low, half are sure to stumble. After leaving 
Dhyr until its confluence with that of Suwat, it is known by the name 
of Penjecoore, and thence, until its union with the Cabul river, by 
that of Suwat.* I am inclined to think that it is the Gurceus of the 

Respecting the Suwat, I am at present unable to speak of it, being 
occupied at this very moment in getting its source explored. The 
Hindoos only know it by the name of Sihon pedra nadi. The latter is 
undoubtedly the Soobah Vastoo of the Chinese Religious, and the 
Suastus of Ptolemy. I would have it here observed, that the Suwat 
and Penjecoore rivers are frequently confounded with one another by 
the inhabitants themselves of lower Yousoufzeis, because they mix their 
streams before they disembogue into the Cabul river, i.e. the Cophenes. 
This mistake only takes place below their confluence, which occurs at 
the point of Goozar Mamani, situated six or eight koss from the 
ruins of Talache, in as much as above it they retain their distinct 

The Suwat is indisputably the Suastus of Arrian, on which Alexan- 
der sailed after coasting the Choes. 

Of a vast number of ruined cities which those regions present to 
one's view, those that most deserve the attention of geographers and 
archaeologists are the following :- — 

1st. The ruins of Talache, situated between the confluence of the 
Penjecoore and the Suwat. In the midst of these massy and immense ruins 
exists an enormous cupola, of much more elaborate architecture than 
other monuments of that description, because it is said to support 
around its base a number of basso relievos. 

2nd. The ruins of Berikoot, attributed to the Caffre Beri, on the 
eastern side of the Suwat, not far from the city of Manglore, or 
Mangar, near which is the cupola of Chinguerdar, attributed to 
Abou-Padsha, and equally remarkable with that of Talache. A beaten 

* " Lundye river" of Tassin. The " Penjecoore i?." of M. Court has no representa- 
tive in Tassin. 

s s 

308 Alexanders exploits on the Western Banks of the Indus. [April, 

track through a rock leads to those ruins which are delineated on the 
back and top of the mountain. Farther on, on the same grounds, are 
those of Hira and Badakhel : the latter, being the vastest of all, 
are assigned to Doomma Padsha. 

3rd. The ruins of the city of Aritchend, improperly denominated 
Artchend by the Mahometans. They are observable on a height 
environed on all quarters by deep ravines. They are eighteen koss 
north of Peshawur, and six east of Fengui. They are attributed to the 
KafFrans, and may possibly be the Arigceum of the Greeks, which was 
razed by them, and whose advantageous position induced Alexander to 
order Craterus to demolish its walls. To the west of these ruins, and 
on the western bank of the Suwat and Penjecoore united, lie those 
of Khound, which reach down to the river. 

To the north of Aritchend are the ruins also of Sakout, where the 
impression of a foot is visible, and those of Diguer, situated on the 
southern side of mount Malekan. To the south of Aritchend are also 
observable those of Radjer, or Razor, of Seidabad, and Kalader : they 
are attributed to the Caffre Farikhi. 

4th. We cannot consider with equal attention the ruins of B£hi, 
attributed to the Rajah Verrat, which according to the inhabitants of 
the place were the former sojourn of the monarchs of that country. 
They lie to the north east of the present city of Achtnagar, and are 
situated on the level of mount B6hli, insulated as it is, in the centre of 
the immense plain of Yousoufze'is. There are visible there, it is said, 
grand traces of massy walls, some basso-relievos, and the ruins of a 
subterraneous aqueduct, (which conveyed thither the water of the Penje- 
coore) after leaving the ruins of Radjer situated close to Achtnagar. 
Directing your course thence towards Booner you meet, at twelve koss 
distance, mount Mahram which contains also some ruins, and may 
probably be the Meros of Arrian, which Alexander ascended with all 
his army after taking possession of Nyssa, by our geographers supposed 
to be identical with Achtnagar. But what destroys this probability is, 
that the district the Macedonians recognised with jubilee is not disco- 
verable in those parts, and cannot be traced out, but in a more northern 
latitude beyond the Malekan ridge. I must however here remark, that 
there are several mountains in those regions called Mahram, and among 
the n j st one in Bajore, and another at Cashmeer close to the city. 

5th. The ruins of Meidan, where a rather unimportant inscription 
has been reported to me to exist, merit not to pass unnoticed, in conse- 
quence of their extent and proximity to the Penjecoore. The same must 
be said of those of Ganchal, situated in the canton of Tal, three days 
journey north east of Meidan, and twelve koss from Dhyr, as well as 

1839.] Alexanders exploits on the Western Banks of the Indus. 309 

from the castle of Soun, observable to the south of the river Awchiri, and 
containing lead mines in its vicinity. 

6th. The ruins of Doomma, situated on a very lofty mountain, whence 
the surrounding country is discernible ; those of Dankool are a little fur- 
ther up. Those cities bear the names of the monarchs that founded them, 
and are situated in the eastern part of the Yousoufzeis, not far from the 

7th. I shall draw attention in the last place to the ruins that are 
two koss to the west of the present town of Dhyr, and which are 
assigned to the Kaffrans, who were dispossessed of them by the Ma- 
hometans, when that city was governed by the Caffer Kirkat. These 
merit that the greatest attention should be paid to them by travellers, 
in as much as, after the relations of Kazan Khan, chief of Dhyr, and on 
account of the combination of the latter name with the Dyrta of Arri- 
an, I have scarcely any doubt on my mind that this is the city which 
Alexander passed, when he was pursuing the brother of Assacanus, 
and whence he set out for the Indus. If my opinion could be borne 
out, with such a cue it would be extremely practicable to deter- 
mine the true positions of Ora, Bazira, Massaga, and other places men- 
tioned by the above historian, concerning which I have been un- 
able to obtain any precise information, notwithstanding the thorough 
researches I have made. Nevertheless I shall observe that the Hin- 
doos of those districts assured me, that a city called Massangar, known 
also by the name of Maskhin6, exists on the southern frontier of Kaf- 
fristan, close to Baba Kara, twelve koss from Bajore, and four from 
mount Mahram, which is in that canton. They also added that the 
tribe called Assacenis exists in that country. If such a relation were 
well-founded, we should discover there the Massaga of the Greeks, 
the capture of which cost so much blood to Alexander, and the mas- 
sacre of whose intrepid garrison cast a blemish on the exploits of that 
conqueror. I am not aware if this Massangar be identical with the 
one alluded to by Forster, who travelled through Suwat. 

I have been similarly assured that there exist in the district of Boo- 
ner the traces of a town called Oora, which has been also denominated 
Doora, and which on account of its proximity to the Indus may proba- 
bly be the Ora of Arrian, (although Bazira has not been yet discovered 
in its vicinity) especially as that river is not known higher up, but by 
the name of Ab Sind, whence it may be conjectured, with some proba- 
bility, that the country it washes in that part may have been the region 
of that Abissares, on whom our historians waste so many hypotheses, 
and who, according to Arrian, sent resources to Ores, when Alexander 
was besieging that city. Apropos of Abissares, I do not deem it here 

310 Alexander's exploits on the Western Batiks of the Indus. [April, 

superfluous to remark that there is a mountain two days' journey N. of 
Dhyr, by name Ser-Adkamoos- Oure, situated on the route leading to 
Badakchan, a region near which is a place called Hissar. This latter 
word in Hindee signifies a fortress, whence the present city of Achtna- 
gar is also known by the name of Hissar. 

I had also had scrupulous researches made concerning the Aornos, 
but with similar mal-success. Alkfding to this rock, I have already 
observed in my journey through Affghanistan that a similar mount 
presents itself (with all the peculiarities described by Arrian) in the 
canton of Naoghi, near Bajore, where the vestiges also exist of a city 
named Ambar, which is probably the Ambolima of Ptolemy, placed 
by him on the lower branch of the Choes or Cophenes. 

The persons I commissioned to explore the country about Dhyr 
reported to me, that in the canton of Laori, near that of Dhyr, there 
exists a mountain corresponding in all its particulars with the Aornos. 
Others have assured me that there is a similar one in the canton 
of Booner, a region, like all the rest of Yousoufze'is, interspersed with in- 
sulated mountains, whither the inhabitants take refuge in case of immi- 
nent danger, and which, considering the proximity of the city of Amb, 
capital of a canton situated on the Indus, renders such an opinion 
sufficiently probable. I must also subjoin, that beyond the territory Mo- 
la Goori, situated below the confluence of the Penjecoore* and the Suwat, 
to the west of both those rivers united, a mountain is observable called 
Salata, and*also named Azarno, which on account of its insulated posi- 
tion and elevated form, resembling a flattened or headless cone, may be 
easily taken for the Aornos. This mount is quite perceptible from 
Peshawur, behind the defile of Fengui, as its summits far surpass the 
Malekan ridge. I shall also observe that on mount Guendeguer, to 
the N. E. of Azerou, places situated to the east of the Indus, there is the 
fort of Serikoot, a name bearing a striking resemblance to that of 
Sisicotte, to which Alexander confided the garrison of Aornos. The 
former is a renowned stronghold of those regions, having cost the 
Seiks a great deal of blood, and being the place whither the inhabi- 
tants of the surrounding countries resort for shelter in cases of peculiar 

After surmises of this sort, we must infer that it is extremely dif- 
ficult to know which opinion to embrace, especially as the ancient 
historians themselves are not agreed on this important point, which 
constitutes one of the most brilliant of Alexander's exploits. Arrian 
collocates Aornos near Bazira ; Strabo towards the sources of the 
Indus ; and Quintus Curtius on the banks of that river. With reference 
to the latter opinion, I would observe, that a rock exists opposite 

1839.] A lexanders exploits on the Western Banks of the Indus. 3 1 1 

Attbk, with all the peculiarities described by him, on a mountain that is 
topped by a castle, attributed to Rajah Hody. It cannot be ascended 
but on the side of the Indus, by a steep passage hewn through the rock, 
and enclosed by two walls of defence, running up zig-zag according 
to the protuberances of the mount. The space immured by those 
walls is filled with ruins of habitations gradually rising from the brink 
of the river up to the castle. Those works are all entire, and have the 
appearance of great antiquity. The three heights whereon Alexander 
sacrificed to the gods still exist, but I must avow that no arable ground 
or spring can be discovered. There are only two reservoirs built 
by the vizier of Zamenchah. The heights are at present occupied by 
small forts defended by the Mazbis, an Indian sect in the service 
of the Maharajah of Lahore. 

Of the great number of cupolas existing in those regions I shall 
distinguish the following : — 

1st. That of Talache, which I have already alluded to, and the five 
or six others that are discoverable not far from those ruins, in the 
defile that leads from the Suwat to the Penjecoore\ 

2nd. That of Chinguerdar, situated between the ruins of Berikoot and 
the town of Manglore. Another is observable more to the south- 

3rd. That of Charbag, present capital of Suwat. 

4th. Those that exist among the ruins of Sedougan* to the east 
of Manglore. 

5th. Those of Berikoot, situated near the village of Nakmira. 

6th. That of Charkootlia, fifteen koss to the east of Aritchend, 
as well as that near the ruins of Seidabad. The latter is as large 
as that of Chinguerdar. 

7th. That of Sepel-banda, near the village of Khari, and as large 
as that of Chinguerdar. 

8th. Those of Heniapoor, one of which is near the village of Fooraseuk, 
and the other under mount Jaffer. 

9th. That near Sonigheran. 

10th. The two existing on the ruins situated at the foot of 
mount Sookker, near the village of Riga. 

J 1th. Those in the villages of Fakttahind and Caboolgheram. 

12th. Those, in fine, of Chammely, situated on the top of a moun- 

All those massy cupolas which I am describing, are in the Yousoufzeis 
territories, by which is meant all the territory comprised between the 
Indus and Penjecoore, from the snowy chain to the lower branch of the 

312 Alexanders exploits on the Western Banks of the Indus. [April, 

Cabul river, viz. the Cophenes, and which includes Yousoufze'is proper, 
Booner, upper and lower Suwat, Penjecoore, and the dependencies of 

Remarkable places being points that may serve for comparative geo- 
graphy, as well as rivers and mountains, I shall select the following for 
observation : — 

1st. The cave Cashmeer Ghar, situated in the territory of the Baboo- 
ze'is, on a mountain which cannot be ascended but by a steep passage, 
hewn in a great measure out of the rock. This place is also called 
Pelley, and is sixteen koss from the town of Soukhor. The cave is said 
to be of an immeasurable depth, and to have so large an aperture, that 
it is impossible to discern the direction by casting in a stone. As both 
sides of the entrance are of solid masonry, and the front is encumbered 
with enormous cut stones, one would imagine that it is one of the sub- 
terraneous temples attributed to the Pandoovans, or to the Caffers. At 
present it is a place of shelter for myriads of wood-pigeons. Quite close 
to it are visible the traces of a town or castle, whence idols are some- 
times dug up ; a basin also is observable there continually supplied with 
water. I had been assured that an inscription was discoverable, but my 
men could trace out none whatever. I am not aware if this cave be 
identical with that of Roostam, to which I have alluded in my des- 
cription of Yousoufze'is. 

2nd. The sandy cave of Dekia, situated at the foot of mount 
Ghardoom in the district of Dhyr, on which there are the traces of a 

3rd. The Khial cave, near the ruins of Meidan, in the canton of 

4th. The vast basin that exists on mount Bikary, to the west of Dhyr, 
being a place of pilgrimage for the Hindoos, who give out that their 
Pir disappeared on that spot. 

5th. The basin situated to the east of Dhyr in the district of Tal, where 
a fire exists under a cupola maintained from time immemorial, and kept 
up at present by a Guebrian woman. 

6th. Lake Mansoroor in Bajore, situated on a mountain fifteen koss 
from Bendy Berravol, which is continually supplied with water in conse- 
quence of the perpetual snow. 

7th. Mount Hilo, situated in Yousoufze'is, by the Mahometans deno- 
minated Hilum Pilum, and by the Hindoos Ramtakt. This place is 
much frequented by the latter, who perform an annual pilgrimage 
thither during the month of April, in memory of Rajah Ramtchend. 
Those Hindoos likewise make the pilgrimage of Chamra, situated near 
Ootchan, country of the Samooze'is 


/,..-..- ,1 /',ts*i^- ,k Dhi/r 

U/HMy, a, /,,.,„ „• , ■cbo.Up^U^'^ 

1 839.] Alexanders exploits on the Western Banks of the Indus. 3 1 3 

Prior to my drawing this article to a close, I deem it an interesting 
topic, to make an observation on the region of Tch&las, situated on the 
eastern bank of the Indus, four days' journey (more northward) from 
Pakhley and Dembor. This region is said to be highly remarkable for 
the number of ruined towns it contains. Although situated in the 
neighbourhood of the snowy chain, it may well have been the Taktcha- 
shilas of the Chinese Religious, a word which may be decomposed into 
takt, a throne, chah, a king, and shilas a corruption of Tchelas ; and 
thus form a ground for a probable hypothesis, that the Greeks thence 
derived their Taxila. The inhabitants of Upper Suwat who repair 
to Tchelas, cross the Indus at Goozer Chekhi, whence is visible on the 
eastern bank mount Mehoor, situated almost opposite the Cabool-Ghe- 
ram ruins, which are discoverable on the contrary beach. 

Higher up, on the upper branch of the Indus, lie the regions of 
Ghilghit, Ashoor, Goraei, Khelooman, and Balooman, formerly inhabited 
by the Caffers. 

The ferry points of the Indus from Attok to the snowy ridge are 
the following : Attok, Bazar Hound, Monari, Pehoor, Notchy, Kabbel, 
Chetabha, Amb, Derbend, Chetterbahi, Mabera, Toohara, Marer, 
Didel, Kamatche, Behar, Pachetlehi, Guendoo, Mattial, Battera, 
Jendial, and Manial, Kallehi, Palles-pattan, Pohoo-Goodje, Koonchir and 

Art. IV. — Remarks upon the Rain and Drought of the last Eight 
Seasons in India. By the Rev. R. Everest, Landour. 

In two former papers I endeavoured to trace the variations of the 
past seasons, as to drought and moisture, by means of the prices of corn, 
having assumed that the wettest years produced the most abundant 
harvest, and the driest the reverse. An examination of the subject 
shewed that the more extensively the averages of prices were taken, 
the greater approximation there was to a regular ascending and de- 
scending series, or curve, with recurrent periods of from six to ten 
years ; thus leading to the belief, that, if the average of certain atmos- 
pherical phenomena over a surface sufficiently extensive could be taken, 
the result would exhibit recurrences nearly or altogether regular. I 
will now shew how far the Register of the different Rain Gauges cor- 
roborate or not this opinion. The following are the annual depths of 
Rain that have fallen in different parts of India during the last eight 





. . 





. . 







































314 Rain and Drought of the last Eight Seasons in India. [April, 

Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, Dehli, 
inches. inches, inches, inches. 

To obtain the average varia- 
tion, let us take the maximum 
and minimum at each place, and 
divide the whole difference be- 
tween them into one thousand 

parts; then for the number itself substitute the proportional part 

of the difference. 

Thus at Calcutta we have 

These will by the proposed substitution become ., 
and the whole will stand thus : — 

Calcutta. Madras. Bombay. Dehli. Average. 

It appears from this average 
that the minimum has recurred 
in five years, which is a period 
somewhat shorter than we should 
have been led to expect from 
an examination of the prices of corn for many years back, 

I have before stated, as one of the results of such an examination, 
that there was a more perfect recurrence at the end of fifty six years than 
at any other period. Thus comparing together different years with that 
interval between them, we have the following : — 

Maxim: or years) 1815 1822-23 1829 1835-36 

of abundance, j 1759 1767 1773 

Minim: or years) 1819-20 1826 1832 

of scarcity. } 1763 1770 1776 

In searching for data to elucidate this part of the subject, I obtained 
sight of an old manuscript Register in the Surveyor General's Office, 
from which I was enabled to compare the annual amounts of rain for 
the last eight seasons with those fifty-six years before. The Register 
appears to be imperfect, and, unfortunately, to have been kept by an 
illiterate person. The daily entries begin towards the latter end of 
1776, but, from a note we learn what had been the annual amount of 
rain both in that year, and in the year previous. I here subjoin them, 
and place by the side of each the depths registered 56 years afterwards. 





. . 






, . 

200 — 






























200 — 









Rain inches 


5.5 24 











































1839,] Rain and Drought of the last Eight Seaso?is in India. 315 
Annual depth of rain at Calcutta in inches. 

It will be observed that the depths 
are much less in the earlier period than 
in the later. This is partly owing to 
1836 ^he height °f the Gauge above the 
ground in the former case, for which 
allowance might be made, but this would 
not be worth while, as there are other 
sources of error which could not be cal- 
culated. For the years 1784-85 we have another register published 
in the Asiatic Researches, which gives the annual amount thus : — 

Year, 1784 1785. 

Inches, 81*0 77*5 

Let us now recapitulate the principal maxima and minima for 
56 years. They are — 

Max. 1779. ..1786. ..1796. ..1806.. .1815. ..1822-23. ..1829.. .1835-36 
Min. . . 1782-3. ..1792-3. ..1802. ..1811-12. ..1819-20.. .1826. ..1832 

The maxima for Bengal are generally earlier than the above. They 
are, 1784-5 1794 1804 1813. 

On referring to the list we see that no minimum recurred at the end 
of 56 years from 1782 viz. in 1838; but somewhat earlier, viz. in 
1837. It was not, however, to be expected that the recurrences would 
happen regularly in the same locality, and our lists are much too few to 
enable us to estimate the average effect over the whole surface of the 
country. The maxima above stated shew very nearly four equal in- 
tervals of seven years each = 28 years ; one of ten years, and two of 
nine years each = 28 years. 

Admitting the case to be as we have supposed, then we might 
reasonably expect that similar phenomena would be observed in other 
parts of the world, in particular, such lakes or large natural reservoirs 
as the Caspian, and the North American lakes would indicate, by their 
increase or diminution, the variations of the seasons over an extended 
surface, better than any other artificial means that could be devised. 
In Brewster's Edin. Journal of Science, vol. 7. 1827 (July to October), 
we find a paper by Mr. De Witt Clinton, on the periodical rise and fall 
of the North American lakes. Unfortunately no record has been kept 
of the changes, but it is stated that there is a rise for three years, and a 
corresponding declension — being altogether a period of six years. It is 
added, that some extend the time of rise to five, and others to nineteen 

t t 

316 Rain and Drought of the last Eight Seasons in India. [April, 

years. Probably these periods would be more correctly stated at 4§ 
and 9^ years respectively, which would give recurrences at the end 
of nine and nineteen years. Some particular times of maxima and 
minima are stated ; they are — 

Max 1797 1815. 

Min 1802-1811 1822. 

These numbers (except the last) nearly coincide with our own, which 
are for the same period — 

Max. 1796 1806 1815 1822. 

Min 1802 1811 

It must be recollected that these periods of the North American 
lakes are only stated from the memory of the inhabitants ; and besides 
it is almost too much to expect that the changes in distant parts of the 
world should be exactly contemporaneous. 

Art. V. — Statistical Record of the duration of diseases in 13,019 
fatal cases in Hindoos. — Extraordinary mortality among Lying-in 
Women — Compiled by Dr. Duncan Stewart, Superintendent Ge- 
neral of Vaccination. 


Note. The Table is compiled from the Bills of Hindoo Mortality 
kept by the Police authorities at the different ghauts where Hindoo 
obsequies are performed. The information is derived from the relatives 
accompanying the body to the ghaut, and is therefore not liable to sus- 
picion, although there may be some little laxity on particular points. 
The registers thus obtained assign the name, age, sex, caste, occupation, 
and residence of every individual — the illness whereof lie died, and the 
number of days he was ill — also the names of his father, of his nearest 
heir, his priest, and the doctor who attended him. Some of the former 
items I have elsewhere tabulated for the information of the Municipal 
Committee, in illustration of the localities in Calcutta most favorable 

1839.] Duration of Diseases in 13,019 fatal cases in Hindoos. 317 

to the generation and concentration of disease, and of the ratio of mor- 
tality in each Thannah, as also the influences of age, sex, and season 
upon the course of disease among the natives. 

The present Table has reference chiefly to the comparative preva- 
lence of particular diseases, and to the duration of these in a majority 
of cases before they kill. It must be remembered that none of the sub- 
jects here classified enjoyed the benefits of Hospital treatment, and but 
very few probably of Dispensary aid, or of European skill in any form ; 
yet the Table will be interesting, if on this account alone, by exhibiting 
in comparison with similar Tables, the results of Hospital or Dispensary 
practice here and in Europe. 

The rapid fatality of tropical diseases in their early stages, is remark- 
ably shown ; and with reference particularly to the diseases of child-bed, 
there is more than sufficient to compel the conviction not only of the 
existence of many unhappily fatal habits and prejudices on the part of 
the people, but of most barbarous, perhaps sinful, obstetricy on the part 
of the practitioners. The mortality in child-bed is one-tenth of the 
whole ; that is, equal to one-fifth of all the deaths among females. 
Of the fatal cases, more than half occur during the three first 
days, in other words " in the birth," and of the remainder a large ma- 
jority fall victims to puerperal diseases within 15 days. So frightful a 
picture is not to be met with in the records of humanity ; yet so little 
has it been known or suspected, that only two years ago the India Com- 
pany's examining Physician in London actually struck out of the medical 
indent from this country the entire of the obstetric instruments, stating 
as a reason, that " the relaxing effects of the climate rendered the use 
of instruments at all times unnecessary." 

The subject has lately attracted attention here in an influential quar- 
ter, and such disclosures as the present will, it is hoped, lead to the in- 
stitution of measures calculated to prevent the fearful waste of life from 
such causes. 

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S^5 3 

1839] Description of four new species of Olter. 319 

Akt. VI. — Summary description of four new species of Otter. By 
B. H. Hodgson, Esq., Resident at Catmandu, Nepal. 

To the Editor of the Asiatic Journal. 

One of the most remarkable features of the mammalogy of Nepal 
is the great number of distinct species of Otter characterising it. 
There are at least seven species, I believe, though not one of them 
is numerous in individuals, at least not in comparison of the common 
Otter of commerce, which is produced in the neighbourhood of 
Dacca and Sylhet. This rarity of species, added to the circumstance 
of the animals not being regularly hunted for their skins, renders it 
very difficult to procure live specimens ; and without live specimens — 
which may be slain and their osteological as well as other characters 
thus accurately examined — the discrimination of specific differences 
is a work of extreme labour and delay. Many years ago I announced 
to Mr. Bennett, the late Secretary of the London Zoological Society, 
the fact that there are several species of Lutra in Nepal, and before 
he died he was nearly convinced of the correctness of the statement, 
though I could not then, nor can now, give a full exposition of even 
those with which I am best acquainted. 

Waiting, however, for the perfect knowledge when the materials 
of it are not under command, is, I find, like waiting on the river's 
side for a dry passage after the waters have flowed past ; and I shall 
therefore offer no apology for briefly characterising those four of the 
seven Nepalese species of Otter of which I have considerable certainty, 
leaving the remaining three to some future occasion. 

Genus LUTRA. 
1st. Species — Tarayensis nobis. 

Size, medial. Structure, typical. Scull and head much depressed, 
Lower incisors ranged nearly in line. Tail equal to two-thirds the 
length of the animal, and much depressed. Form, robust. Nails 
compressed, exserted from the finger ends, and acute. Fur short and 
smooth. Colour— above, clear umber ; below, and the hands and feet, 
pure yellowish white ; the yellow tint deepest on the limbs ; the pale 
colour on the head and neck extending upwards to the line of the ears 
— less so on the body ; and the distinction of dark and pale hues very 
decidedly marked. Tail above and below, dark. 

320 Description of four new species of Otter. [April, 

2d. Species — Monticolus nobis. 
Size, large. Structure, upon the whole, similar to the above. 
Tail equal to more than two- thirds of the animal, and less depressed. 
Scull and head less depressed. Intermediate incisors of lower jaw 
ranged entirely within or behind the line of the rest. Colour — above, 
deeper than the above, or bistre brown ; below, sordid hoary, vaguely 
defined, except on the edge of the lips and chin ; limbs nearly as 
dark as the body. Fur longer and rough, or porrect from the skin 
in a considerable degree. 

3d. Species — Indigitatus nobis. 
General form and proportions of Leptonyx, to which it is affined. 
Habit of body more vermiform than in the above. Tail but half the 
length of the animal. Toes very short, and more than half buried 
in the palmary mass. Nails short and worn, but not depressed nor 
truncated, as in Leptonyx. Size, medial. Colour — same as in the 
last, but deeper still, or dusky bistre ; paler and ruddier on the body 
below, and albescent on the head below ; but the colours not well 
defined, and only really distinct (except in shade) on the inferior 
surface of the head. Character of the fur as in the last, and indeed 
in all the mountain species. 

4th Species — Auro-brunneus nobis. 

Size, small. Habit of body still more vermiform. Tail less than 
two-thirds of the length of the body. Toes and nails fully developed. 
Fur longish and rough, as before. Colour — rich chesnut brown (the 
fruit) above ; and golden red below and on the extremities. 

Remarks. — The three last species are confined to the mountains, as 
is the first species to the plains at their foot. The dimensions in 
inches, and the weight of the four species are as follow : — 


Tip of snout to | oa , OQ 
base of tail .} 26 to 28 


30 to 32 


22 to 24 


20 to 22 

Tail ... 16 



12 to 13 

Weight . 16 to 20 lbs. 

20 to 24 

11 to 13 

9 to 11 

Nepal, May, 1839. 


am, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


1839.] Distribution of the Vulturidce, Falconidce, fy Strigidce. 321 

Art. VII. — On the Geographic Distribution of the Vulturidce, Falco- 
nidce, and Strigidce ; being the first of a series of memoirs intended to 
illustrate the Geographic Distribution of the Ornithological Kingdom. 
By Wm. Jameson, Esq. Assistant Surgeon Bengal Medical Ser- 
vice, fyc. 

Of all the departments of zoology, there is probably not one which 
has attracted less the attention of naturalists than that of the geogra- 
phic distribution of the animal kingdom ; although from a study of 
it many details may be derived of essential importance to several of the 
other branches of natural history. To elucidate partially the distri- 
bution of one division of zoology, viz. ornithology, is the subject of 
the series of memoirs intended to be presented to the Society. 

In entering upon a subject like the present, we do so with the 
greatest diffidence, from the confusion which has existed, and still reigns 
in the systematic department of ornithology. The number of synonymous 
genera — some authors applying a certain suite of characters to a parti- 
cular genus, others another suite either more or less extensive, and some 
applying the name, but at the same time ignorant of the characters 
upon which the genus is based, of which we have many examples, and 
these too in works published at the present day — have presented to us 
difficulties of no ordinary nature. To overcome these, we have exa- 
mined minutely the magnificent collection in the Edinburgh Royal 
Museum, as well as the principal public and private collections 
throughout England. 

The system of arrangement we have adopted is that of the Baron 
Cuvier, with certain modifications, which is undoubtedly the best at 
the present moment. The system of Macleay, when properly followed out, 
will probably however supersede all others. The attempts which have 
as yet been made are very unsatisfactory, the best is that of Vigors. 
Mr. Swainson in trying to find out his analogies, does not on many 
occasions at all take into consideration the possibility of many groups 
of birds having disappeared from the surface of our globe. His views, 
no doubt, are very ingenious, but must be received with due caution. 
We have adopted several of the new genera lately proposed by Vigors, 
Lesson, Swainson, &c. these we shall notice in their proper place. 

When we take a general view of the ornithology of Asia, Africa, 
Australia, North and South America, we find that it is in a manner 
unknown. Of Europe and North America we have no doubt complete 
lists of the species, but the remarks on their distribution are of a loose, 
and unsatisfactory nature. The local Faunas published are few in 

322 Distribution of the Vulturidce, FaJconidce, § Strigidce. [April, 

number, and in general they have not been drawn up with that care and 
precision, and upon the system, now necessary, authors being content 
in mentioning the mere occurrence of the species. In regard to the 
birds of Britain, we have some good details in the works of Montague, 
Yarrel, Fleming, Selby, Jenyns. Again the works of Temminck, 
Naumann, Buhm, Berger, Gould, &c, afford us some valuable informa- 
tion upon the birds of Europe generally. The ornithology of Asia has 
not attracted the particular attention of any naturalist, at least we have 
no complete work. In the writings of Horsfield, Raffles, Sonnerat, 
Leschenault, Duvaucel, Diard, Sykes, Vigors, Franklin, Gould, Hodgson, 
Dussumier, Belanger, Boie, Kuhl, Van Hasselt, &c., — some of whom 
forfeited their lives in the pursuit of this their favourite study — we have 
many valuable details. 

In regard to the birds of Africa, the works of Le Vaillant stand pre- 
eminently forward, and which have increased much our knowledge in 
this department ; but his researches are almost entirely confined to the 
southern part of that continent. To Dr. Smith we are also indebted for 
much valuable information, and we look forward with much interest 
to his work, which is soon to issue from the press. Mr. Swainson has 
added a little to our knowledge in regard to the birds of western 
Africa, but there is still a vast deal to be done in this quarter. Rup- 
pell has published some excellent observations on the birds of Nubia 
and Abyssinia, and the ornithology of Egypt has been partially elu- 
cidated by Savigny in his great work. 

To Australia the same remark applies. We have no complete general 
work. From the writings of Brown, Lewin, White, Vigors, Horsfield, King, 
Phillips, Lesson, Quoy, Gaimard, Poren, Lansdorf, Gould, much valu- 
able information may be obtained. The last individual mentioned is 
at present engaged publishing a work, illustrated with figures of the 
heads of the birds of New Holland, and we hope soon to have a 
complete Fauna from the same author, who is at present travelling 
through that country in order to illustrate its zoology. 

The northern half of the new world has received much greater atten- 
tion, and its ornithology is better known than any other continent 
with the exception of Europe. For this we are indebted to the inde- 
fatigable exertions of Wilson, Audubon, Prince Lucien Bonaparte, 
Nuttal, Ord, Richardson, Swainson, Sabine, Ross, Douglass, Lich- 
tenstein, &c. 

With regard to the ornithology of the southern continent of America, 
we are lamentably deficient in information. From the writings of Spix, 
Prince D'Neuwied, D'Orbigny, D'Azara, Swainson, some information 
may be obtained. 

1839.] Distribution of the Vidtiiridce, Falconidce, fy StrigidcE, 323 

From numerous general works much valuable information may be 
received, to notice all of which would occupy too much space. Among 
the authors we may mention Temminck, Cuvier, Latham, Shaw, BufFon, 
Vieillot, Lesson, Wagler, Jardine, Selby, Drahiez, Lichtenstein, Illiger 
&c. To Illiger, however, we are indebted for having first taken up 
the particular subject of ornithological distribution, and which he has 
handled in a masterly manner, in a paper published in the transactions 
of the Royal Academy of Berlin ; nor did he direct his attention to the 
distribution of the ornithological kingdom alone. In the same tran- 
sactions we find him discussing mammalia in a similar manner. Illiger, 
however, in his paper on birds only notices the distribution of about 
three thousand species, being little more than one-half of what is now 
known ; and, moreover, most of his observations are now inaccurate, our 
information in this department being much more extensive. Prince 
Lucien Bonaparte has lately published some observations upon this 
subject, but probably too general to be of much value ; and, lastly, we 
may state that Mr. Swainson has lately devoted some attention to this 
subject, with what success, we shall afterwards have occasion to point 
out ; in the mean time we may remark, that most of the observations 
which he has published seem to be more for the purpose of supporting 
a favourite theory, than tending to advance ornithological geography. 

We cannot omit noticing that several excellent monographs of parti- 
cular families have been published, among which we would particu- 
larly mark out those of Wagler and Kuhl, upon the Psittacidce— Lesson 
on the Trochilidce— Gould on the Rhamphastidce and Trogonidce — and 
also Wagler's System a Avium, which may be considered as a series of 
monographs brought into one focus. A continuation of this work will 
be found in Oken's Isis. Numerous papers on genera and species have 
been published in the transactions of various Societies and Periodicals, 
which however we shall notice when we have occasion to consult them. 

Having now given a rapid sketch of the present state of ornithology 
as far as the distribution of birds is concerned, we shall proceed to 
the subject of our communication. 

Birds, considered geographically, may be divided into four grand di- 
visions, viz. 1st, Those which are universally distributed; that is, found 
in all the great continents of the world. 2nd. Those which are gene- 
rally distributed, or found in three or more continents. 3rd. Partially 
distributed, or those found in two continents. And 4th. Continently 
distributed, or those found in but one continent; which last division 
may be again subdivided with those which are generally distributed 
throughout the continent, or confined to a part, or island, belonging 
to that continent. 

u u 

324 Distribution of the Vulturida. Falconidce, fy Strigidce. [April ? 

For these four grand divisions which we have now proposed, and for 
the purpose of simplification, and to prevent repetition, we have adopted 
the following terms : — To the first division we apply the term Katho- 
liko-dianamial ; to the second, Geniko-dianamial ; to the third, Adiko- 
dianamial ; and to the fourth, Topiko-dianamial. 

In illustration of this arrangement, which we think, in conjunction 
with a continual tabular view, is well adapted for tracing the distribu- 
tion of the ornithological kingdom, we may notice a few examples. 
Belonging to our first, or Katholiko-dianamial division, we have the 
genera Fctlco, Tardus, Anas, Columba, Fringilla, Muscicapa, Corvus, 
Hirundo, Ardea, &c. To our second, or Geniko-dianamial division, be- 
long the genera Vidtur, Picus, Mycteria, Pkcenicopterus, Trogon, 
Upupa, Oriolus, Tetrao nacifraga, &c. To our third, or Adiko-dia- 
namial division, belong the genera, Bucco, Trochilus Ocypterus, Ac- 
centor, Buceros, &c. And to our fourth, or Topiko-dianamial division, 
belong the genera Sericidus, Buphaga, Eurylaimus, Menura, Alectura, 
Musophaga, Calyptomina &c. 

No doubt objections may be thrown out against the system of ar- 
rangement now proposed, in particular in regard to the last two divisi- 
ons ; for in nearly all the continents we have tropical, temperate, and 
arctic climates ; and it is seldom that genera extend throughout all these ; 
nor do we mean to infer this ; all that we suppose is, that species belong- 
ing to any particular genus noticed extend more or less over that 

Birds of prey from the most early times have been divided into 
two grand divisions, viz. the Diurnal and the Nocturnal ; the former 
comprehending the Vultures and Hawks; the latter the Owls. We 
shall therefore first notice the Vultures. 

Vultures taken as a whole belong to our second, or Geniko-diana- 
mial division, being found in all the continents of the world, witli 
the exception of New Holland ; true Vultures never being found in it, 
as far as we are aware, their distribution not extending further in that 
direction than the Indian islands. No doubt Mr. Swainson has des- 
cribed his rasorial type of the Vultures as peculiar to this continent. 
With all due deference to Mr. Swainson as a naturalist, we cannot but 
state that we have here a most extraordinary instance of the danger of 
being misled by a favourite theory, for in this instance Mr. Swainson is 
as much entitled, in fact more so, to consider the common wild Turkey 
of North America as his rasorial type of that group ; it presenting a 
greater analogy to the Vultures than the Alectura, Latham, which in its 
habits and manners is a true gallinaceous bird. 

But although the Vultures considered as a family present a very 

1839.] Distribution of the Vulturidce, Falconidce, § Strigidce 32o 

extensive distribution, yet in their subdivisions they are more restricted ; 
for we find the Vultures, properly so called, entirely in the Old world, 
their place being supplied in the New by the species of the genus 
Sarcoramphus. Nor do the different divisions of the Vultures stand thus 
alone in representing each other in the different continents, it being a 
law extending through many groups of the ornithological system. Thus 
the Platyrhynchi of the New world are represented in Asia by the Eury- 
laimedce. The Pardalotidce of Australia are represented in Asia by the 
Calyptominedce, and in the New world by the Piprince. The Buccomidce 
of Asia are represented in Africa by the Pogonidce, and in the new 
world by the Tamatiadce. The Rhamphastidce of South America are 
represented in Asia and Africa by the Buceridc&, and in Australia by the 
Scytliropidce. The Oriolidce of the Old world are represented by the 
Quiscalidce in the New, which group, with one exception, as in the Pi' 
prince, is confined to America. The Melleagridce of America are repre- 
sented in Africa by the Namidce, in Asia by the Phananidce, and in 
Australia by the Alecturidce. And, lastly, the Strutkionidce of Africa are 
represented in America by the Rheadce, in Australia by the Casuaridce, 
and in Europe and Asia by the Otidce. Numerous other examples could 
be given, but there are still a great many genera which form as it were 
isolated examples to individual continents, and for which we cannot find 
any representations. Thus we have no tribe in New Holland to represent 
the Piciance ; no tribe in Europe to represent the Psittacidce ; no tribe in 
Asia, Australia, or America to represent the Scopidce of Africa ; and, in 
fine, no tribe in any of the other continents to represent the Musopha- 
gidce or Gypogeranidce of Africa. Whether there ever existed in the 
different continents groups representing each other to a greater extent 
than we have at present, will probably remain a mystery, even although 
organic remains should be found ; birds not presenting in their osteo- 
logy, at least in many cases, sufficiently marked characters. Comprehended 
in the genus Vulture, properly so called, we have eleven species ; of 
those, three are found in Europe, but none proper to it, being also found 
in Asia and Africa ; in Asia six, three of which are properly, one of 
them being also found in the Indian islands ; in Africa eight, five of 
which are proper ; supplying their place, as already stated, we have in 
the New world Sarcoramphi, of which there are four species common 
to North and South America, if the opinion of Nuttal is correct in 
regard to the occurrence of the Condor in the North American con- 
tinent. It is probable however that it may have been confounded with 
the Sarcoramphus Calif or nianus, a nearly allied species. The Sarco- 
ramphus papa seldom goes as far north as the United States ; 
Bonaparte states that it is occasionally met with in Florida, which is pro- 

326 Distribution of the Vulturida, Falconida, fy Strigidce. [Aphil, 

bably its northern limit. It is described by D'Azara as common in 
Paraguay, but he states it does not pass the 32° of south latitude ; in 
the intermediate countries it appears to be very abundant. The genus 
Catkartes, consisting of two species, is also confined to North and South 
America, its place being supplied in the Eastern hemisphere by the genus 
Neophron, represented by the Neophron perenopterus, a species common 
to Europe, Asia and Africa. 

Adding together the species belonging to the different divisions of 
Vultures, we have thus only eighteen known ; a small proportion when 
compared either to the Falcons or Owls, but the numbers in which they 
occur fully compensate for this. The warmer regions of Africa and Asia 
must be considered as the metropolis of the Vultures, properly so called. 

We now enter upon the second division of the Falconidce, which has 
been divided by the Baron Cuvier into two grand divisions, viz. the 
noble and ignoble Birds of Prey ; the former comprehending the 
Falcons, properly so called, the latter the Eagles, Hierofalco. 

The Falconidce considered as one group, possess very extensive 
distribution, belonging to our Katholiho-dianamial division, occurring 
from the 80° of north latitude to the equator, and from the equator 
to the 55° of south latitude, and in all the intermediate spaces; yet 
when taken generically, many of them, as in the Vulturidce, have a 
rather restricted distribution. 

Of the genus Falco, properly so called, we have representatives in 
all the different continents, but in Europe we meet with the great- 
est number of typical species ; not one of which, however, is confined 
to it. Thus of the forty-four species contained in the genera Falco, 
Hierofalco, Hierax, Harpagus, Lophotes, and Frythropus, nine are 
found in Europe, of which two are proper to it, belonging, one to the 
genus * * * the other to the genus Erythropus ; in Asia twelve, 
five of which are proper, three of these found also in the Indian 
islands ; in Africa eighteen, eleven of which are proper ; in Australia 
five, and four proper ; in North America five, and one proper ; and 
in South America twelve, and of these ten proper. Of the other 
seven species found in Europe, but not proper to it, three are common 
to Europe and Asia, one common to Europe, Asia, and North America, 
one common to Europe and North America, one common to Europe 
and Africa, and one common to Europe, Australia(F), North and South 

It may be laid down as a well ascertained fact, that birds of temper- 
ate, and many birds of arctic, countries — that is, those birds which are 
known to breed there — possess a much wider distribution than those 

* Word illegible in M.S. -Eds. 

1839.] Distribution of the Vulturidce, Falconidce, fy Strigidce. 327 

of tropical countries ; for in very few instances do we find birds of 
tropical countries extending their migrations to temperate countries, — a 
statement which is applicable to more than a third of the birds of 
Europe. But although we find these European birds inhabiting re- 
gions within the tropics, yet we in general find them in those places 
whose mean annual temperature is little above that of Europe, caused 
either by the position or form of the country. To this rule however 
we have several exceptions, as in the Sturnus vulgaris, Pastor roseus, 
Oriolus galbula, which inhabit both tropical and temperate regions, 
although probably more abundant, at least the last two mentioned, in 
the former. It may also be noticed as a curious fact, the reason for 
which is yet unexplained, viz. that the European species which are 
found in tropical countries are in general smaller, although identical 
in every other character with the same bird found in Europe ; in other 
cases we find them not only smaller, but at the same time undergoing 
slight modifications, which, however, are permanent, and therefore 
entitling us to consider them as new species and the representatives, 
in the particular regions in which they are found, of the European. Such 
is the case with regard to the Nut-hatch, Blackbird, Goldfinch, Siskin, 
Nut-cracker, Field-fare, Music Thrush, &c. all of which are found in 
India. ( To be continued. ) 

Art. VIII. — On the use of Wells, 8$c. in foundations ; as practised 
by the natives of the northern Doab. By Captain Cautley, Su- 
perintendent of the Doab Canal. 

Piles and caissons being the usual means adopted for foundations 
in Europe, where the soil and substrata are insufficient, I will ven- 
ture a few remarks on the sj'stem adopted in northern India* for the 
same purpose, especially in the application of hollow cylinders, or wells 
of masonry. The plan of undersinking wells does not appear to be 
totally unknown, although it is not practised in England ; in fact the 
only approach to the method upon which I am now about to occupy 
the pages of this Journal, is exhibited in the works at the Thames 
Tunnel, at the descent to which Brunei has sunk masonry cylinders 
" fifty feet in diameter, strongly clamped with iron, &c" the process of 
effecting which I have no means of describing. Our Upper Indian 
system, however, is so admirably adapted to the purposes for which it is 
intended, and so much superior to pileing (caissons I put out of the ques- 

* The undersinking of wells, and their use in foundations, is not confined to the 
northern Doab; it is practised in Bengal and other parts of India. 

328 On Wells used in Foundations in Upper India. [April, 

tion) that a few remarks, drawn from practical observation, may per. 
haps induce others, with more information than myself, to attract the 
notice of English Civil Engineers to a resource well worthy of their 
attention. The Hindoo religion in deifying the great rivers, and incul- 
cating on its disciples the necessity of constant ablutions, and the re- 
wards held out to those who multiply the shrines and temples on the 
banks of the sacred waters, have been the cause, in all probability, of 
the adoption of this system of foundation. In an alluvium so exten- 
sive, and so moveable, piles, were they used, would have been found 
inefficient ; the native engineer, however, has no machinery with 
which piles of a sufficient length could be driven; timber, moreover, at 
those places where the greatest demand would have existed, could not 
have been procured without great difficulty, and very great expense. 
The means of making bricks, on the contrary, were at hand; the labourers 
required to build masonry and to sink wells were to be found in the 
neighbourhood ; the solidity of structure was withal more pleasing 
both to the projectors and to the builders ; and the idea once adopted, 
the use of wells not only on the edges of the river, but in all places 
where the badness of the soil and the height of spring water render- 
ed excavation impracticable, has been acknowledged as the standing 
resource in the system of hydraulic architecture of Upper India. At 
Muttra, Bindrabund, &c. where flights of steps or ghats sweep the 
whole line of the Ganges within the limits of the respective towns, 
wells have been extensively used in foundations. The Mussulman build- 
ings at Agra are largely indebted to wells, where the proximity of the 
Jumna made a depth of foundation necessary ; the Doab Canal works 
have paid equal homage to this admirable native conception, and it is 
from these works that I shall collect data to enable the reader not 
only to comprehend the method which is put into practice when wells 
are used, but also to draw a comparison between their value as the 
means of foundation, and that of piles and other methods in use else- 

The Chah-kun (from aU. a nfell, and ^f the affix from y>*3 to 
die/,) or well-sinker is a distinct trade scattered throughout the 
villages of Upper India. Its followers are called into requisition either 
for sinking new, or for clearing out old wells ; in the former case, 
generally doing their work by contract, at a fixed rate per hath or 
eighteen inches of depth of sinking, and in the latter by the job, or 
so much for clearing out the well and rendering it fit for use. The 
expertness of this class of people depends very much, of course, upon 
practice, and the depth of wells to which the Chah-kun has been 
accustomed. In a country where the undersinking does not exceed 

1839-1 On Wells used in Foundations in Upper India. 329 

ten or twenty feet, the well-sinkers will profess their inability, or de- 
cline to contract for greater depths; in fact where cylinders are .re- 
quired of from thirty to fifty feet, the Chah-kuns above mentioned 
would decline the undertaking altogether; the tools and method of 
using them in such a case, being quite different from what they have 
been accustomed to. 

The tools in use by the Chah-kun consist of the Phaora, or com- 
mon Mamooti* as it is termed in the Ordnance Magazines, and the 
J ham, a large species of Phaora. The size of the J ham appears to 
vary according to the fancy of the well-sinker: in the cases which 
have come under my own observation, the blade has been usually 
twenty-seven inches wide by thirty-six inches long. The handle, 
which is short, but similar to that of the Phaora, is tied to the blade 
by a rod of strong iron wire, providing a support and means of attach- 
ment for the rope by which the machine is put into operation. The 
apparatus is a rough looking and barbarous affair, but well adapted 
to the use to which it is applied, and to the people by whom it is 
approved of. 

In village well-sinking for the use of irrigation, or to supply the 
inhabitants with water for drinking and other purposes, where the 
supersoil is tenacious, and resting upon loose strata, in which the 
springs are found, it is usual to excavate through the upper soil down 
until water is reached ; a ring of timber adapted to the thickness of 
the walls of the cylinder is then placed horizontally, upon which 
the masonry is built to a height of three or four feet above the surface 
level of the country ; as the masonry advances, the outer surface is 
rubbed over with mortar, and the whole is allowed to obtain a mo- 
derate degree of induration by remaining untouched for at least ten 
days ; at this period the Chah-kun, or well-sinker's aid is put in re- 
quisition. In the earlier stage of the proceedings, the Chah-kun 
carries on his work very easily, it is only when the cylinder has 
reached to a depth beyond that of himself, that the tedious and diffi- 
cult part of his labours commence. After descending the well, and 
having in the first instance fixed a string and plummet to the top so 
as to secure a regularity in the depression, he commences by removing 
the soil from the centre, and then from the four sides respectively ; the 
soil is brought up to the surface in baskets, and the Chah-kun at the 
top is in sole charge of the plummet and its movements. For the first 
three or four feet of sinking there is little fear of accident, and little 
trouble; in fact, up to this point I have frequently employed common 
labourers, who, with a little care and superintendence, have done the 

* Query. — Whence this word? 

330 On Wells used in Foundations in Upper India. [April, 

work as efficiently as an experienced well-sinker. On the application 
of the J ham (vide supra) the top of the cylinder is loaded with logs of 
wood and heavy articles that may be at hand ; a fork-like prop with a 
pulley is fixed in the ground, so that the rope which runs over the 
latter, and to which the Jham is fixed, should run centrically over the 
well; the Chah-kun then descends with the Jham, and with his hands 
and feet (for the natives use both with equal facility,) forces the 
instrument into the soil until it gets properly loaded, when it is 
drawn up, the contents removed, and the same operation is continued 
until the work is completed. After the soil has been removed beyond 
five or six feet below the surface of the water, the Chah-kun's duty is 
constant diving.* I have known them to remain half a minute and 
nearly a minute under water without any respiration. Each man is 
relieved at the end of the hour, and in hot weather the cold that they 
suffer in their escape from the well is severe to a degree; large fires 
are kept burning for them to recover themselves at, and a liberality 
on this point is one of the chief agreements between the well-sinker 
and his employer. In the cold season the annoyance from change of 
temperature is infinitely less, and the people themselves have often 
assured me that they could in this weather do twice the quantity of 
work, and with one-half of the labour to themselves, that they could 
do when the weather is hot, and when the evaporation was so rapid. 

In describing the process required for the sinking of one well for 
common village purposes, we have only now to shew how the applica- 
tion of a number of these wells in conjunction can be turned to account 
for the purposes of securing a good foundation ; for this purpose I shall 
give plans and sections of some of the works on the Doab Canal, 
explaining the method adopted in these works, and also shew how, 
under different circumstances, the same plan of foundation has been 
used with equal effect. 

The course of operations depends on whether the wells used in 
foundation are placed close together, or at a distance. For piers of 
bridges with extensive waterway and heavy superstructure the 
former is usually adopted ; in other cases, the wells are placed four 
feet apart, and connected together by masonry arches, upon which 
the wall, pier, or building is constructed. 

In Canal works, however, it is often an object to obtain a running 
line of wall for foundation unbroken by divisions or points of separa- 
tion, through which the substrata, when consisting of a loose sandy soil, 

* In very deep wells, where the neemchuck exceeds twenty-five feet from the water's 
surface, the Jham is worked by long poles fixed to the handle, and the work is most 

1 839.] On Wells used in Foundations in Upper India. 33 i 

might escape, especially where there is a head water with springs 
opposed to it. In locks or descents, for instance, constructed in sand, 
where the subsoil in addition to its own natural spring water has 
that of the Canal to act upon the flooring of the lower chambers, there 
is a considerable tendency to the removal of the sand under these 
lower floorings, which seriously affects the stability of a work, and is 
only to be provided against by enclosing all the subsoil in continuous 
lines of foundation. I shall hereafter describe a remedy invented by 
Col. John Colvin, C. B. of the Engineers, formerly Superintendent of 
the Delhi, and Superintendent General of, Canals ; but in the mean- 
time it is evident that where wells or cylinders are used, the continuity 
of a wall is imperfect under any circumstances ; for place them as close 
together as possible, there is still a separation — the curtain so much 
desired is wanting. The methods adopted by me in the two cases, 
first, where wells are sunk dose together, or leaving a space of six or 
eight inches, which is the least that can be safely given, and, secondly, 
when at a greater distance apart, are these — piles, and as the English 
engineers now term it, concrete (an article which, I may observe in 
passing, has been in use in Hindoostan from time immemorial) ; the 
former in the works on the Doab Canal varying from sixteen to five 
and a half feet in length, and the latter laid in as deeply as possible be- 
tween the piles, and allowed to stand for some days to settle and in- 
durate. The piles are made of young Saul trees ( Shorea robusta) cut in 
the forests in the northern slope of the Sewalik hills, in the Deyra 
Dhoon ; or when only five and a half feet long, of the species of rafter 
called by the natives Kurri, the smaller sort averaging from ten to 
twelve feet long and three and a half inches square, sawed out of Saul 
timber in the forest, and imported in immense abundance into the 
plains swung on the back of bullocks by the Brinjarris, or class of people 
who lead a roving life, employing their cattle in this species of work. 
The concrete consists of kunker, an alluvial lime rock peculiar to In- 
dia — of stone boulders from the river broken into fragments — the gutta or 
refuse of lime kilns, mixed with a proportion of cement, consisting of 
two or three parts of soorkhee, or pounded brick, and one part of the 
best stone lime thrown in and well mixed together with a pole, 
sharp at one end and blunt at the other ; the former to stir up the 
mixture for a certain time, and the latter to ram it down until it is 
properly placed in position. 

The figures in plates 1 and 2 represent these methods in detail, 
with the neemchuck and tools used by the well-sinkers ; and in plate 
4, which is a plan and section of falls and locks as constructed on 
the Doab Canal, the application of both will be easily recognized. 

x x 


On Wells used in Foundations in Upper India. [[April, 

The depth to which a cylinder of six feet in the diameter can be 
sunk during the day by one party of well-sinkers through a sandy stratum 
as far as ten feet, varies from two and a half feet to four inches. It is 
desirable when the well has to be sunk to this depth only, to expedite 
the depression of the three or four last feet as much as possible, so as to 
get the cylinder to its full depth, without leaving it during the night, 
and allowing the loose soil to settle round it, and give it a firm 
embrace. It is very difficult at times to free the sides of the cylinder 
from the hold which the sand has in this case upon them, but even 
with a very heavy weight applied to the top half a day may be 
expended in this way, without getting the well to move at all— a re- 
mark equally applicable in pile-driving through sand, where the 
advantages of driving the last pile that is driven during the day to its 
full depth, is well known. I have seen a pile, length twenty feet 
and diameter eight inches, which has been driven ten feet on the 
previous evening, resist on the next morning the weight of the pile 
engine for forty successive strokes — the weight of 250 lbs. falling 
through a space of ten feet, the head of the pile becoming perfectly 
shattered and useless. The following table will give an approxima- 
tion to the expense of sinking cylinders of the above mentioned 
diameter to a depth of ten feet, and although the difficulties attending 
the operations from which this table was formed were greater than 
would be generally experienced, a very tolerable idea of the expense 
of well-sinking will be exhibited. 

Soil, sandy, mixed with clay, but free from stones or kunkur; full 
of springs, with the canal head water ten feet above the point at 
which the cylinder commenced sinking ; outer diameter of well six 
feet, and in some instances eight feet, and inner diameter four and six 
feet respectively ; machinery employed night and day in keeping the 
water down to the level on which the wells were built; windlass 
used with the Jham ; period of operation between January and May. 











Rope, Iron, 
Leather, Oil 
&c. &c. 

Expense in 


Length of 
well or cy- 
linder sunk in 
running feet. 






RS. 1 A. I P. 

10 | 10 1 2 

RS. ' A. | P. 

439 5 10 

RS. 1 A. 1 P. 

450 1 [ 


Or average per running foot Rs. 2:0:4 

The cost of building a cylinder of the above diameter, viz. 6 feet 
and 10 feet high, may be thus— 

1839.] On Wells used in Foundations in Upper India. 333 

Labourers, 9 

2050 bricks, 12 x 6 x 2 . . 10 4 

16 maunds stone lime, . . 6 

Neemchuk or curb, . . . . 2 12 

Total cost, . . 28 0, or per foot 2:12:10 
giving the average cost of well-sinking, using a cylinder of six feet 
in diameter and carried to a depth of ten feet at Rs. 4 : 13 : 2 per 
running foot. In the above table, however, as I before remarked, the 
items are dependent on difficulties which in well-sinking from a plain 
surface — from the level of a garden for instance — would not be met 
with. In wells situated in this way, and of similar dimensions in 
every respect to those upon which our data are formed, the expense 
varies at from three rupees six annas to four rupees per running foot, 
the difference depending on the cost of labourers — the price of materials 
remaining constant. The masonry of well-building I have generally 
found to vary from eighteen to twenty rupees per 100 cubic feet. 

In wells of from sixteen to twenty feet depth the expense per run- 
ning foot has been found to vary from Rs. 7-8 to Rs. 8-8, using the 
cylinder above noted ; to a greater depth, however, they require to be 
of larger dimensions ; but it would be interesting to discover the pro- 
gressive advance in expense on each ten feet of well-sinking ; it would 
possibly advance in a series with a common multiplier of two, leading to 
the following table as an approximation — the upper line representing 
depths of cylinder in feet up to fifty, the second the cost per running 
foot, and the lower the actual cost of well at each depth as noted in the 
upper line. 

10 ft. 

20 ft. 

30 ft. 

40 ft. 

50 ft. 



16 Rs. 



40 Ks. 

160 Rs. 

480 Rs. 



The two first columns are formed on my own practical observation, 
and the third is from the cost of village wells, extracted from the sta- 
tistical notes of the Revenue Surveyors in the upper portion of the 
Doab, plus the expense of undersinking the first sixteen or twenty feet, 
which in village wells is generally built up. Whether the progression 
which holds in these may be extended further, as I have proposed in 
the fourth and fifth columns, may be easily shewn by reference to the 
Engineer officers who built the bridges on the East Kallee Nuddee, 
and Hindun rivers ; (to Captain Debude, and Lieutenant Alcock, 

* The M.S. is Wank in these spaces.— Eds. 

334 On Wells used in Foundations in tipper India. ^April, 

these notes are especially addressed) ; the piers of the Hindun bridge 
resting on wells up to the limit of the table above proposed. 

It must be recollected that the cylinders are supposed to be under- 
sunk from the commencement through a sandy soil, and with spring 
water at the surface — as must usually occur in foundations where the 
application of them for that purpose would be necessary. The cost of 
village wells, which although thirty or forty feet deep are only under- 
sunk on reaching the springs, is proportionably less. 

With reference to the value of obtaining a connected curtain, or line 
of running wall in foundation, where the interference of spring water 
renders undersinking necessary, Colonel Colvin, C. B. of the Bengal 
Engineers, proposed a plan of sinking square masses or parallelopipe- 
dons of masonry, piercing these masses by wells, as represented in Fig. 
1. PI. 3. The plan succeeded in every respect. In those of from ten to 
fifteen feet long and four feet wide, undersinking to a depth of ten feet 
in sand mixed with small shingle was carried into execution with 
perfect success in the foundations of the dam over the Somhe river. 
Water was, at the point where the dam had to be constructed, immedi- 
ately on the surface ; the object of the dam was to retain the supply of 
water to a considerable height to throw it into the Delhi Canal, and 
maintain a supply during the dry months. Circular wells were objec- 
tionable for the reasons which I have before explained, and it was a 
desideratum to get such a foundation, that the head pressure of water 
should affect the leakage under the dam as little as possible. Fig. 
1. PI. 3. will explain the method adopted, the spaces between the 
boxes on the first row being covered by those in the second line. 

The method put into practice in sinking these masses is similar to 
that in cylinders, but greater care is required in regulating the opera- 
tion of the well-sinkers, so that the mass may be lowered equally. The 
curb, or neemchuk, is a platform of wood equal in size to the base of 
the masonry, with round or oval holes cut for the wells, as shewn 
in Fig. 1. PI. 3. I have used these masses in lengths of twenty-one, 
feet, by four feet wide, to a depth of ten feet, with perfect success, 
giving three wells in each. I should however limit the dimensions to 
fifteen feet by four feet, with two wells elliptical, five feet by two and a 
half each, which with proper care will be sunk to a depth of ten feet 
through sand without any difficulty. There appears no reason why 
a whole foundation of a work within certain limits might not be sunk 
in this way. It is often a difficult matter to obtain foundation for a 
bridge with an arch of twenty feet span where the soil is sand 
although the drainage is not liable to freshes or any violence of cur- 
rent. A bridge of this sort, with a roadway of fifteen feet, would 

1839,] On Wells used in Foundations in Upper India. 335 

require a mass in superficial area equal to twenty-eight feet by eighteen, 
to a depth say of from six to ten feet, which would be quite sufficient, 
even if the mass rested on sand. There is no reason why, by piercing 
this block with cylinders, the whole might not be lowered, and a 
foundation obtained of infinitely greater security, and certainly not at 
greater expense, than any of the methods now adopted. The great 
advantage however of this plan over others, is its simplicity ; all the 
apparatus, machinery, &c. of pileing are thrown aside ; a few carpenters 
procurable at every village, and masons to be had without difficulty, 
with some Chah-kuns to sink the mass, are all that is required. 

Where stone in slabs is to be procured, a method is adopted by the 
natives of forming what they call kothis, that is to say a caisson without 
a bottom. The stones are clamped together, as shewn in Fig. 3. PI. 3, by 
wooden clamps ; these boxes are undersunk in the same way as the 
cylinder, but the form is inconvenient, and the difficulty of sinking 
them greater than either the cylinder or the block above described. 
The circular form as regards friction alone, offers a much smaller 
surface than the square ; but the square block of Colonel Colvin has 
great weight to assist its descent, which the stone kothi has not. In 
the foundations of the bridge over the Caramnassa river, laid down 
by Nana Farnavis, these kothis were extensively used. These foun- 
dations when laid bare for the ulterior operations appear to have 
extended across the bed of the river on a width of sixty feet, the 
kothis, which were fifteen feet square, being placed close together, and 
sunk through sand to a depth of twenty feet. The reader is how- 
ever referred to Vol. 3. of the Gleanings in Science, in which Mr. 
James Prinsep has given a most interesting detail of the Caramnassa 
bridge operations. I may however remark that the kothis in question 
after being sunk are filled with grouting, or a mixture of lime, kunkur, 
&c. (concrete) forming an artificial conglomerate, upon which the 
superstructure is raised. Mr. Prinsep uses the word dhoka, in this 
part of India ghutta is the term usually applied to this species of ma- 
terial. The jamwat corresponds with the neemchuk of the northern 

Another species of kothi, which is also used not only in foundations 
but in village wells, consists of frames of wood joined together at the 
angles, as represented in Fig. 4. PL 3 ; this from the want of weight is 
still more difficult to sink than the one before described ; it is however 
convenient where wood is plentiful, and the soil to be pierced of a 
light description ; they are undersunk precisely in the same way as the 
common cylinder. In village wells, when the kothi is from four to five 
feet square and the thickness or scantling of the wood used four or five 

336 On Wells used in Foundations in Upper India. [April, 

inches, it lasts for many years, and merely requires repair in the upper 
portion, where its exposure to the atmosphere tends to the destruc- 
tion of the material. 

The Sundook, or box, is another, and perhaps the most awkward of 
all methods to obtain a depth of foundation ; it is adopted by the na- 
tives, but generally where there are no experienced workmen. The 
plan and form of this box is represented in Fig. 5. PI. 3 ; the size 
generally about ten feet long by five feet wide, and depth not exceed- 
ing five feet. The size of the box being lined out on the ground 
where it has to be sunk, a pointed timber six feet long, or thereabout* 
and four inches square, is driven into the ground at each corner, two 
inch planks are then nailed on the uprights, and the whole made as 
strong as possible, either by additional uprights on the sides or by 
transoms; the soil is then removed from the inside, and the depression 
goes on by driving the uprights down with mallets, as fast as the 
removal of the soil from the inside will admit of it. As may be supposed 
the frame work is liable to disarrangement in every way ; when sunk 
to its full depth the interior is filled with grouting (concrete) and the 
heads of the corner piles or uprights sawed off. These foundations are 
allowed to stand for a year at least before the superstructure is com- 

Pileing as the means of foundation, appears, as far as my observation 
has gone, to be totally unknown throughout Hindusthan. I have 
never met with it under any form, or under any modification. The 
fact is, that labour is so cheap in India, that it is less expensive to adopt 
any means for purposes of this sort with manual labor, than with 
machinery ! That the value of the latter would in the course of time 
be most justly appreciated, there can be no doubt ; but the philan- 
thropy of the existing generation has not arrived at that point which 
would lead the builder of a Ghat or of a Musjid to experimentalize, 
when he has before him a secure, and well authenticated method of 

To recur to the wells or cylinders, it is usual to fill them with 
grouting of lime, kunkur, and broken brick, so as to make a solid 
mass of the whole for the superstructure to rest upon. This may be ne- 
cessary where the wells are sunk to a great depth, and where the su- 
perstructure is of great weight, but in other cases the value or necessity 
of such an arrangement may be doubtful. The wells used by me have 
never exceeded twenty feet in depth, the greatest number only ten. 
From their position they are in some instances liable to be undermined 
by a current setting in upon them when supporting a revetment or line 
of ghat, or in the case of locks from under-currents, and I have inva- 

1839.] On Wells used in Foundations in Upper India. 337 

riably filled the cylinder with large masses of kunkur, or vitrified brick, 
without cement of any description,, on the principle, that if the stratum 
upon which the cylinder rested was at all acted upon or undermined, 
the masses of loose material would sink and occupy the space caused 
by the action of the water below ; in fact the hollow cylinders are quite 
sufficient to support the superstructure placed upon them, the internal 
space may therefore be well occupied by any means to counteract dan- 
ger from the vagaries of the stream. 

The varieties of lime procurable between the Himalayas and Delhi 
are peculiarly favourable to hydraulic works. The beds of the rivers 
which drain the valley of Deyra, situated between the parent moun- 
tains and the Siwaliks, are loaded with boulders of lime rock ; the 
shingle strata of the Siwaliks themselves contain also a plentiful sup- 
ply ; these, with the main outlets of the Jumna and Ganges provide 
lime for all the upper portion of this Doab. The boulders are collect- 
ed and either burnt on the spot, or carried to the works ; in the former 
instance the cost of the material from the Hills to points between them 
and the town of Saharunpoor averages as follows : — 


Cost W 100 maunds at the Kiln from 8 to 10 Rs. say, 10 

Carriage of ditto to the works at W mds. 3 to 3 J As. say, 21 14 

Custom levied at the Ghats or 
passes in the Siwaliks, say, 

j* > i an anna W bullock load 2 2 

Total cost W 100 mds. 34 
Although this lime is in many cases pure, i. e. crystalline carbonate 
without admixture — and by selecting the boulders previously to burn- 
ing may be obtained sufficiently pure for the whitest stucco, or 
white- wash — the article from the kilns is much adulterated with 
clays and metallic oxydes, arising from the varieties of lime rock which 
are thrown into the beds of the rivers. With the use of soorkhee 
therefore (or pounded brick) this lime makes an admirable water- 
cement. In wells and foundations I have generally used it in the fol- 
lowing proportions : — 

2 parts Soorkhee 
1 ditto Lime, or 

5 maunds, or 400 lbs. of Soorkhee 
If maunds, or 140 lbs. of Stone Lime 
mixed well together in a mortar mill before it is used. Above the level 
of the water I have found it advisable to reduce the quantity of 
soorkhee ; the cement in this case consists of 

1 h parts of Soorkhee, or 3f maunds 
1 ditto of Lime, or If maunds. 

338 On Wells used in Foundations in Upper India. CApril, 

The lime in fact is so good, that where well burnt bricks are used, 
bad masonry is entirely out of the question ; the builder cannot help 
himself, and for this portion of his duty deserves no sort of credit 

This stone lime is used universally on the Doab Canal from the 
point where it leaves the Jumna to Rampoor, a town twelve miles 
south of Saharunpoor ; from this the marles and kunkur limes of 
the districts come into use, although the stone lime is brought into 
requisition on a smaller scale for arch- work as well as parapets ; and 
in plaistering masonry works it is solely used. 

The marie, or earth lime as it is usually called, is in much greater 
abundance on this line than kunkur. When extracted from the 
quarries or pits, it is perfectly soft and friable, in which state it is 
kneaded up into round balls about two or three inches in diameter, 
which are placed in the sun to dry, previously to their being burnt 
in the kiln. The marles differ very much in quality, but all of them 
make an admirable water cement. That from Jussool, a village on 
the Khadir of the Hindun river is the most approved of, and is deliver- 
ed on the works within a circle of ten and fifteen miles at about twelve 
Rupees per 100 maunds. These marles are full of fresh water shells 
of species now existing in all the tanks, j heels, and rivers of the coun- 
try ; those of Melania, Lymncea, and Planorbis being in the greatest 

The kunkur limes are more numerous in the southern districts of 
the Canal, they also make a good water cement, but contain no re- 
mains of fresh water exuviae. 

Near a village called Hursoroo, twenty-five miles to the south-west 
of Delhi, a very superior kunkur lime is procured — the formation 
itself is intermediate between kunkur and marie, but the position of 
the quarries from which it is excavated is similar to that in which 
all this material is procured, in a low tract of country, the site in all 
probability of a lake or jheel now filled up.* The same fresh water 
shells as are found in the marles to the eastward of the Jumna, are 
very numerous in the Hursoroo lime. It is exported in large blocks, 
and is sold in Delhi at from twelve to fifteen. Rupees per 100 maunds. 
The cost after burning varies from twenty five to thirty Rupees per 
100. This lime for a water cement is very far superior to any lime 
that I have met with. When calcined it is of a very light color, and 

* Hursoroo is situated on a nullah which rises in the small hills near the Kotub 
Miner, and flows into the southwest end of the Furnuknuggur jheel. The town of 
Hursoroo, or as it is more commonly called Hursoroo ghurree. is about two miles from 
the jheel. 

1839.] On Wells used in Foundations in Upper India. 339 

might be mistaken for the stone lime of the Northern Division. In 
the locks and works on the Doab Canal, appended to them at Shuk- 
ulpoor, Sikrani, and Jaoli, in the southern district opposite Delhi, 
nothing but Hursoroo in the following proportions has been used in 
the superstructure, 

1 part of Hursoroo,* 

1^ ditto of Bujree, 
and in the neighbourhood of Delhi the use of pounded brick, or soor- 
khee, has been almost entirely superseded by that of Bujree.t 

The sand stone, which is an attendant upon the great Quartzoze 
formation of the ridge upon which Tughlukabad, the Kotub Miliar, 
and old and new Delhi stand, varies from compact and crystalline, to 
a loose and friable rock ; in this latter case it consists of an agglutina- 
tion of minute angular fragments of quartz, with, in some cases, a 
red oxyde of iron in such abundance as to give the strata quite a pe- 
culiar character; in other cases the oxyde is wanting, and this friable 
rock is of a light color. For roads and other purposes these varieties 
of the sand stone are much in request, and amongst the natives obtain 
the name of Bujree. Nothing could be a better substitute for soor- 
khee, than the substance in question. The presence of the iron oxyde 
is in every way favorable to its value in hydraulic works, and the 
sharpness of the particle of which it is composed renders it an admi- 
rable mixture with lime for plaister or stucco. In this form it stands 
the effect of the climate much better than soorkhee or river sand. 
In the proportion of one part of Hursoroo lime to one part of 
bujree, mortar laid on with a float, as is used in sand, may be 
considered very far superior to it, and with a much better appearance 
than that practised by the natives, under the tedious process of beat- 
ing with the thappa. This bujree is now universally used on the 
Doab Canal works, at all points at which it can be delivered under 
eight rupees per 100 maunds, this being the maximum rate of 

* The following is the detail of proportions used in the cement at these works, and 
as they were built in 1834-35, a sufficient time has elapsed to judge of the durability 
of the masonry, no repair of any description having taken place up" to this period. 

™ i ,. -it C Hursoroo Lime, 1 part. 

foundations including > ^ ,, T . ' o 

tm o ° < harth Lime, ^ »> 

Moorings, &c Jn • ,™ 2 

& ' ^Joajree,. L >> 

G , , C Hursoroo Lime, 1 >> 

Superstructure, J Bujree, , 4 » 

■d, • , ( Hursoroo Lime, 1 >> 

Plaistev > iBujree, 1 » 

Sundulla or outer thin') a ^„ a T ;™* 8 

coating given to the C|^L^e, .. ;; ... ; ;; « 

plaister, as a finish.) fe001kliee ' 

f This has I believe been the case in the Delhi works for many years. 


340 On Wells used in Foundations in Upper India. [\April, 

pounded brick. For water cement the Hursoroo lime with a proper 
proportion of this red bujree may perhaps be considered as superior to 
all others attainable in this part of the world. 

In conclusion : — the Saul ( Shorea robusta) which is found in 
great quantities in the Deyra Dhoon, and especially on the northern 
slope of the Sewaliks, is the wood chiefly used on the Canal works 
for piles, rafters, lock gates, sleepers, windlasses, vanes, &c. &c. The 
Sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo), Toon (Cedrela toona), Sirr (Acacia 
serissa), are used in doors, door frames, mill machinery, &c. For 
handles of tools, pickaxes, phaoras, arbors of mill wheels, &c. the 
Acacia catechu (or Kyr) the wood from which the Terra japonica of 
commerce is procured, and which grows in great abundance in the 
forests south of the Sewaliks, and the Acacia arabica (or Keekur) 
are chiefly in request. For Neemchuks of wells the natives always 
select the Dhak or Plass ( Butea frondosa ) , and if this is not to be had 
prefer the wood of the Ficus Indica, F Bengalensis, Bombax Mala- 
bar icus (Semmid, or cotton tree) ; the Horse radish tree (the Hg- 
peranthera morunga of botanists) is also used : — in fact, all the light 
woods which are valued as floats for rafting timbers are considered 
better than others for the curbs of wells. The Neem (Melia aza- 
dirachta) is a useful wood for small rafters, door frames, &c. from 
being less liable to the attack of white ants. A variety of Pine 
(Pinus longifolia) which grows in extensive forests in the Sewalik 
mountains is held in no esteem by the natives; it is good for making 
light boxes and common furniture, but in attempting to bring it into 
use on the works I have failed ; very capital tar,* however, is procured 
from it, as well as turpentine. 

To Mr. acting Sub-Conductor John Pigott, Overseer of the northern 
division of the Canal, under whose charge the greater part of the 
works from which the above data on well-foundations have been form- 
ed, I am indebted for much valuable aid; his introduction of the 
windlass in sinking wells has not only led to a great saving of expense, 
but added much to the facility of depressing them. His general quick- 
ness, moreover, at resources under sudden and unexpected difficulties, 
which can only be appreciated by those who have seen the effects of 
the Roas, or mountain torrents in the rainy months, is deserving of 
the best acknowledgment that I can offer him. 

Northern Doab, Mag 8th, 1839. 

* Vide vol.2 page 219, of the Journal. The Editor here uses the word turpen- 
tine for tar. The manufacture of tar, and not turpentine is described ; the error was 
not corrected at the time.— Author's note, 

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1839.] Asiatic Society. 345 


Read a letter from Lieut. Col. R. Lloyd, Resident at Darjeeling, forwarding a 
specimen and notice of a supposed Coal found near the Teesta river. On analysis it 
was found to be iron stone mixed with plumbago. 

After the conclusion of the business of the Meeting Mr. Jameson, the officiating 
Curator, read his report on the specimens of Natural History contained in the Museum 
of the Society. 

The thanks of the Society were voted to Mr. Jameson for the valuable service he has 
rendered to the Society, for the short time he has had the management of the 


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No. 89.— MAY, 1839. 

Art. I. — Notice of Inscriptions in Behar, communicated by Mr, 
Ravenshaw. By the Editors. 

We present our readers with a letter from Mr. Ravenshaw, with 
which we received several copies and facsimiles of Inscriptions obtain- 
ed by that gentleman during his tour in South Behar. We regret to 
say, that the most important and interesting of these impressions 
are so imperfect and confused as to baffle the attempts of the Pandit 
Kamala Kaunt, who aided Mr. James Pjrinsep in his valuable dis- 
coveries. We allude particularly to the inscriptions on the inverted 
column in the fort of Behar. They are in the Sanscrit language, and 
character. Nos. 1 and 2 are duplicates taken on sized paper. The 
letters on the one have been inked on the obverse side, and on the 
other on the reverse. The only word yet deciphered is " Srenayah" 
" orders," " files." From No. 3 of the same pillar these Sanscrit words 
have been discovered — " labdhopdya xetropari ku-hiya tyd(jyd) any 
" evil act against land obtained by any means, should be avoided." 

Nos. 4, 5, 6, and 7, are in the same character and language, taken 
from the ruins of Baudhist statuary at Barahgaon. They appear to 
contain Baudhist moral sayings ; example — 

" Ye dharma hetu prabhavah teshdm hetun Tathdgutam avagachchh" 

" Know Budh to be the author of those things which proceed from 
virtue as a cause." 

We suspect that the image at this place (so described by Mr. 
Ravenshaw) cannot be Bhairava. The terrific Siva would be cer- 
tainly misplaced amongst the peace-loving divinities of the Baudhists. 

z z 

348 Notice of Inscriptions in Behar. CMay, 

' # 

No. 8 is in the Deva Nagri, and belongs to a class of inscriptions 
bearing the name of Na'yka Prata'pa Dhavala Deva Raja oiJapila. 
They are described by Mr. Colebrooke in the first volume of the 
Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society (page 201), on inspection of 
the facsimiles taken by Dr. Buchanan. 

No. 8 is that translated by that distinguished orientalist. " It is (to 
borrow his words,) " an inscription on a rock, denominated, from an 
" idol delineated on it, Tdrdchdndi, in the vicinity of Sahusram, in 
" South Behar; and contains the protest of a chieftain named Pra- 
" ta'pa Dhavala De'va, bearing the title of Ndyaca and that of Rdja 
" of Japila, against an usurpation of two villages by certain Brdh- 
" mdnas in his neighborhood, under colour of a grant, surreptitiously 
" obtained through corruption of his officers, from the Raja of Gddhi- 
" nagara or Cdnyacubja (CanojJ, who was the celebrated Vejaya- 
" chandra. Its date is 1229 Samvat, corresponding to a. d. 1173." 

The obliteration of the first digit has led Mr. Ravenshaw to impute 
to these inscriptions an age more remote by one thousand years than the 
true era. 

No. 9 belongs to the same class, but is not described by Mr. 
Colebrooke. The transcriber of No. 8 seems to have been no great 
scholar;' but the transcriber of No. 9 is evidently quite illiterate. He 
introduces his own Lata letters where they differ from the Deva Nagri, 
and is baffled by the conjunct letters. From what is deciphered, this 
appears to commemorate, by the Raja the construction of a road, " like 
steps" from the Pratabali river to the top of the adjoining hill, on which 
are impressions of the feet of Vishnu and Chandi. The seal of Biiiku 
Pandit, the composer of the inscription, is on the slab, which besides the 
fact commemorated, records some notice of this redoubtable Raja's 
family. Parts of the slab are obliterated, but the transcription of what 
is legible by a scholar, would enable us to give a more correQt analysis 
of its contents. 

The impression of No. 10 is as imperfect and confused as those of 
Nos. 1, 2, and 3; so that we must wait the receipt of a more correct im- 
pression before we can hope to arrive at the contents of this stone. 

The four Persian inscriptions communicated by Mr. Ravenshaw, re- 
quire little comment in addition to the notice by that gentleman. From 
the first, we learn that in the time of Akbar " his servants had thou- 
sands of powers," and that Said Surfaraz Khan, (one of them perhaps) 
founded the Musjid, " a sublime shrine. He was a pious man, as it were 
a sacred parterre in spring." 

From the second we learn, that Munir Raj built " this tomb of the 
Imam of age." — In these verses the Prophet is piously apostrophized. 

1839.] Notice of Inscriptions in Behar. 349 

The third informs us, that in the reign of Shah Jehan the Just, 
Habib Sur (the Raj no doubt) constructed the basin of Sharaf-ad-din, 
and "repaired (babast) and made this sublime Id-gah, and the brick 
pavement." Mr. Ravenshaw informs us, that this saint died in 782. a. h. 
The dedication of the basin is therefore a posthumous honor. 

In the last line of the third couplet of the epitaph on Ibrahim Bayu 
we have hazarded a correction, — Kin-toz for Kin-loz. The first, however 
unusual as a compound, may mean zealous or fervent, the second has no 
sense. This good man it seems " was royal in his disposition, and in re- 
ligion as fervent as Abraham." He died in the month of Hajj on a 
Sunday. The line obliterated would have supplied the date. The 
concluding line prays " that God may make easy his last account." 

A correct plate of Mr. Ravenshaw's sketch of the tower of Jara'- 
sandha near Girik is annexed. Mr. Ravenshaw has detailed the 
pauranic legend of this [ AsurJ demon, (not Assyrian). The term is 
given to the foes of Krishna. Kansa, the slain son-in-law of Jarasan- 
dha, and the uncle of Krishna, is so called, (See Wilson's Dictionary.) 

We are much mortified, in being obliged to send forth this Number 
without an analysis of the inscriptions on the inverted column in the 
fort and on the stone on the hill near Sasseram, now called Chandan- 
Shahid, — of course from some Moslim devotee. They may, we think, 
afford interesting historical facts. We wish Mr. Ravenshaw, or any other 
friend to antiquarian research, could find the opportunity of taking more 
perfect facsimiles. Captain Burns would render important service 
if he would describe minutely the best process and fittest materials for 
taking accurate facsimiles from engraved slabs. In the meantime we 
suggest that other impressions be taken on damp or sized paper, and 
that they be sent to us without any attempt to delineate in ink the 
letters either on the concave or convex faces. If they be sent in du- 
plicate the chance of being deciphered is greater. 

The slab to which Mr. Ravenshaw refers at the close of his 
valuable letter has been received, and will be noticed in an early Num- 
ber. We now pass on to that gentleman's letter. 

To the Secretary of the Asiatic Society, Calcutta. 

I have the pleasure to forward for the inspection of the Society, 
a few inscriptions collected by me in a late tour through the district 
of Behar, in the hope that some of them may prove to be new, and 
useful in illustrating the history of the country. No. 1, is an inscrip- 
tion on a stone pillar found among the ruins of the fort of Behar. 

350 Notice of Inscriptions in Behar. [May, 

The fort is supposed by Buchanan* to have been built by the Maga 
Rajas, who during the first three centuries after Christ ruled over this 
part of the country, then called Magadha, and indeed still called 
Magad by the lower orders of natives to this day. The shaft of the 
column is about eleven feet high, being a fragment only of the original 
pillar. It is situated on the high ground, a little to the west of the 
northern gate of the fort. Its original position is said to have been 
in front of the gate ; on removing it to its present site, the pillar was 
erected in a reversed position, with its base in the air, and its summit 
in the ground. 

Various expedients were tried, in order to take off the inscription ; 
but wax, sealing wax, and the ordinary method of inking the pillar, 
and taking the impression on damp paper, alike failed. At last I had 
recourse to sized paper, which being pressed while damp carefully into 
the letters, retained the form of them when dry. In No. 1, the cavi- 
ties of the letters have been filled with ink. In No. 2, which is 
another copy of the same inscription, the reverse or embossed side has 
been inked. The latter appears the best copy, and if the paper be 
held up to the light the characters can be as distinctly traced as on the 
other. No. 3, is a copy of an inscription on the upper (really lower) 
part of the column. 

As I have never seen any characters which resemble those on the 
Behar column, I shall be glad to learn from your Society by what 
name they are designated, and to what era they belong. It is singular 
that Buchanan should not have alluded to this pillar in his descrip- 
tion of the fort of the Magas while giving an account of the numer- 
ous Boodhist images, &c. scattered among the ruins. 

There are several ancient Mahomedan buildings in the town 
and its vicinity, which are likewise unnoticed by Buchanan. The 
principal one is the tomb or Durgah of a holy saint, styled Huzrat 
Mukdoom Ool Moolk Shah Shureef Oodeen. There is an inscription 
in the Cufic character over the entrances to the Durgah, which, how- 
ever, time has rendered illegible, with the exception of the date of the 
death of the saint, 782 Hijree, (1380 a. d.) and of the erection of the 
tomb, 977 Hijree (1569 a. d.) The Durgah is held in great venera- 
tion by the Mahomedans, who at the Oors, or anniversary of the death 
of the saint assemble from all parts of the country, it is said to the 
number sometimes of 50,000. This ceremony takes place in Decem- 
ber. The tomb, the adjoining mosque, and other buildings, are 
illuminated, and prayers are offered up for the dead and the living. 

* Page 89, in Martin's Eastern India. 

1839.] Notice of Inscriptions in Bekar. 351 

Extensive endowments of rent-free lands have been granted at differ- 
ent times by Emperors, Amils, and pious Mahomedans, for the support 
of the shrine, the administration of which, is entrusted to a Syjadah 
Nusheen, an hereditary officer, to whom great reverence is paid by 
the Faithful. But a great portion of the lands has been alienated 
either to relations of the family, or in satisfaction of debts of former 
incumbents, and a great part has become liable to assessment under 
the Resumption Laws ; so that little now remains for the support of 
the family, the splendour of religious festivals, or the maintenance 
of the Moolvees who were wont to teach to the rising generation the 
doctrines of the law and the tenets of the Prophet. 

The following inscription is on the Joomah Musjid, date 1004 
Hijree, in the reign of Akbar. 

.!*Xa1>I e;!. I V^lj Q*j)j"J U* sta (J'- c *"* lSJ^ J&^ eA*j j«* 

CIJUO A.AAWCS* 2>j2> J>J j!>^ (j"*S»Aj JL*> 

The Imambarah has the following inscription, dated 1175 Hijree. 

.. (♦, 

The subjoined is in a tank and Eid Gah, date 1065 Hijree, in the 
reign of Shah Jehan. 

(2^.«>H <»J>j-& 0^>^ ^T-jy* V^rf^* &*j?U^*^*{tijr*i^*^**jj^i 

352 Notice of Inscriptions in Behar. QMay, 

j.sl12> j t^sri +'&•>£ *U».> «U5 «X^ 


At the distance of about three miles west of the town is a singular 
hill called Peer Puhury, from the tomb of a Peer, or saint, situated on 
the summit. His name was Huzrat Ibraham Byjoo, who from the 
subjoined copy of the inscription over the tomb appears to have died 
in 753 Hijree, (1352 a. d.,) or nearly five centuries ago, during the 
reign of the Pa tan monarch Feroz Sooltan, and about forty or fifty 
years before the invasion of Tymoor. This inscription is so far im- 
portant that it verifies the date assigned to Feroz Shah being Slara 
Rajab by Ferishta.* 

yt-i p**1j*0 ^-{^^ O^j 4?«J 

jy \z)4 t^j-*} y* tft-^j* •*■* ** f£* ' j"J >* J . t —^^° dj^-w L«Xtc 

(Line illegible.) 

J-JJ laJO"^ fc—'l***' d^l^*^ ±f-*J"! cA«>'^ <J^"! ^ ^^ ' ^^ 

The tomb is a common square building, surmounted by a dome. 
The hill on which it stands is a very remarkable one. It is composed 
of cuboidal masses of crystallized sandstone having a fanciful resem- 
blance to horn, and thence called by the learned, " Hornstone." The 
upper part of many of the rocks is soft sandstone, while the lower is 
crystallized ; this is probably owing to decomposition, but the natives 
conceive it to be a new accretion, and maintain that the rock grows, 
" jeeta" a not uncommon idea even in England. 

* Vide Prinsep's Useful Tables, page 147. 

1839.] Notice of Inscriptions in Behar. 353 

The hill is about 300 feet high, composed of stratified masses of the 
Hornstone. It is quite perpendicular to the east, and sloping down to 



the west at an angle of about 40° d ^^^^%^ 

Other hills are generally in the shape of cones, but this seems to have 
been upheaved by a sudden force in the direction a b or of c d, 
snapping the subjacent crust, without disturbing the contiguous plain 
e. This perpendicular rock extends about a mile or more north and 
south, and there is no other hill within twelve miles. The charac- 
ter of the Behar Hills in general is very peculiar, being unlike that of 
any other country I have visited. They rise up out of the level plain 
in small conical isolated peaks from 200 to 300 feet high, apparently 
unconnected with each other, or any range of mountains. They are 
composed of a variety of rocks, coarse granite, hornstone, jasper, 
hornblende, &c. all mixed together without order, and all appearing 
to have undergone some degree of fusion. They suggest the idea 
that they existed previous to the plain which surrounds them, for if 
they had been forced up from below, the adjacent plain would have 
been upheaved with them in some degree ; whereas it is as flat as possi- 
ble up to their very base. It seems not improbable, therefore, that they 
originally formed the summits of a range of mountains, the vallies of 
which were subsequently filled up, forming the bed of some pre- 
adamite ocean. But I have forgotten the inscriptions in this geologi- 
cal speculation 

The inscriptions numbered 4, 5, 6, and 7, were taken from the 
pedestals of statues of Boodha found at Baragaon, about seven miles 
west from the town of Behar, which Buchanan conceives to have 
been the residence of the Maga Rajas. Three or four high mounds 
composed of ruins of some large brick buildings are all that remain to 
attest its ancient grandeur. The Boodhist images lying about in all 
directions are very numerous ; that of Bhyroo is of colossal dimensions, 
and made of granite. 

Enclosed is a rough sketch* of a very remarkable tower about sixty 
feet high, and as many in circumference, situated on the summit of a 
hill 800 feet high, near Girick, about seven or eight miles from 
Rajgeer (Rajgiri) the ancient capital of Jarasanda, an Asur, or 
Assyrian, the contemporary of Chrishna, and who is supposed to have 
reigned over the country of Magadha, or Madhyades, about 1200 years 
before Christ. 

* See Plate. 

354 Notice of Inscriptions in Behar. QMay, 

According to tradition, and the Mahabharut, Chrishna murdered 
the Raja of Mathurah, who was the son-in-law of Jarasanda, in or- 
der to obtain his dominions ; upon which Jarasanda waged war with 
the Eastern Apollo, and compelled him to fly with all his milk maids 
to the west coast of India. Some years after, however, having obtain- 
ed the aid of the Pandava Princes he returned with an army headed 
by Bheem and Arjuna. At Girick a pitched battle was fought, and 
Jarasanda is said to have fallen by the hand of Bheem. A detailed 
description of the pillar is to be found in Buchanan, page 79. It is 
called by the natives the Bythaki, or seat of Jarasanda ; but it is not 
improbable that it may have been erected either in commemoration 
of his victory over Chrishna, or of his death in the final battle. It is a 
solid brick building, without any inscription or image; about two- 
thirds of the height from the ground there are three projecting cor- 
nices about a foot apart, the intervals being decorated with carved 
ornaments, the principal of which is a gurha, or vessel for holding 

The inscriptions of Nos. 8, 9, and 10, were presented to me at 
Sasseram by Shah-Kubeerood-Deen, the Syjadah Nusheen of a reli- 
gious endowment at that place. 

No. 8 was taken at Tarachundee, two miles south-west from 
Sasseram ; the date is 3rd Jeyte 229 Sumbut (a. d. 1 72), and Raja 
Dowul Pertab is the author. 

No. 9 is an inscription on a rock by the same Raja, at a place 
called Amjur, near Phoolevaria, ten miles south from Sasseram — the 
date is Bysack 2nd, Sumbut 229, or a. d. 172. 

No. 10 is an inscription found on a stone at the summit of a hill 
near Sasseram, called Chundun-Shaheed. It is in the ancient charac- 
ter of the Allahabad and Bettiah Pillars, the decyphering of which 
has conferred immortal honor on the name of James Prinsep. The 
following inscription is taken from the gateway of the palace on the 
summit of the celebrated hill fortress of Rhotas. From this it ap- 
pears that the palace was built in 1005 Hijree, (1596, a. d.) by Raja 
Man Sing, viceroy of Behar and Bengal in the time of Akbar. 




ni) c- 






cr 1^/ 









CO © <fc 




rv) «=, 

tT 3 ^ 


rv» hjj 



Jo O 



N ru 


If - 



pr f& 

o l-Cv 

1839.] Notice of Inscriptions in Behar. 355 

The Sungskrit inscription at the Kothoutiga gate of the fort, al- 
luded to by Buchanan, page 432, was, I believe, brought to Chuprah 
by Mr. Walter Ewer, and is at present in the grounds of Mr. Luke's 
house. I shall endeavour either to forward the original, or a copy to 
the Asiatic Society. 

I have the honor to be, 
Your most obedient servant, 
Chuprah, E. L. RAVENSHAW. 

21 st April, 1839. 

P. S. — Since writing the above Mr. Luke has promised to forward 
the slab by a boat which is about to start for Calcutta. 

Art. II. — The " Mahimnastava" or a Hymn to Shiva; with an 
English translation. By the Rev. Krishna Mohana Banerji. 

The well-known invocation to Shiva, of which an English transla- 
tion is presented to the public, together with the original, in the follow- 
ing lines, is held in high repute among the Hindus. It purports 
to be written by Pushpadanta, chief of the Gandharvas, who was 
in the habit of stealing flowers, for the purpose of worshipping Shiva 
with them, from the garden of king Va'hu, unseen by the keepers of 
the garden. As he was gifted with the power of walking in the air he 
baffled for a long time all the efforts of the keepers to catch him, who 
observed every morning large quantities of flowers stolen away, but 
could not ascertain how the thief got into the garden by night, in spite 
of all their watchful vigilance. They suspected at last that it was a 
being capable of flying that committed the robbery night by night, 
and left in several places some holy flowers sacred to Shiva, with the 
hope that the thief might tread upon them in the dark and be depriv- 
ed of his supernatural powers, in consequence of the curse which such 
an insult to those sacred mysteries would necessarily bring upon him. 
The plan had the desired effect. The Gandharva trod upon the sa- 
cred flowers, and lost his power of riding on the wind. He was ac- 
cordingly caught and taken into custody, when, through fear of the 
king whom he had offended by stealing his flowers, he offered the fol- 
lowing supplication to Shiva. 

In the translation of this composition I have consulted the scholia 
of a learned commentator, as well a version in the Bengalee language, 
both of which have been printed with the text. As all classes of the 


356 The Mahirnnastava, or a Hymn to Shiva, [May, 

Hindus are allowed the privilege of worshipping Shiva, this hymn is 
distinguished from invocations to other gods by the liberty with which 
it may be read and repeated even by the Shudras, and it is therefore 
more widely known among the natives than the other prayers and 
mantras with which the Brahmins alone are familiar, because they 
alone are allowed to use them. 

If the offering of praise by one that does not comprehend the su- 
preme limits of thy glory be unworthy of thee, then the language 
even of Brahma' and the other gods must be deficient. No one there- 
fore that sings according to the measure of his understanding is culp- 
able — and this attempt of mine too,, O Hara ! to celebrate thy praise, 
may be excused. 

Thy glory, incapable as it is of any definition, and described with 
awe even by the Vedas, surpasses the utmost stretch of thought and 
expression. Who then can duly set forth its praise ? Who can compre- 
hend its nature and properties ? And yet as to its figurative illustra- 
tions, vouchsafed by thee in condescension to the infirmities of the 
faithful, who would not set his mind upon them and give expression to 
them ? 

1839.] The Mahimnastava, or a Hymn to Shiva. 357 

Can the word even of the chief of gods (Brahma') be a matter of 
wonder to thee who art the cause of the nectar-like sweets of lan- 
guage ? My mind is thus bent upon this invocation, O thou destroyer 
of Tripura, to the end that I may purify my language by the virtue 
of recounting thy attributes. 

Thy godhead, celebrated in the Vedas, and displayed in the three- 
fold forms of Brahma', Vishnu, and Shiva, distinguished severally by 
the three properties of Sattwa Rajas, and Tamas, is the cause of the 
creation, preservation, and annihilation of the universe ; and yet there 
are certain foolish and stupid men in the world who oppose this thy 
godhead in an abominable way, however acceptable that way may be 
to the wicked. 

" What is his attempt ? What his form ? By what means — with 
what implements — of what materials does the Creator form the uni- 
verse?" Vain questions like these, unworthy of thy incomprehensible 
glory, and therefore wicked, pass the lips of some infatuated men for 
the delusion of the world. 

*r?ft *f^t *&\ ^r^mj^T: ^k?r s$r ii^ii 

Can this embodied universe be uncreate ? Could its existence proceed 
from any one except the Creator of the world? Or who else but the 

358 The Ma/mnnastava, or a Hymn to Shiva. [May, 

Lord could attempt the production of the world ? The wicked, regard- 
less of these considerations, indulge in scepticism concerning thee, O 
thou supreme of immortals ! 

While the Vedas, the Sankhya philosophy, the Yoga shastra, the 
system concerning the creature and the creator, the doctrine of the 
Vaishnavas, &c. involve many conflicting theories and sentiments of 
which some follow this, some that — and while there are consequently 
different kinds of men pursuing various paths, straight, as well as 
crooked, according to the diversity of their opinions — thou art alone 
^the one end of all these sects, as the sea is of different rivulets. 

5?rf% ^T?TT^Ff frong*RpioT vmrfft IFi| 

A large bull, a wooden staff, an axe, a tiger or elephant's hide, ashes, 
snakes, and a skull — these, O thou dispenser of blessings, are thy 
principal ornaments and furniture. The other gods are indeed tenaci- 
ous of this and that enjoyment, all which thou mayest call forth by 
a mere turn of thy eye — but a feverish thirst after such objects 
cannot disturb a self-contented being. 

^^T fW^f*T r^t 5T ^ ST-T WZ1 WQTm IKII 

One philosopher* says that every thing is eternal ; anothert says 
that every thing here is perishable; while a thirdj maintains that in 

* Kapila, the founder of the Sankhya philosophy. 

f Buddha, the last pretended incarnation of the Deity, from whom originated the 
sect which goes by his name. 
X Goutama the founder of the Nydya philosophy. 

1839.] The Mahimnastava, or a Hymn to Shiva. 359 

this universe, composed of various materials, some things are eternal, 
others perishable. — Although I am in a manner bewildered by these 
speculations, I am not still ashamed of setting forth thy praise, for my 
tongue cannot be held. 

In order to estimate thy glory, who art fire and light, Brahma' 
attempted in vain to measure its upper and Vishnu its lower part- 
But when they sang thy praise with faith and devotion, then thou 
didst manifest thyself unto them. Can then thy service ever be 
pronounced futile or fruitless ? 

It was only owing to the unshaken faith with which he worshipped 
thy lotus-feet with his heads, as with so many rows of lotuses, that, O 
thou destroyer of Tripura, the ten-headed Ra'vana having gained 
unrivalled and undisturbed possession of the world exerted the strength 
of his arms, ever itching for war. 

When he (Ra'vana) exerted against Kaildsha, even thy dwelling, 
the power of those very arms which he had got as a reward for his 
services to thee, (so true it is that the wicked forget themselves in 
prosperity !) it would have been impossible for him to find any resting 
place, even in hell, hadst thou only slightly moved the tip of thy toe. 
\_But thy long-suffering remembered his former devotions, and spared 

3<30 The Mahimnastava, or a Hymn to Shiva. [May, 

^ ^rerr ^W*r wf?r ftrcw^resrfa: n\^i 

That Va'na, who had reduced the whole world under his subjec- 
tion, should pull down the dominion of Indra, although so high, was 
not a matter of wonder ; because he worshipped thy feet. What eleva- 
tion is there which the prostration of the head before thy feet could 
not procure ! 

Does not the blue spot which coloured thy throat, when thou drankest 
the deadly potion in pity to the gods and demons, who were all afraid 
that the universe should have an untimely dissolution, serve to set 
forth thy beauty ? Surely even a disfigurement becomes graceful in a 
person who undertakes to relieve the world from fear. 

That victor, whose shafts were never discharged in vain in this 
world consisting of gods, demons, and men, even Kandarpa, met 
with dissolution when he looked upon thee, O Lord, as if thou wert 
like any other common god. So impossible is it to despise the self- 
controlled with impunity ! 

1839-] The Mahimnastava, or a Hymn to Shiva. 361 

The safety of the earth became doubtful by the stamp of thy feet— 
the firmament became giddy and unstable, with all its stars and 
luminaries, shattered by the stroke of thy hand — and the heavens, 
touched by thy clotted hair fell into a troublous state, when thou 
dancedst in order to defend the universe from the Rakshases. How 
mysterious and seemingly contradictory must be this thy providence, 
by which thou didst thus trouble the creation while thou wert in 
fact effecting its preservation ! 

Those streams of the Ganga which extend far in the sky, whose frothy 
appearance is that of clusters of sparkling stars, which replenished the 
mighty ocean, forming it like a great ring round the insular earth, 
looked a small drop when thou didst sustain them on thy head ! 
What a glorious conception does this give of thy wondrous and ma- 
jestic body ! 

fwm: wt^r^t ?r ^ itot^t: *r*f*w 111*11 

When thou didst resolve upon consuming Tripura, the earth was 
thy chariot, Brahma' thy charioteer, the chief of mountains (Man- 
dara) thy bow, the sun and moon thy wheels, and Vishnu himself 
thy arrow ! What was all this preparation against a city that was 
but as grass before thee ? Not that the will of the lord was dependent 
upon any instruments, but that thou wert pleased, as it were, to sport 
with those implements. 

362 The Mahimnastava, or a Hymn to Shiva. [May, 

When Hari (Vishnu), who was daily in the habit of worshipping 
thy feet with a thousand lotuses, found on a certain occasion that the 
number was short by one, he plucked one of his lotus-eyes to fill up 
the want. Then did the fulness of his faith, thus tried and approv- 
ed, become, by means of his wheeled body, the watchful principle of the 
world's conservation. 

The sacrifice being ended, thou alone remainest as the cause of re- 
ward to its performers. How can a work that is finished and has 
ceased, be efficacious afterwards, except because of thy worship ? It is 
accordingly only by looking up to thee as the pledge of reward in sa- 
crifices, and by reposing faith in the Vedas, that a person can be said 
to commence a great work. 

^iftt!TT*rTf?3' ^r vkuj!^ ^*^t: ^wn i 

Although Daksha* so perfect in works, and lord of all creatures, 
was the offerer — although Rishis were the priests, and gods the assem- 
bled partakers of the sacrifice, yet was it interrupted and rejected, 
and Daksha himself destroyed by thee; for such oblations as are made 
without faith in him, who is the giver of rewards in them, are produc- 
tive only of evil. 

* Daksha was the father-in-law of Shiva. 

1839.] The Mahtmnastava, or a Hymn to Shiva. 363 

When Brahma'* lusting after his own daughter (that had through 
fear of her father's attempt against her virtue transformed herself into 
a hind) became a stag, with a view to gratify his passion, thou didst 
bend thy bow against him ; and when he had fled from thy fear, even 
into heaven, thy hands, like those of a chasing hunter, took him, and 
have not yet set him at liberty. 

If, O destroyer of Tripura, even after seeing the flower-armedt 
god of love reduced like grass instantly to ashes for audaciously 
hoping to overcome thee by making^ Pa'rvatis beauty as his instru- 
ment, the goddess still looks upon thee as if thou wert subject to 
animal passions, because half of thy body is joined with hers, then, 
O thou self-controlling dispenser of blessings, young women must be 

sF^fwr sft^T: **nr^ f^aa^v ww^tj 

Although owing to thy sports in the cemetery, with the devils as thy 
followers— the ashes of the burnt pile as thy ointment — and skulls as 
thy necklaces and drinking cups — thy disposition and very name must 
appear evil and be awful — yet thou art the cause of supreme felicity to 
all that call upon thee. 

* Brahma' is the first person of the Hindu- Triad and the creator of the universe. 
f Ka'madeva, the god of love, or animal passions, is supposed to use flowers as his 
shafts when he strikes lust into the hearts of men. 
X Pa'rvati was the wife of Shiva. 

3 B 

364 The Mahimnastava, or a Hymn to Shiva. QMay, 

Thou art verily that incomprehensible truth which the self-control- 
led devotees contemplate when they put their fingers to their nostrils 
and fix their thoughts, abstracted from all external impressions, within 
their minds, and when through joy their hairs stand on end, and they, 
as if immersed in the sea of delight, feel themselves happy, plunged 
in the waters of immortality. 

*T faff ^TtTt# wf*T^ f% *pN 5T wftf IR<II 

Thou art the sun — thou the moon— thou the air—thou thyself 
fire — thou art water — thou art sky — thou the earth — and thou the 
spirit. With such expressions did the ancients define thy essence. 
But as for ourselves, we acknowledge that we know no substance 
which thou pervadest not. 

The mystical and immutible Om which being composed of the 
three letters a u m signify successively the three Vedas {Rich, Ydjus 
and Samari) — the three states of life (awaking, dreaming, sleeping) — 
the three worlds (heaven, earth, and hell) — the three gods (of the triad, 
Brahma', Vishnu, and Maheshwara) — and which by its nasal 
sound is indicative of thy fourth office as supreme lord of all— ever 
expresses and sets forth thy collective and single forms. 

1839.] The Mahimnastava, or a Hymn to Shiva. 365 

Bhava, Sarva, Rudra, Pashupati, Ugra, Maha'deva, Bhi'ma, 
and I'sha'na, of these thy eight names, each, O god, is celebrated in 
the Vedas (or each the gods desire to hear.) With a humbled mind 
I bow and adore to thee who art called by these precious names. 

*T*rt TNh&TO f^R*R qfkww ^ ^ 

Reverence to thee, O god of meditation and austerity, who art 
nearest (i. e. to those that serve thee), and who art also farthest (i. e. 
from them that disregard thee) — Reverence to thee who art the hum- 
blest (i. e. to those that are humble), and who art also the greatest (i. e. 
to those that are high-minded) — Reverence to thee who art old (as the 
creator of the universe), and yet young, being independent of the decay- 
ing effects of age — Reverence to thee who art all, and in whom all 
things subsist ! 


inrci% *r% fwrw f$&w ^^^i \\\o\\ 

Reverence, O Reverence, to Bhava, who partakes chiefly of the 
Rajas quality for the creation of the world. Reverence, O Reverence, 
to Mr ida, who partakes of the Saltwa quality for the conservation of 
the world and the happiness of men. Reverence, O Reverence, to 
Hara, who is principally moved by the quality of Tamas in the 
destruction of the world. 

306 The Mahimnastava, or a Hymn to Shiva. [May, 

How vast the difference between my understanding, capable of 
grasping only little objects and subject to the perturbations of the 
passions, and between thy everlasting glory, whose properties know no 
boundary ! — Hence my faith having led me, who am fearful of thee, 
to this profitable exercise, casts me at thy feet with this verbal offering, 
as with that of flowers. 

O Lord, even if there were a heap of ink like a black mountain, 
were the ocean itself the inkstand, and did Saraswati herself conti- 
nue to write for ever with the twigs of the Kalpataru* as her pens, hav- 
ing the earth itself for her paper, {even if there were such a writer 
with such stationery, and to write for so long a time~] still would it 
be impossible to express the limits of thy qualities. 

Kushuma Dashana (Pushpadanta, or flower-teethed) the chief of 
all the Gandharvas, and the servant of the god of gods, who bears on 
his head the crescent of the moon, being in consequence of his wrath de- 
prived of his greatness, composed this excellent hymn of the lord's glory. 

If a man, having worshipped the chief of gods, read with his hands 
closed together, and his attention fixed, this hymn, composed by Push- 
padanta, and of certain efficacy as the one only means of emancipa- 
tion in heaven, he will join the company of Shiva, and will be ador- 
ed by the Kinnaras.i 

* A fabulous tree of mythological celebrity, which yields any fruits that are desired 
by any one. 

f The Kinnaras were a species of celestial beings. 

1839.] Lieut. Kittoe's Journey through the Forests of Orissa. 367 

Art. III. — Account of a Journey from Calcutta via Cuttack and 
Pooree to Sumbulpur, and from thence to Mednipur through the 
Forests of Orissa. By Lieut. M. Kittoe. 

As the country west-south-west of Mednipur, for upwards of four 
hundred miles through which the high road to Nagpur and Bombay 
passes, is noted down even in the most improved maps as terra incog, 
nita, therefore, by most considered as such, a brief account of my 
recent travels in that direction may not be uninteresting. 

I am unable, for many reasons, to give very minute details, first, in 
consequence of the hurried manner in which I had to travel ; next, 
from the very inclement season during which I did so; and again, 
owing to the great reluctance which the natives of Orissa have to afford 
any information, and what is more, to their decided silence ; it being 
(as I have always had occasion to remark) more than the life of an 
individual is worth were he to be detected by his chief in divulging 
the scanty resources of his country. 

About the middle of April 1838, Captain G. Abbott having fallen 
an early victim to the deadly climate of the Keunjur and Mohur- 
bhunj j ungles, to the distracting knavery of the people he had to deal 
with, and the annoyance and exposure they caused him to suffer,* 
I was appointed to succeed him, and directed to proceed immediately 
to Sumbulpur to take charge of the survey of the Mednipur and 
Raepur post road. 

There then being no possibility of travelling by dawk by the post 
road with any degree of safety or comparative comfort at such a 
season, I resolved on proceeding via Cuttack and the valley of the 
Mahanuddi, through the Burmool pass and onwards by Boad and 
Sohnpur, i. e. following the course of the river, as the surest means of 
obtaining the first necessary of life, viz. good water. 

I left Calcutta for Cuttack by dawk on the evening of the 17th 
April, where I arrived on the morning of the fifth day. I travelled at 
night, and halted during the day at Mednipur, Jullaisur, Ballaisur, 
and Bareepur successively. 

On reaching Cuttack I found so much difficulty in procuring 
bearers to take me to Burmool (where I expected a relay from 
Sumbulpur) that I resolved on going on to Pooree, and from thence 
across the country to that place ; but a set having at last agreed to go 
for something more than the usual travelling rates, I struck the bargain 

* Captain Abbott commenced his travels early in January, 1838, was taken ill 
on the 22nd March near Keunjurgurh, and died two days after his arrival at Sumbul- 
pur on the 3d April following. 

368 Lieut. Kittoe's Journey through the Forests of Orissa. [May, 

and sent them on to Badeswur, half way to Burmool. I went on 
to Pooree, where I remained three days, being completely overcome 
with the fatigue of so much dawk travelling, for it was but lately I 
had returned from my tour in Orissa in search of antiquities, coal, and 
minerals, &c. an account of which tour has already appeared in this 

While at Pooree, I tried again to procure more coins, but having 
shewn too much anxiety, and paid too much for those I did get, on 
former occasions, the suspicions of the Brahmans and shroffs were 
excited, they would give no more, except a few sovereigns, shillings, 
six-pences, and some Goah coins, which from their inferior standard 
were unsaleable in such a market. 

I did my utmost to procure facsimiles of the inscriptions in Jug- 
gernath temple, also of those in the Gondeechagurh, but was, as 
usual, unsuccessful. 

The tide ebbing very low at that season of the year I was enabled 
to collect a great variety of marine shells, but few however were suf- 
ficiently perfect to be of any value, the violence of the surf destroying 
all the more delicate species.* 

I left Pooree on the evening of the 26th, and reached Koordah 
early on the following morning. I took up my abode in a shady 
mango grove near the ruins of the old Noor or palace, in the vicinity of 
which are many modern temples all equally inelegant and unworthy 
of notice. 

When at Koordah in the previous month of March, I was unable 
to visit the cave of Paunch Pandeb, therefore I determined to do 
my best on this occasion. About noon I proceeded on foot for a distance 
of a mile and a half, having to crawl in many places through the 
jungle thicket, and reached the foot of the ascent, which is by a 
broad path, at a spot where under some stately Bur and Peepul 
treest I saw a very elegant image of Su'rya, in his chariot with many 
horses, driven by Aruna (his charioteer) ; I had no time to spare 
to enable me to make a drawing of it. 

After ascending a steep path for a quarter of a mile, I found myself 
in a beautiful glen, in its centre is a small and rudely built temple 
through which flows a beautiful spring of fresh water ; I was told that 
there is an idol of Parbutti' within, carved in the rock, from the 
navel of which the water flows, however I did not think it worth 
the trouble of examining, being more interested in the Pandeb Gurha. 

* All that were of any use were presented to the Society, and have been placed in 
the cabinets. 

f Ficus Jndicus and Ficus Religiosa. 

1839.] Lieut. Kittoe's Journey through the Forests of Orissa. 369 

Having therefore refreshed myself with a copious draught from the 
crystal stream, I continued the steep ascent until I reached the top 
of the hill, I had then to descend some way on the steep southern 
face; when I reached the cave I was sadly disappointed, for it was 
a mere cleft in the rock, with " asthans" or seats for ascetics cut 
within the cavity ; I had hoped to find some valuable inscriptions, 
but there were none, excepting a few short sentences, and the names of 
ascetics in various characters, from the old Kutita of the 13th century 
to modern Ooreya and Devanagri, which I did not think worth 
transcribing ; I deemed it better to take rest in the cool cave, and 
recover if possible from the effects of my long walk under a burning 
sun, at the hottest season of the year, so that after admiring the beautiful 
and extensive view which the spot commanded of the sea and the 
intervening woody plains, I laid myself down to sleep for a couple of 
hours, which completely restored me ; I then returned to my palkee, 
and resumed my trip towards Badeswur, passing near the hot springs 
of Atteiree. 

As I left early in the evening I had time enough to see much of the 
country, which undulates considerably, and is thickly studded with 
trees and underwood. There is a gradual fall towards the Mahanuddi ; 
from Pooree to the vicinity of the Koorda hills the country is exceed- 
ingly low and flat, but it then has a gentle rise, caused by that curious 
ironstone formation occurring every where at the foot of the hills of 

The hill of Koorda is a rock which has been pronounced to be 
sandstone, but I am by no means satisfied of this being correct; it 
contains large proportions of lithomarge and quartz, it does not occur 
stratified, but chiefly in irregular and disturbed masses, the inter- 
stices are occupied with a coarse red loam resembling brick dust; 
the stone is variegated and speckled, and in some parts of its texture 
resembles pumice stone, or brick kiln slag ; it is with this that most 
of the temples of Orissa are built, for from its softness it is easily 
worked, besides which it possesses a quality rendering it very desir- 
able in the estimation of the natives — its predominant color being red. 

From the high ground (before reaching Atteiree) the numerous 
conical and isolated hills rising abruptly from the vast level plains 
present a very singular and striking appearance. That of Bankee, called 
Mahapurbut, is the most conspicuous; they would all appear to 
be of volcanic origin. I reached Badeswur at about 2 a. m., and con- 
tinued my journey with my Cuttack bearers twenty-three miles 
further to Bailpara, where I put up in a mango grove during the heat 
of the day. 

370 * Lieut. Kittoe's Journey through the Forests of Orissa. [May, 

Had I reached Badeswur at daylight, I should most probably 
have remained for the day, as there are several pieces of sculpture 
worth drawing ; there is also an ancient temple on a rock in the Ma- 
hanuddi, which I was unable to examine on my former visit in 
1836-37 in consequence of the river not being then fordable ; an 
account of what I then saw is to be found at page 828, vol. vii, (second 
part) of the Journal of the Asiatic Society, where there is also a sketch 
of one of the temples; accompanying is a drawing of an elegantly 
executed image of Parbuttt, at the same place, which I made on that 
occasion ; like most of the more elegant and ancient idols, it is of 
black chlorite, and well polished. 

On arriving at Bailpara I found my escort and other persons whom 
I had sent on to accompany me from Burmool onwards by water, 
but the river being more than usually shallow, I was compelled to 
abandon the intention. 

I continued my journey early in the evening, that I might be able, 
if possible, to visit some caves said to be near a small temple on the 
high conical granite hills called Mooni Budra, about six miles beyond 
Bailpara, but on reaching the hills I found myself too much fatigued 
to warrant my running (perhaps) a wild goose chase after them, 
such as I was led to do, when at Balaisur, to the Nilgurh hills ; 
I therefore passed on, reaching Burmool about 9 p. m. and found 
to my sorrow that the Dangur bearers, who had been kindly sent for 
me from Sumbulpiir by Mr. C. L. Babington, after waiting three days 
had that very morning left to return homewards, and to e< mend" matters, 
my Cuttack men refused to proceed. With the pleasant prospect of 
having to wait two or three days in this wild place, with no other shelter 
than was afforded by the shady forest trees and my palkee, also a very 
scanty supply of eatables, I fell asleep, having however previously 
sent on a couple of village Paiks to try and overtake the bearers and 
bring them back. 

The following morning my guard having arrived and procured 
me some milk and eggs, I selected a shady spot on the immediate 
bank of the river, at the entrance of the pass, where I placed my 
palkee, from which I had a fine view of the river and the valley. 
Where there is no remedy, there is little use in fretting, so I 
determined to make the most of a bad job, and covered the palkee 
with green boughs to render it as cool as possible, it kept the tempera- 
ture down to 98°. I took a walk along the banks and succeeded in 
shooting a number of fine mullet, which this river is famous for. 
I set to work to cook some of them, my chillumchee serving as 
a frying pan, and a village handee for a boiler. I made a good 

1839.] Lieut. Kittoe's Journey through the Forests of Orissa. 371 

meal and fell asleep. On waking, I found myself in better luck 
than I had expected, the Paiks having returned with fifteen of the 
twenty Dangurs who had left, as I before stated. I immediately pro- 
ceeded, and reached the top of the pass about 8 p. m., resting for awhile 
at Puddum talawo, on the spot where I had encamped when with 
my regiment in June, 1837, I then continued my journey as far as 
the Bunjara halting place, near Gussungurh, in the Boad country, 
which I reached at midnight. At day-break I left the high road 
and went to the river side at a village called Korasingha; I made 
my palkee as snug as possible for the day. A very fine Mahaseer was 
caught and brought to me by a fisherman, so that I had no fear of 

The village was almost entirely deserted, which I was informed 
is the case for many miles from the Burmool pass (which is the 
boundary between the estates of Boad and Duspalla) to within a 
few miles of the town of Boad. The whole country has been almost 
laid waste since 1836 ; the Raja's followers lay the J^lame to the Kunds 
and their chief Nuncumkonwur, who inhabit the mountains running 
parallel with the river as far as Sohnpur, at an average distance 
of four miles, and then recede in a southerly direction towards 
Gilleiri in Gumsur ; the ryots, on the other hand, attribute the 
impoverished state of the country to the tyranny and misrule of 
the Boad Raja, and further assert that the Kunds were driven to ag- 
gression by his treachery and injustice. 

I passed the day as well as the heat (at 115° with a fierce hot 
west wind) would permit of; I had not felt sucli since my quitting the 
North-western Provinces ; it was an unpleasant contrast to the cool 
(south) sea-breeze prevailing on the other side of the mountains. 

I resumed my travels in the early part of the evening, and reached 
Rumbagurh about 10 p. m. where I halted for several hours to allow 
the bearers rest ; it is a miserable place, with indifferent mud walls 
and watch towers, but is deemed a gurh, or stronghold. 

About 2 a. m. I continued my trip, intending to put up at Boad, 
but it being very late before I reached a small village two miles 
nearer, I thought it best to avail myself of the fine shelter afforded 
by a mango grove on the river side. 

I suffered a great deal during the night from feverish symptoms, the 
effects of exposure, and so sudden a change of climate ; I had little or 
no sleep, so that I had an opportunity of observing the country in the 
immediate vicinity of the road. There is much waste land, which 
appears to have been lately under cultivation, yet there is a far greater 
proportion of jungle and forest, having the same features as that of 

3 c 

372 Lieut. Kittoe's Journey through the Forests of Orissa. [May, 

other parts of Orissa. The stratum of soil is generally very thin, the 
gneiss and granite rocks protrude through it in all directions, in some 
places rising into small hillocks, in others, appearing in continuous 
and gently undulating pavements (as it were) for considerable extents- 
I neither saw nor heard bird nor beast, except the shrill and disagree- 
able note of a large species of Caprimulgus, which swarms throughout 
the forests. I was sadly annoyed during the day time, with the in- 
cessant, and distracting noise of an insect called " jhinkare" (the 
chicddd t) 

The Mahanuddi at Korasingha was broad, with a sandy bed ; at 
this place it is divided by numerous small islands, thickly wooded, 
the bed is rocky throughout ; the navigation during the rains must be 
very dangerous. The rocks are apparently granite, and present a very 
curious appearance, for in many places the different kinds of which gra- 
nite is composed are to be seen in serpentine strata distinct from each 
other, the talc adhering to the quartz and felspar in large masses — all 
the rocks are more or less in a decomposed state ; garnet crystals are 
common, and very beautiful ; garnets of a small size are found in the 
sand ; of a number I had collected on a former occasion near Cuttack> 
some were pronounced by a native jeweller to be rubies. I was inform- 
ed that poor people gain a livelihood by seeking for gems, and that 
rubies of some weight are occasionally found; the purchasers prove 
them by heating them to a red heat, and if when cooled they have 
retained their color, they are valued accordingly. 

The thermometer this day did not rise above 110°, I consequently 
had some little rest, and continued my journey early in the evening^ 
reaching Boad before sunset. I was detained some time on account 
of the guides not coming ; this was designed on the part of the Raja, who 
is very uncourteous to any Europeans from whom he may have no chance 
of gaining anything ; I had sent to him in the morning to announce my 
arrival near his capital, but he did not even deign to send an answer 
or a single Paik to attend upon me ; his conduct was very different 
when our troops were parading the country the previous year. The 
impudence and haughtiness of these semi-barbarians is proverbial ; 
they were treated with much less ceremony by their Marhatta 
rulers than by the British Government; forbearance on our part is 
considered weakness by them, but at the slightest shew of resentment 
they are ready to cringe at your feet. I had to wait upwards of half an 
hour, during which period I was pestered with complaints from oppressed 
ryots and bunjara merchants. Among the latter was an old man who 
had been in camp with us in 1836-37, to beg of the Commissioner to 
espouse his cause, and make the Raja, and Nuncumkonwur (the Kund 

1339.] Lieut. Kittoes Journey through the Forests of Orissa. 373 

chief) restore his cattle and the value of his merchandize, which had 
been plundered from him near Gussungurh in 1835. 

I made particular inquiries touching the practice of human sacrifice 
since we had rescued all their Merriahs ;* I was assured that there had 
been no " Merria pooja" this year, but I have reason to doubt the 
truth of the assertion. 

On my way out of Boad I remarked several old temples on which, 
as I have been since informed, are inscriptions ; had I known of this at 
the time, I should certainly have stopped and transcribed them. 

My bearers having informed me that there was a bye-path across 
country, by which eight or ten miles would be saved, I preferred 
going by it to following the course of the river via Sohnpur to Sum- 
bulpur along the right bank ; therefore upon reaching a large village 
called Sugliah, I crossed over, and resting for a couple of hours 
travelled on till 7 a. m. and encamped in a miserable mango tope by a 
village called Mirlipulli, the Zemindar of which would neither come 
to me nor afford supplies, till at last the Dangurs got hold of him and 
brought him to me, begging I would keep him in durance until his 
Paiks should have brought what little was required. I had been 
obliged to leave my escort to follow after me, so that I was nearly 
helpless, I however followed the advice of the Dangurs and kept the 
fellow by me till every thing was forthcoming, and subsequently 
paid for. 

This part of the Sohnpur territory appears tolerably fertile, the 
country is undulating and rocky, but the water is very near the sur- 
face; there are numerous small wells about the villages, the water 
of which is drained by the Dhankuli, or tilt-pole. The soil has a 
very curious appearance from the great quantities of snow-white quartz 
and talcite ; I picked up some fine specimens of talc by the mouth 
of a well ; the people told me that it is to be found in very large 
pieces at some depth below the surface. 

I experienced another hot day. Having to travel over some bad 
ground, I resumed my march at an early hour, and reached a large 
village at 10 p. m. I rested several hours, and then went on to 
Keuntapulli, a short distance before reaching which, I had to cross a 
tolerably steep ghat over the chain of low hills, which commencing 
near Sumbulpur, run for many miles nearly due north and south, 
parallel to the river, and no great distance from it. 

I encamped as usual under some fine tamarind trees by the river 
side. Having reached my ground at an early hour, I had plenty 
of time to look about me. The river for upwards of a mile is ex- 

* Children intended for sacrifice. 

374 Lieut Kittoe's Journey through the Forests of Orissa. [May, 

ceedingly still and deep, it being confined between a line of rocks 
the strata of which incline at an angle of 45° and have a most sin- 
gular appearance. The village is chiefly inhabited by fishermen, as 
its name implies, " Keunta" or " Kewat" meaning " fisherman," and 
" pulli" a " village," anglice, the " fisherman's hamlet." The Keunts 
of this place appear to be a very idle race, they angle all day and cast 
nets and spear fish at night. This latter operation is performed by 
the following means — one or more torches are burnt at the stem of a 
canoe, where a man stands waiting with spear or grange in hand, the 
canoe is either pushed or paddled along with the least possible noise 
by a boy at the stern, the fish are attracted by the glare of the torches, 
swim about near the surface, and become an easy prey to the expert, 
ness with which the grange is handled. 

During those months in which the river is navigable, the Keunts 
have ample employment in transporting merchandize to and from 
Sumbulpur, Kontillu, and Cuttack. 

There is nothing remarkable in the appearance of the country about 
Keuntapulli ; on the right bank there is much low jungle and a few 
small hills at some distance ; on the left, the range of hills before men- 
tioned are about a mile distant, the land intervening having a gradual 
slope towards the river; there is much more jungle than cultivation, 
for there are numerous water-courses and ravines intersecting it. 

I resumed my march an hour before sunset, and reached Dhama 
about 9 p. m. I did not stop, having met a relay of bearers who had 
been sent out from Sumbulpur, which place I reached at 3 a. m. the 
next morning, the 4th May, none the better for such constant fatigue 
and severe exposure, however I considered myself fortunate in having 
done so well. 

I remained at Sumbulpur until the 23rd of the month, for I was 
unable to carry on the survey in consequence of the sickly state of the 
establishment, every follower of the late Capt. Abbott having suffered 
more or less from the deadly climate of Keunjur ; his Bengallee writer, 
a sepahee, and another servant, died, shortly after their arrival at Sum- 
bulpur ; there were several others in a dangerous state who subse- 
quently died on their way home. From this I learnt a lesson for 
my future guidance, not to employ more Up-country servants than 
could possibly be avoided; it is absolutely necessary to have a few 
trustworthy men to serve as a check upon the Ooreya portion, who, if 
not closely looked after, would lend themselves to the roguery and 
schemes of their kindred. 

The town Sumbulpur is thrice the size of any I have seen in any of 
the other states ; it extends for upwards of two miles along the proper 

1839.] Lieut. Kittoes Journey through the Forests of Orissa. 375 

left bank of the river of this space; the fort occupies about three-quarters 
of a mile. It is fast falling to ruin ; the Raja no longer resides in the old 
Noor } (citadel, palace) which is occupied by some of his officers ; there 
is a miserable garrison of a few ragamuffins dressed as sepahees, and 
some twenty or thirty suwars whose steeds are like Pharaoh's lean 
kind. The walls are in a very dilapidated state, having suffered 
much from the effects of the extraordinary flood in 1836. The bam- 
boo thicket, which was cut down during the time the territory was in 
our possession, used to act as a breakwater, and protected the walls, 
which are very ill-constructed of unhewn stones. The ditch and 
swamp which defended the other three faces are in a great measure 
filled up and overgrown with weeds, and must render that quarter of 
the town very unhealthy. There are many good dwelling houses of 
one and two stories, built of stone ; there are also many temples, but 
few of them have any pretensions to elegance, and the generality are 
covered with most obscene figures badly executed. 

There is no appearance of any great trade being carried on, nor is 
there so much as the sight of such a large and populous place would 
lead you to suppose. Merchants concentrate here from Cuttack, Bud- 
druc, Nagpur, Bhopal, Chutteesgurh, and Sirgoojah, and barter their 
goods ; those of the lower provinces bringing salt, cocoanuts, cotton 
cloths, spices, brass utensils, &c. exchange the same with those of the 
central for wheat, gram, lac, and cotton ; gold in small lumps is also 
taken in payment, and occasionally diamonds. The only produce 
of the province exported, consists of oil seeds, cotton, and rice, which are 
taken by bullocks, and (during the rains) sent by water to the Mo- 
gulbundi of Orissa. 

Sumbulpur has always been famous for its gold and diamonds ; as 
far back as 1766 a Mr. Motte was sent expressly by Lord Clive to 
open a trade in them, and to explore the mines, but was unsuccessful 
on account of the disturbed state of the country, and the inclemency 
of the season, he having arrived there in the rains; two other Euro- 
peans who accompanied him died of fever, and he was himself nigh 
losing his life. An account of his expedition is to be found in the 
1st Vol. of the Asiatic Annual Register, p. 50, published in 1800. The 
perusal of this narrative would amply repay the reader for his 

The people of the country are too apathetic and indolent to attempt 
to work the mines, or rather to seek for them ; for the diamonds are at 
present obtained by washing the red earth (their matrix) which is brought 
down by the Heebe-nuddi, and empties itself into the Mahanuddi, 
some miles above Sumbulpur, from the mountains to the north-east, 

376 Lieut. Kittoes Journey through the Forests o/Orissa. [May, 

in which there are most probably inexhaustible mines of gems and 
precious metals ; gold is found in many of the streams flowing from 
the gneiss rocks throughout these tracts, the Heebe among the rest. 

Touching the state of Sumbulpur, it was (previous to its dismem- 
berment by the Marhatta hordes and its becoming subject to Berar) 
subdivided into eighteen " gurhs," or chieftainships, held in fief of the 
Lord Paramount, who resided at Sumbulpur, and called therefore 
•' Authareh gurh Sumbulpur"-, amongst these were, Boad, Sohnpur, 
Gangpur, Oodeypur, Phooljur, Sarengurh, Sarinda, Banaie, Baumur- 
ra, Lehrapal, Rerhakhol, and seven others, including Sumbulpur 
proper ; most of these however have long since thrown off their allegi- 
ance and ceased to pay tribute or. to furnish their quota of " Paiks" 
(militia). Some of the smaller "gurhs" used to be held on very 
curious tenures, which I shall allude to more particularly in a future 

Sumbulpur lapsed to the British Government in 1827 by the death 
of the late Raja, but for some reason (with which I am not acquaint- 
ed) they sought for an heir-at-law and conferred it on an obscure and 
aged Zemindar, and a perfect imbecile, who is now entirely in the 
hands of his crafty ministers. These people and the Brahmins possess 
the best lands, and obtain his sanction to all kinds of extortion ; 
as a specimen of which, I am informed that Zemindari leases are 
renewed every year, and on these renewals, or on the occasions of lands 
being transferred to another, the party favored has to give a " Salami" 
or fee, and nothing short of gold is accepted ; the farmers in their 
turn grind their ryots ; the effects of such an unjust and oppressive 
system are every where apparent. 

It is said that the Raja realizes 7*00,000 Rupees per annum, but 
4,00,000 is perhaps nearer the mark, including valuable diamonds 
which are occasionally found ; it is certain that were the province 
under proper rule, much more could be made of it, therefore it is 
to be hoped that on the demise of the present Raja, who has no 
children, the Government will avail itself of the opportunity and 
resume it; at present it pays us an annual tribute of 8,000 Rupees, 
500 of which has for some years past been remitted in consideration of 
the dawk road being kept in repair, and the jungle in its immediate 
vicinity cleared. 

I was somewhat surprised one morning while taking my ride to see 
three human heads stuck on a pole at the junction of two roads near 
the town ; they were placed there in January, 1838, their owners having 
forfeited them for treason, though not without a protracted and severe 

1839.] Lieut. Kittoe's Journey through the Forests of Orissa. 377 

There are no antiquities at this place save a few fragments from 
the ruins of a Budhist temple, some thirty or forty miles up the river, 
which were brought some years ago for building purposes. I was told 
that there was an inscription on a rock in the middle of the river about 
a mile above the town ; I went one morning to examine it, and found 
merely a few brief sentences and the name of a Byragi who had died 
there some few years ago. The spot is held sacred on account of the 
evil deity supposed to preside over the river, which is evidently very 
deep, being confined in a long narrow basin formed by the gneiss rocks 
which stretch across it in all directions. Some years back the Mar- 
hattas in attempting to carry away a heavy brass gun on a raft, it 
sank and every soul perished ; the credulous inhabitants believe that 
the demon appeared on this occasion, and dragged them all into a 
fathomless abyss which is said to exist there. 

During my stay at Sumbulpiir I endeavoured to collect as much 
information regarding the country lying between it and Mednipur as 
I could ; this was no easy matter, for the accounts I received were so 
contradictory that I determined at all hazards to explore the country, 
following the direction of Mednipur as nearly as possible and keeping 
south of the old road. Every argument and persuasion were made by 
the Raja and his ministers to dissuade me ; all kinds of dangers and 
difficulties were pictured to me, which failed in their intent, for I could 
plainly see that there was some object in view. Amongst the persons 
who exerted themselves most to deceive and dissuade me was an indi- 
vidual whom Major W (the Governor General's Agent for 

the South-western frontier) had sent with a view to his assisting my 
unfortunate predecessor, which he was capable of doing from his know- 
ledge of the country ; his anxiety was perhaps attributable more to a 
desire to prevent my hearing of the tricks he had been playing in the 
Baumurra district when awaiting his arrival, than to any other cause. 

During my stay here I had searched for a good spot for erecting a 
bridge over the Mahanuddi, (if such a great work were ever under- 
taken) which I found very near the present ford and ferry ; the river 
is there 4,500 feet broad in the rains, and there are huge masses of 
rock at convenient intervals right across, which would afford excellent 
foundations for either wooden frames or masonry to support a wire or 
an iron suspension bridge ; I found the highest flood water mark to be 
about 47 feet above the level of the shallow stream flowing during dry 
seasons in the centre of the bed. 

Before taking my final departure from Sumbulpur, I made an 
outline sketch of the hills, which are distant at their nearest point four- 
teen miles, extending from Baumunsassun, about north-west, till they 

378 Lieut. Kittoe's Journey through the Forests of Orissa. QMay, 

vanish in the horizon to the south-east in the direction of Ungool ; in 
this range, (the highest peaks of which are perhaps 1000 feet) there are 
several ghats, which was readily admitted. That of Baumunsassun, 
near which the present road passes, is the first, next to it is one called 
Kurorumma, then Oorsing, all north of the proper direction of Medni- 
pur, lastly the ghat of Burrorumma about eight or ten miles further 
south; it was by this latter (which had been visited by one of Mr. 
Babington's people) that I determined on proceeding. 

My first march from Sumbulpur was to a large village called 
Bahum, having many fine mango topes and good cultivation, chiefly 
sugar cane ; the fields are irrigated from a large nulla called Maltaijoor, 
which rising in the adjacent hills empties itself into the Mahanuddi 
at Munesswur, a village about three miles below Sumbulpur; its 
course through the plains (from the foot of the Burrorumma range to 
the Mahanuddi) is very circuitous, it is navigable during the heavy 
floods, but dry for the greater part of the year, except that a plentiful 
supply of excellent water is always to be obtained by digging in the 

The distance travelled this stage was eleven miles and three-quarters 
measured by the Perambulator, but it is certainly no more than eight as 
the crow flies, for on leaving Sumbulpur, I was led for upwards of a 
mile in a direction at right angles to that I had ultimately to reach ; I 
was then led considerably to the southward ere I gained the proper 
course. Such an account may excite surprise in the minds of those 
who have not visited these regions of knaves and savages, but so it is 
in reality. 

Several small villages were passed a little to the right and left of the 
road ; there is a good portion of arable and clear land in the vicinity of 
each, particularly of those nearer Sumbulpur. One small village close 
to which the road passed, particularly attracted my attention, the huts 
being built on the bare white granite rocks, which have the appearance 
of so many terraces ; on one of them I observed veins of quartz about 
an inch wide crossing each other at right angles, resembling a large 
cross — close to this was another curiosity in the shape of a Goolur tree 
(Ficus glomerata,) growing on the bare rock, on which the roots 
were spread and interwoven in a most curious manner ; the main root 
appears to be sunk in a narrow fissure beneath the trunk : it has a 
most singular appearance. There is not much jungle except on the 
rocky and unfavourable spots, and the only large trees I saw were on 
a small hillock about one-third of the way, beside the village of Dur- 
riapulli, from whence to an elevated spot where there are rocks of 
micaceous schist the country has a perceptible rise, and undulates 

1839.] Lieut. Kittoe's Journey through the Forests of Orissa. 379 

considerably ; from thence to Bahum it inclines towards the Multaie ;* 
the soil is firm, being a stiff sandy clay with much decomposed quartz, 
granite, and talcite, of which very beautiful specimens occur. 

Notwithstanding the sky being overcast, the heat was very great ; 
the thermometer in a tent exposed to the occasional sunshine, rose to 
1 1 5°, but with tatties and under a shady tope we managed to keep 
the temperature down to 98°. I say we, for Mr. Babington and his 
assistant, Mr. Martin, having resolved on accompanying me as far as 
Burorumma, had sent on tents. My camp equipage consisted simply of 
a palkee and a couple of settringies,+ one to spread, and the other to 
hang over a bough to serve as an awning for the purpose of screening 
me from the scorching sun. I had a small pony on which I rode 
occasionally to relieve myself and the bearers, also one Mussulman 
servant to cook for me, I had an escort of a havildar's party from the 
Ramgurh L. I. Bat 11 - which I found of much use, I had also a Naik's 
party from the 19th N. I. which had accompanied me from Cuttack, 
and it was well I mustered so strong a party, as will be seen hereafter. 

In the evening I sketched a rough outline of the Hills, in which at 
some distance north of the ghat I was to proceed by ; I perceived a 
wide gap or break through which I was most positively assured by 
all the Raja's people that there was no pass. I had taken the bearing 
of this identical spot on a former occasion when it was pointed out to 
me as the Burorumma pass, so that I was convinced that further 
attempts were being made to deceive me ; this made me the more 
determined to have my own way, which was best to be effected alone, 
so I took leave of my companions, persuading them to return ; for al- 
though I cared but little for the exposure and privations I saw clearly 
that I should have to undergo, yet I did not wish to subject them 
to any. The next morning, the 24th May, I marched at an early hour, 
crossing the Maltai, north, half a mile from camp ; for several miles 
I travelled through alternate woody and cultivated tracts, by an excel- 
lent broad path, in the direction of the gap before mentioned. I began 
to hope that it was the real ghat, and its appearance warranted the 
expectation that it was a very trifling one, but I was soon undeceived, 
the guide stopped short, for there was a tree felled and thrown across 
the path— the usual hint laid for a guide to lead the traveller from the 

* The Multaie-joor "joor" is an affix to the proper name Multaie, meaning a 
nulla or torrent; for instance, Dhoba-joor, Bur-joor, Bramunf-joor, &c. Khai and 
Naul are likewise affixes, having the same meaning, such as Khor-khai, Seam-khaf, 
Rama-naul, Kussum-naul, &c. &c. 

f Cotton carpets. 

3 D 

380 Lieut. Kittoes Journey through the Forests of Orissa. [May, 

direct road. Upon questioning him, I received the usual evasive 
replies of " that is not a high road, it merely leads into the forest f 
and " what do I know ; I live at Bahum ;" " I have not seen, 
&c. &c." I took the knave aback by asking him the name of the 
ghat I was going to, and insisting that that was it, pointing to 
the gap. Forgetting himself, he replied that that was the Baghloth 
ghat ; he then admitted that the road led direct to it. I was obliged 
to strike off to the right, and travel for some miles along a narrow 
and winding path through a heavy Saul forest to the foot of the ghat, 
which is about a mile from a large village called Kundeswuri, 
belonging to Chundro Bearer, a Kund chief who holds the adjacent 
hill lands (more by might than right) from the Baumurra Raja ; this 
man has a few followers, who, united in one interest, set all the 
neighbouring Zemindars at defiance, and make frequent plundering 
excursions into the plains ; he is much dreaded by all. The Kunds 
are however industrious, and if treated kindly, peaceable ; but such is 
the dislike the Ooreyas entertain towards them, and the consequent 
annoyances and tyranny they exercise over them when they perchance 
fall into their power, that they are obliged to retaliate in self-defence; 
this is the case throughout the tributary mehauls in which there are 
Kund villages. 

The Kunds of these hills have no turmeric cultivation, nor do they 
perform the horrid Merria pooja, which is in a manner connected 
with it. 

The ascent of the ghat is by a narrow glen between two ridges 
of hills, those to the right being very lofty quartzose rocks ; it is at first 
very gradual and easy, but higher up becomes very steep, continu- 
ing so as far as the summit, the whole distance being a little more 
than three-quarters of a mile. The road is difficult on account of the 
loose stones of all sizes which are strewed about ; there were remains of 
fences and other contrivances for defending the pass, which had been 
constructed the previous year, during some disputes with the Sumbul- 
pur Raja, who summoned all his vassals to assist him, but the Kunds 
had the best of it, as is generally the case. 

There is a fine view to be had here of the Sumbulpur plains, but 
owing to the haziness of the atmosphere I was unable to see any 
objects distinctly enough to take their bearings, except the high peak 
at the north-western extremity of the range of hills ; following the 
course of the Mahanuddi, distant six miles south-east of Sumbulpur, it 
bears 70° south-west ; the soil at the top of the ghat is a hard red loam 
with much quartz, gneiss, and hornblende. I here remarked two 
heaps of stones each at the foot of a tree, which reminded me of the tu- 

1839.] Lieut Kittoe's Journey through the Forests of Orissa. 381 

muli the ancient Britons in the north of England used to construct 
over the graves of fallen warriors, on which each traveller used in olden 
times to throw a stone on passing by ; upon inquiry I found that 
these were of the same nature, the like practice existing. Those 
which I allude to, are over the remains of two chiefs who fell in 
battle on the spot. I had often remarked similar tumuli in the 
Kund districts, also in other parts of India, for it is in some places 
customary to heap stones or bricks on spots where persons have been 
killed by wild beasts. 

Two miles and a half beyond the ghat I reached my encamping 
ground, at the village of Burorumma. There is a gradual fall the 
whole way ; the path is through a thin forest of large Saul and other 
timber trees with no underwood. Much ground has been lately cleared 
in the vicinity of the village which is situated at the head of a large 
valley extending for many miles in a south-easterly direction at the back 
of the range of hills before described; there are many fine mango, 
tamarind, jaumun, date, and other trees around the village ; it 
is nearly depopulated owing to the misrule of the chief (Chundro 
Bearer) ; the sepahees and peada whom I had sent some days previous- 
ly to prepare for me, had been nearly starved, the chief having forbid- 
den supplies ; a little firewood and some milk were however brought 
to me. I rigged out a shed with my carpets, palkee, &c. under the 
trees near the village, and hoped to have passed a tolerably pleasant 
day, but as soon as the sun got high myriads of small insects ( ? ), 
descended from the trees and rendered it impossible for me to remain, 
for in addition to the discomfort their presence occasioned, their bite 
was painful : I was compelled to seek refuge in a ruined hut in which 
the thermometer stood at 106° 2'. 

Shortly after my arrival I was visited by Chundro Bearer's eldest 
son, who came with a number of retainers armed with swords, match- 
locks, and bows. He is rather a fine young man ; he made many 
apologies for the supplies not being ready, and shortly sent us what 
was required. The retainers did not seem inclined to be over civil, 
several of them were intoxicated, one fellow in particular, who came 
just after the remainder had left, threw himself down close to my 
carpet and began raving, and from what he said, it was evident that 
they would have been glad to have found out what persons had re- 
commended me to come by this route, and most likely have taken some 
means of revenge. To add to the discomfort of my camp followers, the 
people most effectually concealed the well or spring which supplied the 
village with excellent water; they were compelled to help themselves 
from a small well which did not afford more than a lotah full of bad 
water every four or five minutes. 

382 Lieut. Kittoe's Journey through the Forests of Orissa. [May, 

Being anxious to push on, and get out of this inhospitable track, 
I packed up and resumed my march at G p. m.; as long as it was 
day-light we got on tolerably well, although the road had been 
obstructed for miles together with trees felled and thrown across, 
but as soon as the evening closed, our troubles commenced ; the heat 
was oppressive beyond measure, and not a drop of water was to be 
found to quench the tormenting thirst my followers were suffering 
from ; we had been led to expect some from the bed of a large 
torrent two coss distant from our camp, but upon reaching it, the guide 
and coolies all denied there being any. A poor coolie was taken to 
task by one of the Kunds for offering to point out where it was. I 
would have resented this in the most summary manner, but I knew 
that we were completely at their mercy, for they had taken us off the 
road, and were leading us over a most rugged path, and whenever 
chance led us on to the high road, (which was a very excellent one), 
they halted, and pretended they had lost their way ; then after hunting 
for some time, led us again into the villainous track by which, after five 
and a half hours' toil we reached Jaumunkeera. This is a large village 
in the centre of the valley, which is here open and well cultivated; the 
distance was nine miles and three quarters, and by the better one which 
the Moonshee followed, only eight and a half. We rested in a paddy 
field near the village till 4 o'clock the next morning (25th May) at which 
hour I attempted to move onwards, but the Kunds tried to detain me, 
refusing to allow the Burorumma coolies to go on with us, or to get others 
that day in their room. I would not be trifled with, and commenced my 
march. Their next step was to deny any knowledge of the road ; it then 
became high time to put a stop to this insolence ; I brought the ring- 
leaders to their senses with the help of the " argumentum bacculinum," 
a road was pointed out, and a relief of coolies arrived forthwith. I had 
proceeded about two miles, when I discovered that the guides were play- 
ing me the same game that those had done on the previous night ; I met 
a Paun* who was just returning from the very place I was proceed- 
ing to, so I promised him a reward, and took him with me. He soon led 
me on to a good, and much frequented road to Burghat, the spot 
where supplies had been collected for me by the Baumurra people, 
and which I reached at 11 a. m. much fatigued, having travelled eleven 
miles. I took shelter in a hut that had been prepared for me by 
the sepahees, of green boughs, on the edge of the Burghat nulla ; in this 
I passed the day with comparative comfort ; some of my people, how- 
ever, suffered very severely from thirst and exposure to the sun. 

* A person of low caste ; they make the best guides, for being given to make plun- 
dering excursions, they are acquainted with every nook and corner. 

1839.] Lieut. Kittoes Journey through the Forests of Orissa. 383 

The country through which I travelled this day is open, with evident 
traces of having been in a much more prosperous condition at no distant 
period. There are extensive pasture lands, and large herds are brought 
from long distances to graze, the herdsmen living in temporary huts, and 
having enclosures annexed to protect the cattle from wild beasts. I ob- 
served many traces of recent cultivation, and occasionally fields freshly 
ploughed, although I could not discover a single village the whole way, 
I was also assured that there were none ; I am, however, convinced that 
there are many at no very great distance, hidden by the intervening 
jungle, beyond which I could see clumps of mangoes, tamarind, date, and 
tarri trees, which latter seldom occur except in the vicinity of habita- 
tions. I felt moreover convinced that there must be other roads up this 
fine table land than that by which I came. On inquiring of the Baumur- 
ra people, and of some bunjarahs I had met on my way, I found that my 
surmises were correct, not only in this particular, but as to the Baghloth 
ghat, which, as I have before stated, had been kept a secret from me. I 
determined to satisfy myself of these points by directing the guard of re- 
gular sepahees to return by the other path and by the ghat ; I sent them 
the next day from Deogurh, and I subsequently received a report from 
the Naick of the guard who stated that he had passed through many 
villages with abundance of water, and that the ghat was perfectly easy, 
with an excellent path ; the very reverse of what the knaves of guides 
had told me. There is no habitation any where near Burghat, which 
is merely a pass (as the name implies*) leading from the high land 
before described, down to the less elevated tracts of Baumurra, all in- 
clining towards the Brahmeni river, into which all the torrents (that 
of Burghat among the rest) empty themselves. 

My people were too much fatigued to allow of my resuming my 
march that evening, so we lighted numerous bonfires round the camp 
to keep off wild beasts, and passed the night where we were. 

(To be continued.) 

* " Ghat" or " Ghatti" means a pass, they are affixed to proper names, such as 
" Kend -ghatti" the Kend (or ebony tree) pass; "Sher-ghatti" the Tiger pass; "Kus- 
sum-ghat" the Kussum (tree) pass ; " Burghat" the Bur (tree) pass, &c. &c. 

384 Proposed publication of Plates [May, 

Art. IV. — Proposed publication of Plates of Hindu Architectural 

To the Secretary of the Asiatic Society. 

Sir, — In the sixth volume of the Journal of the Asiatic Society, page 
453, in an article from the able pen of our late Secretary, touching the 
sculpture at Sanchi near Bhilsa, he expresses his opinion that it would 
be of advantage to publish a series of Hindu Architectural Remains,* 
and I am aware wished to introduce the subject in the Journal, but 
the difficulty and expense attending the preparation of plates, requiring 
even little labor, prevented his doing so. Latterly, at his request, I pre- 
pared several lithographs representing different pieces of sculpture 
which I collected during my different tours in Orissa ; having many 
more in my portfolio which might prove interesting to some of your 
readers, I propose (should you be of this opinion, and it meet with your 
approval) to publish occasionally one or two plates, with such explana- 
tory notes as I may be able to give, j 

In the present number I have given a drawing of an elegant piece 
of sculpture which I copied at Badeswur, in the valley of the Mahanuddi, 
and which I have alluded to at page 370. 

This image represents the goddess Durga as Parvatti', wife of Ma- 
hadeva (Siva), and daughter of the Hymalya mountain in the Par- 
vatti Avatar. 

The figure, though mutilated, shews that the different emblems nam- 
ed were originally present. In one of her right hands she holds the 
Nag-phans, or serpent noose; the other (which is broken off) she 
holds up in assurance of no evil intention, it is called ^TWT " a-bhai? 
which means " without fear," or " fear not ;" in one of her left hands was 
the Unkoos (elephant goad), part of the staff of which still remains on the 
arch ; in her second she held the Pudma, or lotus, by the stem, part 
of which is destroyed ; — I speak positively on this head, having seen 
many images of the same form in which the different parts wanting in 
this example were present excepting the a-bhai. 

This deity is (like most others) presented as standing on an expand- 
ed lotus, with the Singha, or lion, and the Vahun, or vehicle of Siva, at 
her feet. 

* "It would be well worthy of the Asiatic Society to publish from time to time in 
England a volume of Hindu Architectural Remains from the materials in its possession ; 
to this reference could always be made, and those who regarded only the works of 
Art, would find a volume to their taste, kept distinct (like the Physical Volume,) from 
the graver subjects of the Society's Researches." 

f We most gratefully accept Lieut. Kittoe's proposal.— Eds. 


1839.] of Hindu Architectural Remains. 385 

The four female figures holding the emblems of the Nag (hooded 
serpent) the Pudma (lotus), the Gadha (mace), and the Trisool, (trident), 
represent Sakhis, or attendants. The two upper figures represented as 
flying with cornucopias and wreaths in their hands, are probably intended 
for bearers of offerings, and called Powri, but have no other purpose 
or meaning than for ornament to the entire piece of sculpture ; such 
additions were entirely at the discretion of the sculptor. 

The idol is about three by one-half feet (every part inclusive,) and 
is worked in black chlorite; it is exceedingly well executed, the jewels 
and the embroidery on the drapery are most exquisitely cut, and the tout 
ensemble may be pronounced a beautiful specimen of Hindu sculpture. 


Art. V. — Papers relative to the New Coal Field of Tenasserim. 

No. 1. — Report on the Coal Field at Ta-thay-yna, on the Tenasserim 
river, in Mergui province. By J. W. Helfer, M. D. 

This newly discovered coal field is a part of that great coal deposit 
which occupies a considerable part of the Tenasserim dis- 
trict, in Mergui province, and which beginning from the old 
town of Tenasserim, to judge from geognostic appearances, extends 
about forty miles to the north, about fifty towards the south-east, and 
to an unknown extent towards the north-east. 

All this tract of country seems to be a great basin encircled by pri- 
mitive, but much more transition, formations, which in 
cmmtry. ^ isoIated ranges emerge also in different parts of this basin, 
but which are easily traced and recognized as the offsets of 
their more distant relations. 

The present coal field lies at the southern skirt of one of these tran- 
sition ranges, and the country to the south of it is apparently a great 
plain, densely covered either with tall forests or bamboo jungle; the 
Tenasserim river winds through this plain in a direction chiefly from 
north to south. 

In the neighborhood of the present locality no geognostic signs of 
the existence of a coal bed are to be observed on the river side, 
features* 110 save °PP os ite to the village there is a large lump of a forma- 
tion holding the medium between red sandstone, varie- 
gated sandstone, and slate clay — in this country a certain prognostica- 
tion of the vicinity of coals. The river banks shew besides sandstone, 
conglomerate, plastic clay, marl, and alluvium; the upper stratum, 
of a thickness from fifteen to thirty feet, is almost universally tinged 

386 Dr. Heifer's Report on the [May, 

red or ochry, by the abundance of iron oxyde with which it is im- 

The coal is visible either in its native locality on the side of a mon- 
Locality of the sec- soon rivulet, or is to be found in pieces in the bed of 

tion lymg bare, ex- 
tent, thicknes. the same rivulet. 

This deposit is neither covered with porphyry, nor red sandstone, 
nor arenaceous beds belonging to intermediary formations ; above it 
are only placed alternating beds of slate clay, either bluish grey or 
whitish, either friable or compact, and then carburetted Brand-striefer, 
and these strata taken altogether are not more than three and a half 
feet in thickness, above which rest the above mentioned iron-tinged 
earthy clay and alluvium. At this place the coal may be calculated 
to be seventeen feet below the surface on an average. 

On the sides of this rivulet or channel, dug out by the impetus of 
the water, a section is exposed of fifty-four feet in length, and the same 
formation is traceable more than one mile to the north, and six west. 

The thickness of this coal stratum is as yet not ascertained, on ac- 
count of the water accumulating in the rivulet, the rainy season 
having begun ; but it must be considerable, as at a depth of six feet no 
other alternating formation has been found. In consequence of this 
the nature of the sub-stratum cannot be yet determined. 

This stratum runs nearly in a direct line from north to south, and 
dips under an angle of 26° east to the horizon. In two places it is 
contracted, in the rest uniform. 

It is difficult to classify exactly this coal, on account of its modi- 
Mineralogical fications in different pieces. It belongs to the sub-genus 
classification. ^lack coa ^ k ut there are several species even in the seven 
tons which have hitherto been brought to light. 

Some pieces participate greatly of the character of Cannel-coal, these 
having a resinous lustre and a flat conchoidal fracture; the pieces 
nearer to the surface have again more of the character of slaty coal, 
with a slaty fracture, fragments trapezoidal; the greatest number, how- 
ever, hitherto observed refer it to glance coal, sub-species pitch coal, 
being massive, in botryoidal loam, with a woody texture, fracture large, 
perfectly conchoidal, fragments sharp-edged, unde terminated angular. 
The dendritic texture is a peculiar feature of this coal, not observed 
in any of the other coal species hitherto found in the Tenasserim 

A hundred grains of the coal previously reduced to small pieces were 
Chemical anal- placed upon a platina sheet, and put over a lamp fed 
ysis of the coal. wifch a i cohol . on becoming red hot, they baked slightly 
together, and on being removed from the fire assumed an iron grey co- 

1839.] Coal Field at Ta-tha\j-yna. 387 

lour ; one hour and six minutes elapsed before the hundred grains were 
totally consumed, the residuum was greyish ashes — from 100 parts 28 
remained of them. The ashes subjected to chemical analysis were 
found to consist of silica and alumina, with scarcely a vestige of iron. 

1. Generally speaking the coal is very good; but one great de- 
„,, , feet cannot be concealed, and this is, that some parts 

The coal consi- ' ' r 

dered in a practical of it are highly pyritiferous, the pyrites intersect- 
ing it in thin laminae of a silver- white, somewhat 
yellowish colour. Fortunately only some parts are thus deteriorated, 
but even these it is to be hoped will not be lost, as the thin layers of 
pyrites are easily separated; that part of the coal which cannot be 
conveniently rendered destitute of this bi-sulphuret of iron ought to 
be rejected, which necessary selection will have an influence, perhaps 
materially, upon the price of the coal. 

We can at present speak only of the coal near to the surface and ex- 
posed partially to atmospheric influence, but it is to be hoped that the 
coal will be much purer the farther it is from the surface. 

2. The pure coal (free from pyrites) burns freely and open ; trans- 
formed into coke it bakes a little together. It emits in the beginning 
copious flames, which are blackish grey, and unmixed with sulphuric 

General results. a. That the coke of this coal is well adapted for 
smithy purposes. 

b. That the coal (excepting always the pyritiferous strata, especially 
near to the surface) is remarkably pure, and fit to burn as fuel in chim- 

c. That the coal consumes slowly, maintains a considerable degree 
of heat, and leaves a residuum of only three per cent at the highest, and 
that it is therefore adapted for steam purposes. 

d. That it is inferior to the Cannel coal on the little Tenasserim for 
the generation of gas, on account of the smaller per centage of bitumen. 

The locality for transport is very favourable ; and the greatest advan- 
Locality with re- tage consists in the almost total absence of land car- 

terence to access, ° 

transport. riage. 

The present coal field lies on the western side of the Tenasserim, 1712 
paces following the road, and probably not more than 400 fathoms in 
a straight line from the river. 

The Tenasserim notwithstanding its long course, continues to be a 
mountain stream even when already under the influence of the tides. 
As such it has a rapid current, numerous shallows, annually chang- 
ing banks, and shifting shoals. During the dry season it is at the place 


3 E 

388 Dr. Heifer's Report on the [May, 

the nearest for the embarkation of the coals impracticable for boats 
drawing more than seventeen inches ; in this part of the river the 
coals will therefore probably be transported upon rafts of bamboos. 
After the confluence of the higher and lesser Tenasserim the river 
increases considerably in depth. 

Captain R. Lloyd surveying the lower part of the river last year, 
was of opinion that vessels of 100 tons burthen might go up to Tenas- 
serim town, but thinks it advisable to employ only vessels of a much 
smaller size. 

It is very probable, judging from the formations, that the same field 
■o ,' - ,. extends some twenty miles lower down the river, 

Prospect of other J 

localities nearer to and that beds may be found still nearer the banks 
of the river ; but under present circumstances the 
transport twenty miles more or less by water is scarcely of any con- 
sequence ; experimental researches therefore would, besides being very 
expensive, prove precarious. 

The existing formations (as far as they are known) to the west, and 
those in a parallel line on the sea-coast, preclude the hope of coal being 
found there. 

Last year, in, March, when I first visited the banks of the Tenas- 

History of serim, I was struck, in coming to its lower part, with the 
this discovery. su dclen change of the geognostic features of the country. 
The river instead of running for many miles through a mountainous 
country, its narrow bed inclosed between piles of granular talcose lime- 
stone, gray wacke, greenstone, and transition porphyry, burst at once 
into an open country, the ridges of the above mentioned formations 
receding on both sides, and I found what I had missed for a long time- 
secondary formations ; and what I desired the most — formations belong- 
ing to the great independent coal deposits. Having given up all hope 
of finding coal in the parts of the Tenasserim provinces hitherto 
visited, I was at once animated with strong hope of success at the sight 
of these promising features. 

The consequence proved this time, in a conspicuous manner, the 
truth and exactness of geognostic principles, and I found successively 
three localities of coal, mentioned in my last year's report sub : N. A. 
B. A. C. of which specimens were sent up to Calcutta. However the 
coal then found was all of indifferent quality, and, besides, not favour- 
ably situated ; the excellent coal discovered afterwards on the little 
Tenasserim belongs to quite a different system. 

Convinced however of the existence of coal over a wide extent of 
that district, in faet expecting that the above mentioned plain through 
which the Tenasserim runs is a segment of a great coal basin, I 

J 839.] Coat Field at Ta-thay-yna. 389 

stimulated the Careans, the only inhabitants of that part of the coun- 
try, to be assiduous in finding coal. I gave them samples of that mine- 
ral, which scarcely any one of them had seen before, and taught them 
to look for it in the beds of mountain torrents, on steep banks of 
rapid rivers, on parts of mountains or hills detached by the violence of 
the monsoon, &c, for they had generally imbibed the erroneous opinion 
that coal is only found on the summits of high mountains which for- 
merly were in a state of combustion, and that coal is a species of cooled 

Fearing however that their natural apathy might prevent them 
from any exertion, I promised a reward of 50 Rs. to be given to any 
body who found coal of good quality not far from a river. 

By a rather extraordinary coincidence, the present coal was found 
but a thousand yards distant from the place where I made the pro- 
mise of the reward, and in the same village, the inhabitants of which 
accompanied me for three days in search after coal in the surrounding 

A Carean of that village of the name of Ka-pho, penetrating two 
months and a half ago the thick forests in search of good ground for a 
plantation, came upon a small rivulet, and found coal partly at its 
bottom, partly protruding from its banks. 

My lesson, but much more, undoubtedly, the prospect of the Fifty 
Rupees' reward, seemed not to have been forgotten. He took some 
pieces home, and kept them hidden for several weeks, not knowing 
if they were really coal, for the pieces which I distributed among the 
Careans were Burdwan coal of a different aspect. He consulted a 
friend afterwards, who advised him to go to Mergui and show 
the coal to me, but being apprized that I was absent (examining the 
Mergui Archipelago) the visit to Mergui was postponed. About 
a month afterwards a Burmese, of the name of Kho-baik, saw the 
specimens of coal by accident in a basket; he possessed himself 
of a piece, and hastened with it to Mergui to claim the reward for 
himself; he shewed it to the Assistant of the Commissioner in Mergui, 
and in this way the coal was brought to public notice. 

(Signed) J. W. HELFER, M. D. 

Mergui, 9th May, 1839. 

390 Lieut. Hutchinson's Report on the QMay, 

No. 2. — Report on the new Tenasserim Coal Field. — By Lieut. 

Hutchinson, Madras Artillery. 
To E. A. Blundell, Esq. Commissioner, Tenasserim Provinces. 

Sir, — Having visited the coal field lately discovered upon the large 
branch of the Tenasserim river, I do myself the honor to forward a 
Chart of the river from the Coal to Mergui, and beg to offer some 
remarks for your consideration. 

The coal is situated in north lat. 12° 21' 30", and longitude about 
99° 5' east, distant twenty-nine miles, by the course of the river, from 
Tenasserim, or about sixty-five miles from Mergui ; the distance in a 
direct line from Mergui is about twenty-eight miles in a west by south 

A small stream passes through the upper part of the coal bed, expo- 
sing part of a thick stratum of coal covered by three feet of clay slate, 
and from twenty to forty feet of sand. 

The sand may be removed easily with any tool, but at the same 
time is so tenacious as to require no propping where springs do not 
exist, and the slate being only three feet thick shafts may be sunk with- 
celerity and ease. 

Whether the galleries will require propping is doubtful ; but if so, 
abundance of timber for the purpose exists upon the spot. 

Springs will certainly be met with at the level of the slate, but this 
must always be expected in a coal mine. 

The Nulla is quite unfit for the conveyance of coal to the river, but, 
a level line of road may be formed with little expense. 

The coal is distant from the river about one mile. 

The river may be ascended during the fine weather with an ordi- 
nary number of men to each boat, but the water is upwards of twenty 
feet higher during the rainy season, and it appears doubtful whether 
proper boats could be got up during that time, at any rate without 
the assistance of steam, or some adequate power. 

The shallowest water at this time of the year (when it is lowest) is 
eighteen inches. The river is therefore navigable for boats drawing 
nine or twelve inches, and of thirty feet in length by ten in breadth, 
capable of carrying six or seven and a half tons. 

Allowing one man to every ton of coal, four days will be required 
to bring the coal down to Mergui, and at least five to return with the 
boats ; making the expense of actual transport one man's hire for nine 
days, or three Rupees per ton, exclusive of its carriage from the mine 
to the river. 

Referring to the Chart, the question presents itself whether a line 
for a road could not be formed from the coal to some point near to the 
place called Peagune. The country between this and Tenasserim is 

1839.] new Tenasserim Coal Field. 391 

mountainous, but the ridges run in nearly the same direction as 
would the road, and from the numerous large nullas falling into the 
river near to Peagune it appears possible that a practicable line might 
be formed. The distance is only fifteen miles. 

A tolerably level railway across this part of the country would re- 
duce the expense of actual transport to Mergui to one man for four 
days to every one and a half tons of coal, or to nearly one Rupee per 
ton, supposing the carriage is to be drawn by men ; but by employing 
ponies the price is reduced to less than four annas a ton. Now in case 
of delay and extra power being required in some parts of the line, take 
the expense at three times the estimate, or twelve annas per ton, which 
is still only a quarter of that incurred in the transport by water ; thus 
being a saving of 22,500 Rupees in favor of the road upon the trans- 
port of 10,000 tons of coal. 

The best description of road for this country appears to be a single 
suspension rail of timber (as represented by figures 1 to 4 in the 
enclosed sketch) as being cheapest in construction, uninjured by 
heavy rain, easily repaired, and (by actual experiment) offering less 
resistance to the motion of carriages than any other form of road. It 
consists of a plank of hard wood, three inches broad by ten or twelve 
deep, supported on posts nine or ten feet apart, and varying in length 
according to the surface of the country passed over, so as to support the 
rail in a horizontal line. The rail is let into a notch cut on the top 
of the posts, and is adjusted by means of wedges driven in opposite 
directions between the posts and the rail; the resistance is reduced 
thirty per cent, by the addition of a thin plate of iron upon the top 
of the rail. A carriage having only two wheels with the load suspended 
on either side is represented in figures 1, 2, 3.* 

A road on this principle has been tried with great success in Eng- 
land. A horse was found capable of dragging fourteen tons, exclusive of 
the carriage, during a good day's work where the rail was quite level. 
Figure 4 shews the manner of crossing streams and small ravines. 

I have no doubt but these carriages would run upon a cable stretch- 
ed from point to point should circumstances require it. 

Models can be furnished if required. I have, &c. 

(Signed) C. H. HUTCHINSON, 

Mergui, 6th May, 1839. 2d Lieut. Madras Artillery. 

(A true Copy.) E. A. BLUNDELL, 

Commissioner in the Tenasserim Provinces. 

* We have not received Lieut. Hutchinson's sketch, but his description is neverthe- 
less sufficiently intelligible. The subject is of so much interest that we deem it ex- 

392 Lieut. Hutchinson's Report on the [May, 

pedient to publish the annexed extracts from the description of Palmer's Railway, 
given in Hebert's Engineer's Cyclopedia, Vol. 2, pp. 425, &c. ' . 

" Instead of two lines of rail laid upon the ground, as heretofore, Mr. Palmer's 
railway consists of only one, which is elevated upon pillars, and carried in a straight 
line across the country, however undulating and rugged, over hills, valleys, brooks, 
and rivers, the pillars being longer or shorter, to suit the height of the rail above 
the surface of the ground, so as to preserve the line of the rail always straight, whether 
the plane be horizontal or inclined. The waggons, or receptacles for the goods, 
travel in pairs, one of a pair being suspended on one side of the rail, and the other 
on the opposite side, like panniers from the back of a horse. By this arrangement 
only two wheels are employed, instead of eight, to convey a pair of waggons ; these 
two wheels are placed one before the other on the rail, and the axle-trees upon 
which they revolve are made of sufficient length and strength to form extended arms of 
support, to which are suspended the waggons or receptacles on each side of the 
rail, the centre of gravity being always below the surface of the rail. The rods 
by which the waggons are suspended are inflexible; hence, although the weights 
on each side be not equal, they will, nevertheless, be in equilibrio ; as may be ob- 
served in a ship, which, being unequally loaded, assumes such an angle with the 
surface as preserves the equilibrium. Although an equal distribution of the load on 
both sides is desirable, it is not necessary. A number of carriages are linked together, 
and towed along the rail by a horse, as barges on a canal. Owing to the undulation of 
the country, the horse will sometimes be much below the rail, in consequence of which 
he is provided with a sufficient length of rope to preserve a proper angle of draught. 

" Provision is made for trains of carriages that are proceeding in opposite directions, 
by means of "sidings" or passing places. With respect to loading, if both receptacles 
be not loaded at the same time, that which is loaded first must be supported until 
the second is full. Where there is a permanent loading-place, the carriage is brought 
over a step or block; but when it is loaded promiscuously, it is provided with a 
support connected to it, which is turned up when not in use. From the small height 
of the carriage, the loading of those articles usually done by hand becomes less la- 
borious. The unloading may be done in various ways, according to the substance 
to be discharged, the receptacles being made to open either at the bottom, the ends, 
or the sides. In some cases it may be desirable to suspend them by their ends, when, 
turning on their own centres, they are easily discharged sideways. 

"Among the advantages contemplated by the patentee of this railway, may be 
mentioned that of enabling the engineer, in most cases, to construct a railway on that 
plane which is most effectual, and where the shape of the country would occasion 
too great an expenditure on former plans — that of being maintained in a perfectly 
straight line, and in the facility with which it may always be adjusted ; in being 
unencumbered with extraneous substances lying upon it ; in receiving no interruption 
from snow, as the little that may lodge on the rail is cleared off by merely fixing 
a brush before the first carriage in the train ; in the facility with which the loads may 
be transferred from the railway on to the carriages, by merely unhooking the re- 
ceptacles, without displacing the goods, or from other carriages to the railway, by the 
reverse operation ; in the preservation of the articles conveyed from being fractured, 
owing to the more uniform gliding motion of the carnages; in occupying less land 

1839-1 new Tenasserim Coal Field. 393 

than any other railway ; in requiring no levelling or road-making ; in adapting itself to 
all situations, as it may be constructed on the side of any public road on the waste and 
irregular margins, on the beach or shingles of the sea-shore, — indeed, where no other 
road can be made ; in the original cost being much less, and the impediments and 
great expense occasioned by repairs in the ordinary mode, being by this method al- 
most avoided. 

" A line of railway on this principle was erected, in 1825, at Cheshunt, in Hertford- 
shire, chiefly for conveying bricks from that town, across the marshes, for shipment in 
the river Lea. The posts which support the rails are about ten feet apart, and vary in 
their height from two to five feet, according to the undulations of the surface, and 
so as to preserve a continuous horizontal line to the rail. The- posts were made of 
sound pieces of old oak, ship timber, and in a, the slot or cleft at the upper ends of the 
posts, are fixed deal planks twelve inches by three, set in edgeways, and covered 
with a thin bar of iron, about four inches wide, flat on its under side, and very slightly 
rounded on its upper side ; the true plane of the rail being regulated or preserved 
by the action of counter wedges between the bottom of the mortices, and that of the 
planks. By this rail, on the level, one horse seemed to be capable of drawing at 
the usual pace about fourteen tons, including the carriages. 

" The late Mr. Tredgold, whose opinion in matters of this nature will ever be 
entitled to attentive consideration, expressed himself very favourably to this invention 
in his Treatise on Railroads and Carriages : — " We expect (he observed) that this 
single railroad will be found far superior to any other for the conveyance of the mails, 
and those light carriages of which speed is the principal object; because we are 
satisfied that a road for such carriages must be raised so as to be free from the in- 
terruptions and crossings of an ordinary railway." 

Art. VI. — Memoria sul Renascimento e stato atticale della Medicina 

in Egitto, del D. G. E. Mino. 
Memoir on the Regeneration and actual state of Medicine in Egypt — 

Translated from the Italian of J. E. Mino, Doctor in Philosophy, 

Medicine, and Surgery. Leghorn, 1838. 

(For the Journal of the Asiatic Society.) 

We are indebted to Mr. W. H. Cameron for a copy of Dr. Mino's pamphlet, which 
was printed in Europe for private circulation, and contains many details worthy the 
close attention of all who take interest in the progress of general as well as Medical 

Dr. Mino's essay affords full evidence of the failure of Clot Bey's system for the in- 
troduction of Medical science into Egypt. The causes of the failure are moreover 
explicitly and palpably exhibited. There was no penury of means, no paucity of 
teachers ; all that the most princely munificence could place at the Bey's disposal he 
was permitted to command without controul. Still the tree produced no fruits, and 
this simply, because it was planted at the wrong end. They commenced where they 
should have terminated ; namely, by the erection 6f a School taught in the vernacular 
language. It is difficult to conceive a more ludicrous attempt than that to teach me- 

394 Regeneration of Medicine in Egypt. [May, 

dicine to Arab pupils through European Dragomans, themselves destitute of Medical 
knowledge. Far different would the result have been, had the admirable principle of 
the Normal schools of Prussia and France been adopted in the first instance — had Clot 
Be/ for the first four years contented himself by educating thoroughly a few clever 
youths through the medium of his language, and had he then employed them to impart, 
in their own tongue, the knowledge they had themselves acquired. 

Such is the system which silently and unprofessedly has been adopted in the 
Calcutta College with a success which defies denial. If but few pupils have been 
educated, the completeness of their education is unquestionable ; and each is now ready 
to be made the means of diffusing his own knowledge among his countrymen in the 
only dialects they understand. 

In September next the Medical College of Calcutta ceases to be exclusively an 
English School, and will embrace, with its original Normal section, a secondary ver- 
nacular class, receiving instruction, through the Hindoostanee language, from native 
teachers, and numbering over 150 pupils. Let this class but prosper, as we doubt not 
it must, and then indeed we may triumph in accomplishing the inappreciable object of 
placing medical assistance practically within the reach of all classes of the Native 
population. Similar institutions will then spring up in all the great provincial cities, and 
thus to every village and hamlet will radiate the light of the most beneficent science 
within the acquisition of man.— Eds. 

Prior to the reform introduced by the Pacha and Viceroy Mehemet 
Aly, medicine was in the same state in Egypt as in other parts of 
the Levant ; it was, namely, in a state of absolute infancy, or to speak 
more accurately, in one still inferior to infancy itself. Not possessing 
schools or masters, books or dissecting-rooms, nor any other place of 
public or private instruction, the natives who devoted themselves to 
the care of the general health, following corrupt traditions, practised a 
blind empiricism which, mingled with a certain superstitious charla- 
tanism, was more adapted to disseminate death, than to prevent the pre- 
mature diminution of lives. Foreigners who there practised medicine 
were generally persons destitute of science and of conscience, and abus- 
ing the unfortunate licence given to all of calling themselves Physicians, 
they simulated the character that they possessed not, and thus pro- 
faned the sublime priesthood of Hygea, to the incalculable detriment 
of the wretched. The true and clever physicians, who for merit and 
legal qualification could be entitled such, in Egypt were very few, and 
often disregarded and forgotten ; as not unfrequently happens in unpo- 
lished and illiterate nations, to the truly learned placed in counter- 
position to the charlatan. 

Although the French claim for themselves the work of the regener- 
ation of medicine in Egypt, it is undoubted, nevertheless, that the 
glory of the enterprise, whatever it may be, is due to the Italians. In 
truth, since Egypt began to breathe, which was about the year 1811, 
when Mehemet Aly completed his sanguinary struggle with the 

.1839.] Regeneration of Medicine in Egypt. 395 

Mamelukes — a year that signalized the commencement of new military 
reforms — the first roots, so to speak, of the medical laurel were planted 
thereby Doctors Mendrici (Genoese), Raffaelli (Leghornian),MAR- 
tinil (Pisan), Del Signore (Piedmontese), Cunha (ditto), Kara- 
cucci (Cattarese), Marnechi (Piedmontese), Gentili (of Ancona) 
Cervelli (Pisan), Morpurgs (of Trieste), Durando (Piedmontese), 
Calucci (Neapolitan), Lardoni (Roman), Vernoni (Piedmontese), 
and several others, all Italians, too numerous to be mentioned ; whereas 
in that long period the French could reckon no other countryman 
of their's than a certain M. Dussap, Apprentice-Surgeon. 

Nor should, on the contrary, all the French professors be cited who 
followed the memorable expedition of 1798, in as much as those were 
days of battle, and those personages, albeit highly eminent, had no 
opportunity of mixing as much as was necessary with the aborigines,